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The following arc some of the most imporatant errata in the Ety. 
{■mology and Syntax : the teacher will do well to correct at once* 
Page 134, Rem. 1, for bove in read bovem. 

" . Ex. " 



*movebuntur . 

l An it 


edis or ee, edit or est; 


editis or estis. 

« (< 



iv-ero, -eris, §<:. 

148 " 



§ 84, 2; 

152 •" 



f 86, 2. 

168, Examp. ; « 



' § 129, Rem. 6. 

1 7 'J, se ipse ; ** 

§84, b • 


§•85, b. 

173, §144, Rem. 1, 




" R. xvi; «"« 

Dative to 


Dative of. 

tt it tt 




175,Grermanis; " 



\ 142. 

" mihi, " 




180, annos, " 

•§ 152 . 


§ 153. 

191, Rem. 1, " 

morire , 


moriri. • 

192,§178, Rem. 1; 




194, capiendi ; *' 

§ 177 



195 ; must love; " 

? 178, Rem. 2 

1 178, Rem. 1. 

203, " 

§ 189, Exc 

\ 180, Ex.' (c). 


as he all? 


■as they alleged. 

207, Rem. 4 ; " 




216,11. ft, b; " 

oceuluftur ' 

, o.ccultetur. 

. the reference, •§ 183. . , follow vivamus'. 

the running bead s ould ■■ ro Obliqfa ; and tiiet 

title should i" • 









By Wm. BINGHAM, A. M., 



Richmond, Va., W. Hauqrave White. 

18 6 3.. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, 
in the year 1862, by 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confed- 
erate States, for the District of Pamlico, 
North Carolina. 



-,&!■, ,)w - 


• is 




In preparing the accompanying work it has been the 
aim of the author to supply what he has felt in his own 
experience to be a great desideratum, — a practical first 
book in Latin, suited to the capacity of beginners, and yet 
full enough for a book of reference throughout a course of 
preparation for college. Free use has been made of the 
'works of the best German, English, and American authors, 
and no pains have been spared to produce a book adapted 
to the wants of our Southern youth. The almost insuper- 
able difficulties in the way of publication render it impos- 
sible to present the work in the most desirable style of 
binding and typography ; but the author is assured that 
such defects as result from the terrible struggle through 
which our nation is passing, will be readily overlooked. 

It will be observed that the paradigms have been sylla- 
bicated with reference to the English method of prouncia 
tion ; but the teacher can without difficulty use either the 
Roman or Continental method. 

Madvig'e system of gender in the third declension has 
been adopted as the most philosophical and the shortest, 
all the rules and exceptions occupying but two pages ; and 


though teachers will find it inconvenient to have old asso- 
ciations broken up, the author is convinced that a fair trial 
will satisfy all that this system is the best. 

The exercises have been taken, for the most part from 
' classical authors, and are so arranged as to constitute a 
continual review of what precedes. Those teachers who 
prefer the synthetic methpd of instruction to the exclusion 
of the analytic, can omit the exercises, as the work is com- 
plete without them. 

Many facts of the language, which the pupil will readily 
find out for himself, have been omitted ; also a number 
which properly pertain to the subject of Latin prase com- 
position, on which subject the author proposes to prepare 
a work for the use of schools. 

The work, imperfect as the author is conscious that it is, 
is commended to the teachers of the Confederate States as 
an auxiliary, however feeble, in establishing Southern lit- 
erary and intellectual independence. 

Oaks, N. C, May 10th, 1863. 


§ 1. Latin Grammar is the science of the Latin lan- 
guage. It treats of the words of the language, and the 
laws by which they are combined into sentences. 

It is divided into Etymology and Syntax. 


§ 2. Etymology treats, 1. Of the letters which make 
up words, and their pronunciation ; 2. Of the changes 
which words undergo ; 3. Of their derivation. 


§ 3. A letter is a mark used to represent a sound of 
the human voice. 

In the Latin alphabet there are twenty-five letters. 
They arc A,a; B,b ; C,c ; D,d ; E,e ; F,f; G,g; H,h ; I,i. 
J,j; K,k; L,l; M,m ; N,n ; 0,0; P,p ; Q,q ; E,r ; S,s ; 
T,t; U,u; V,V; X,x ; Y,y ; Z,z. 

Remark. I and J vrere originally the same letter ; bo also U and 
V. K, Y, and Z are used only in words derived from the Greek. 
H is a breathing, 


§ 4. Letters are divided into vowels and consanants. 

The vowels are. a, e, i, o, u, y. 

f four are liquids, 1, m. n, r ; 
f three are c sounds, c, g, q, — ; 
Of the consonants, -J four are p sounds, p, b, f, v ; 

j two are t sounds, t, d ; 
[ two are double consonants, x, z. 


§ 5. A diphthong is the union of two vowels in one sound. 
The diphthongs are ae, oe, (often written together, se 5 03) 
ai, au, ei, eu, oi. 


§ 6. Continental method. 

Short a, as in hat. Long 0, as in »<*, 

Long a, as in father. u, as in do. 

Short c, as in met. & and <r, as a in made. 

Long e, as a in made. au, as ou in our. 

Short t, as in sit. eu, as in feud. 

Long t, as in machine. ei, as I in aV«. 
Snort 0, as in not. 

§ 7. English method. 

The letters are pronounced as in English : 

Exc. 1. Final a has the broad sound, as in ah. Other final vow- 
els have the long sound. 

Exc. 2. Es final is pronounced like the English ease. 

Exc. 3. Os final in plural cases is pronounced like ose in dose. 

Exc. 4. C has the sound of * before c, i. and y, and the diphthongs 
<?, oe. and eu. Otherwise it has the sound of A;. 

Exc. 5. ch has the sound of k. 

Exc. 6. G has the sound of/ before e, i, y y w, and 02. 


§ 8. There are no silent vowels in Latin ; but every 

§9 — 11 / Division op words. 7 

i , — — 

word has as many syllables as it has vowels or diph- 
thongs ; as ma-re. 

(of one syllable is called a mono- 
syllable; of two syllables, a dis- 
syllable ; of more than two, a 'poly- 

The last syllable of a word is called the ultimate ; the 
next to the last, the penult ; the third from tho last> the 


2 9. Rule. 1. All diphthongs are long. 
Rule 2. A vowel before another vowel is short. 
Rule 3. A vowel before two consonants or a double consonant is 
long by position. 

Rule 4. Dissyllables are accented on the penult ; as d*-\is. 
Rule 5. Polysyllables are accented 

(a) on the penult if the penult is long ; as le-o-nis. 

(b) on the antepenult if the penult is short ; as rfom-i-nus. 


I 10. The marks of punctuation are the comma (,), used to mark 
the shortest pauses ; the semicolon (;), used to mark a pause twice as 
long as the comma ; the colon (:), used to mark a pause three times 
as long as the comma ; the period (.), used to mark the longest 
pause ; the interrogation point (?), which shows that a question is 
asked ; and the exclamation point (!), used to mark expressions of 
•surprise, grief, &c. Penultimate vowels, when long, will be itali- 


§ 11. I. Words are divided according to their forma- 
tion into 

1. Primitive ; i. e. not derived from otjier words ; 
as, man, king. 


8 nouns. §12, 13 

2. Derivative; i. e. derived from other words; as, 
manly, kingdom, 

.3. Simple ; i. e. not made up of other words ; as> 

4. Compound; i. e. made up of other words: as, 

II. Words are divided according to their meaning into 
eight classes called part? of speech : viz. the Noun, Ad- 
jective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunc- 
tion, Interjection. 


§ 12. 1. A noun is the name of a thing;* as, man, 

2. A common noun is the name of any one of a class 
of things ; as, man, city. 

3. A proper noun is the name of an individual thing ; 
as, Coesar, Rome. 

4. An abstract noun is the name of a quality, action, 
being, or mode of action or being ; as, goodness, run- 

5. A collective noun is one which in the singular der 
notes more than one ; as, multitude. g 

Gender, Number, Case, Person. 

§ 13. 1. To nouns belong gender, number, case, and 

2. Natural gender denotes the distinction of sex. 

* A thing is whatever one can think of (res, — re<*)- 


3. Grammatical gender is that which is determined, not 
by sex, but bj declension and termination. 

Rule 1. Names of male beings, and of most rivers, 
windsj months, mountains, and nations, are masculine. 

Rule 9. Names of female beings, cities, countries, trees, 
plants, islands, ships*, and gems, are feminine. 

Rule 8. Nouns which are neither masculine nor femi- 
nine, are neuter. 

Rule 4. .Some nouns are either masculine or feminine. 
These, if they are names of Hying beings, are said to be e/ 
the common gender ; if of things without life, of the doubt- 
ful gender. 

§14. Number is the variation of form whioh shows 
whether one thing is meant, or more than one. 

The singular number is the form which denotes one 
thing ; as, stell-a, a star : the plural is the form which 
denotes more than one ; as, 8tell-ce, stars. 

§ 15. Case is the variation of form which shows the 
relation of the noun to other words. 

Latin nouns hare six cases : viz. 

(a) The nominative, whieh answers the question who ? or 
what ? and gives the simple name of the thing spoken of ; 

(b) The genitive, which marks those relations expressed 
in English by of, or the possesj^ve case ; as, umbra, ' the 
shade, {ofwliat?) sylvse, of the forest; 

(c) The dative, which denotes that to or for which, or 
with reference to which, any thing is, or is done ; 

(d) The accusative, which is the object of a transitive 
verb, or of eertain prepositions ; 

(e) The vocative, which is used when a person is ad- 
dressed : 


s — . : _ , 

(f) The ablative, which marks those relations expressed 
in English by from, with, in, by. 

§ 16. Person means the character which a noun 04' 
pronoun has, according as it represents the speaker, the 
person spoken to, or the thing spoken of. 

A noun or pronoun representing the speaker is of the 
first person ; as, /, Darius, make a decree. Here "/," and 
" Darius'* are of the 1st person. 

A noun or pronoun representing the person spoken to is 
of the second person; as, Do you hear me, Robert? Here 
"you " and " Robert " are of the 2nd person. 

Remark. — Things without life are sometimes addressed and are 
tfeen said to be personified, or treated as persons. 

A noun 01 pronoun representing the thing spoken of Ts 
of the third person ; as, John runs, icater freezes. Here 
"John" and "water" are of the 3rd person. 


§ 17. The changes which words undergo to express 
their different relations is called inflection. 

The inflection of nouns is called declension ; that of 
verbs, conjugation. 

There are five declensions in Latin, distinguished by 
the endings of the genitive singular. . 


§ 18. Latin nouns which have 03 in the genitive singu- 
lar are of the first declension. The terminations are, 

Nom. and Voc. 










§19 EXERCISE. 11 

Sing. Plur. 

♦ arum 


By adding these terminations to tke stem mens — , 
which means a table, we have the following 


Singular. Plural. 

N»m. wews-a, a talk. mens-sc, tables. 

Gen. menS'SC of a table. wms-arum, of tables. 

Dat. mens-dd, t* or for a table, mens-is, to or for tables. 

Ace. rnens-tLm,a table. mens-as, tables, 

Voc. mens~a, table ! mens-se, O tables ! 

Abl. mens-a, with, from, in, mens-is, with, from, in, 

by, a table. by, tables. 

Remark. — The Latin has no article; therefore rhensa may be ren- 
Uertd a table, or the table, according to the connection. 

Rule, Latin nouns of this declensien are feminine. 

Exc. 1. Names and appellations of men, as Galba, nemta. 

Exc. 2. Names of rivers. 

Exc. 3. Hadria, the Adriatic sea, is masc. ; and dama. a fallow 
deer, and talpa, a mole, are common. 

Note. — Dca, a goddess; equa, a mare; fiUa, a daughter ; and mulct, 
a she-mule, hare sometimes abut in the dative and ablative plural. 

For Greek nouns of 1st Dec, see appendix I. 

§ 19. Like mensa decline 4he following noum, and com- 
mit to memory their meanings. 

Aquila, eagle. Epistola. letter. 

Aqua, water. Nauta, ($ 18, Exc.l.) tailor. 

Columba, dove. 'Insula, itland. 

12 EXERCISES. §20 

Corona, crown Luna, moon. 

Ara, altar, Medicma, medicine. 

Agricola, (g 18, Exc. 1.) farmar. Poeta, (g 18, Exc. 1.) poet. 

Ala, wing. Regr'na, queen. 

Ancilla, maid- servant. Fuga, flight. 

Injuria, injury. Pluma, feather. 

Belga. {I 18, Exo, 1.) a Belgian, Filia, daughter. 

Translate into English. 

Columbae. Coronarum. Aris. Reginam. Filiabus. 
Injuriis. Belgarum. Fuga. Alis. Ancillaes Ancillis. 
Injuriarum. Columbis. 

Translate into Latin. 
Of water. For the farmer. Of the maid servants. To 
the farmers. By wings. Of feathers. To sailors. The 
letter. By the letters. In the island. Of islands. Of 
the moon. 


§ 20. Rule. The genitive is used to limit the meaning of 
nouns, and also ©f some adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. 

Thus pluma means a feather, any feather ; but when tho genitive 
columba is added, the application of pluma is limited, or confined to 
the* dove; columbai pluma means a dove's feather, and no other sort. 

Rule of position. The emphatic word, whether limiting 
or limited, stands first. Thu8,^/£a regi'nae, the daughter 
(not the eon) »f the quoen ; reginse filia, the queen's (not 
fche king's) daughter. 

Translate into English. 

Columbae plwma. Columbarum plwmae. Columbae alis. 
Filia agricolro. Agricola) filia. Agricolarum filiabus. Reg- 
inarumeoronse. Coronae reginarum. Nautae epistola. In- 
juria po«tae. Insula Belgarum. Fuga ancillae. Ancilla- 
rum fuga. 


Translate into Latin. 

[Emphatic words are in italics.] 

In the island of the Belgians. For the altars of the Belgians. A 
sailor's letter. The Queen's letter. By the flight of the farmer. The 
flight of the farmer's doves. The injury of the queen's maid-ser- 
Tants. daughters of the queen's maid-servants! The water of 
the island. 


Subject and Predicate. Partial conjugation of verbs. 

§21. LA sentence is a thought expressed in words ; 
as, snow melts. 

1. Every sentence consists of 

(a) A Predicate ; i. e. that which is declared ; 

(b) A subject ; i. e. that of which the declaration is 


In the sentence "snow melts,'* the predicate is •' melts," because 
"melts ; ' is what i3,declared or asserted about ** snow ;" the subject 
is " wow," because it is the thing about which the declaration is 
made — what melts ? snow. 

2. The Predicate is a verb alone, (as melts in the a- 
bove example,) or the verb to be with a noun, adjective, 
or participle ; as, snow is cold. 

3. The subject is a noun, or some word or phrase used 
as a noun, and may be known by asking the question 
who ? or what f with the predicate ; as, John runs. 
( Who runs ? John.) To play is pleasant. ( What is 
pleasant ? To play.) 

4. The subject and predicate may stand alone, or 
each may have other words limiting its moaning ; as> 
boys rwto ; some boys run fast. 

14 VERB — MOOD. §21 

II. A verb is a- word which declares, or affirms some- 

1. Verbs have 

(a) Moods, or different forms which express different 
kinds of affirmation. 

(b) Tenses, or different forms to show the time when 
the thing declared takes place. 

(c) Voices, or different forms which show whether the 
subject acts, (as, John strikes,) or is acted upon, (as, 
John is struck.) 

(d) Persons and Numbers, or different forms whicl 
correspond to the person and number of the subject. 

2. These various forms are distinguished from one 
another by certain endings ; and the adding of these 
endings to the stem is called conjugation. 



III. 1. The Infinitive mood expresses the action of 
the verb simply, without reference to any subject ; as, 
am-are, to love. ■ 

2. The Indicative mood declares a fact, or asks a 
question ; as, amat, he loves ; amat-ne ? Does he love ? 


IV. 1. The Present tense expresses incomplete action 
in present time ; as, amo, I love, I am loving, 

2. The Imperfect tense expresses incomplete action 
in past time ; as, amabam, I was loving. 

3. The Future tense expresses incomplete action in 
future time ; as, amabo, I will love, I mil be lomng. 



V. 1. There are four Conjugations, distinguished from 
one another by the termination of the Infinitive Present 
Active. The Infinitive Present Active of the first Con- 
jugation ends in-are. 

Rule. To find the stem of a verb, strike off the In- 
finitive ending. 



















" a-bit 



a-mus ' 













By adding these terminations to the stem am of amare, 
to love, we have the following: * 

infinitive present, a-ma-re, to love. 
* INDICATIVE mood. „ 

Sing, a-mo,* I love, or am loving, 

a-mas, thou lovest, or art hving, 

a-raat, he lovtt, or is loving, 

Plur. ama-mus, we love, or are loving, 

%-ma-tu, y« or you love, or are lotxnj, 

a-mant, they love, or are loving. 

* Accented ijll*blea ar« italicized abore, whether long or short. 


















a-rnab -i-mus, 



I was loving, 

thou wast loving, 

he was loving, 

we were loving, 

ye or you were loving, 

they were loving. 


1 shall love, <> 
thou wilt love, 
he will love, 
we shall love, 
ye or you will love, 
they will love. 

Form in the same manner these tenses of 






to fly, 
to dance, 
to sing, 
to delight, 
to prepare, 

arm- are, 

to praise, 
to call, . 
to seize, 
to arm, 
to build. 


1. A Transitive verb is one which requires an object 
to complete the sense ; as, poeta reginam lawdat, the 
poet praises the queen. 

2. An Instransitive verb is one which does not re- 
quire an object to complete the sense ; as, aquila volat, 
the eagle flies. # '* 

8. Rule of Syntax. The subject of a finite verb is in the 
Nominative., . * 

4. Rule of Syntax. The direct object of a transitive 
verb is in the accusative. {Reginam above is the direct ob- 
ject of laudat ; i. e. the thing to which the praising is di- 


5. Rule of Syntax. The verb agrees with its subject in 
number and person. , 

6. Rule of Position. The snbject usually stands a* the 
beginning of the sentence. 

7. Rule of Position. The direct object precedes the verb. 

8. To analyze a sentence is to separate it into its parts 
and show their relation to aach other. 

9. To analyze a word is to tell its properties, and its re- 
lation to other words. 

Poeta regmam iaudat, the poet praises the queen. 


The predicate of this sentence is Iaudat, because it is that 
which is declared or asserted about the poet. 

The subject is poeta, because it is that of which the prais- 
ing is declared. (Who praises ? The poet.) 

The predicate is limited by reginam, the direct object, 
(i. e. the thing to which the praising is directed.) 


Poeta is a common noun, masculine, lsfl (decl.), — here 
decline it, — found in the nominative singular, subject of 
audat. Rule, The subject of a finite verb is in the nomi- 
native. (Here let the teacher ask, " Why called a noun 
Why a common noun ? Why masc. ? Why of tke 1st decl.? 
Why accented on the penult ? &c.") 

Reginam is a common noun, feminine, 1st. (here deelinc 
it,) found in the accusative singular, object of Iaudat. Rule, 
The object of a transitive verb is in the accusative. 

Laudat is a verb, transitive, 1st (conj.), found in the In- 
dicative-Present active, 3rd person singular, (here inflect 
the tense,) agreeing with poeta as its subject. Rule, The 


18 ANALYSIS OF WORDS. §22, 23 


verb agrees with its subject in number and person. (Here 
let the teacher ask, " Why called a verb ] Why transi- 
tive 1 Why of 1st coiij. ? Why indicative 1 &c.) 
Translate into English and analyze. 

§ 22,'NA.gricola poetam am'at^ Aquila volabat. Ancil- 
lae meclianam parabunt. Belgae aras aedificabant. Nauta? 
insulam occupabunt. Corona re^?'nam delectabit. Agri- 
cola filiam vocabat. 

Translate into Latin. 

The maid-servants are preparing the table. The queen 
was calling the farmer's daughter. The poets will praise 
the queen. The sailor's daughter will sing. The farmers 
are building an altar. The moon delights the poet. We 
love the queen. < You were calling the maid-servants. 

§ 23. \ EXERCISE 5. 


uoibra,®, shadow. puella,w, girl. 

obBcur-are to obscure. » copise, arum, forces. 
t<?rra,«e, earth. (copia, in the singular, means abundance 

iacola,ee, inhabitant. in the plural, forces.) 

inaidisc, arum, (ambush, 

used onlj in plural, (snares. 

1. The subject, as well as the predicate may have words 
limiting its meaning. 

2. The pronouns /, thou, we, you, are not usually ex- 
pressed in Latin, as the endings of the verb show the per- 
son and number. ^ 

3 The. words my, thy, his, their, &c, are not expressed 
in Latin, when the relation is obvious. Thus, The queen 
loves her daughter, Regina filiam a in at. 

Translate into EnglUh and analyze. 

In analysis ©f sentences give the predicate with its limit 
ers, then the subject with its limiten . 




Ancilla reginss agficolre fiJiani vocrrbit. Terrce umbra 
lwnam obscwrat. Fuga nautarum incolas insulse delectat. 
Copioe Belgarum insulam occup«bant. Nautae puellaa vo-- 
cant. Pluniae columbarum regiuss ancillas delectabunt*. 

Translate into English. 
The flight of the queen delights the Belgians. Banners 
love (their) daughters. The sailor loves the queen's maid- 
servant. The farmer's daughter will prepare tho queen's 
table. A dove's feather delights the sailor' s^ daughter, A 
crown delights the omen's daughter. Am eagle's feather 
delights the queen's maid-servant ; a crown delights the 
queen's daughter. 


§ 24. Latin nouns whose genitive ending is i are o£ 
the second declension. 

Those which have um in tlte nominative, are neuter ;: 
the rest, masculine. 









































tern dom 

in — , master 

By adding these endings to the stem domin- 
and the stem regn — , kingdom we obtain the following : 

Singular. Plural. 

* dom i nua, a master. dom i ni, matters. 

Domini, of a matter. dom i no-rum, of matters, 

dom i no, to or for a master, dom i nis, to or for mastert. 
dom i num, a master. dom i nos, masters, 

dom i ne, O master ! dom i ni, masters I 

dom i no, with, SfC , a master, dom i nis, xcith, £c„ masters. 







*Io paradigms, accented syllables will be italicized, whether long or short. 


Singular. Plural. 

Nom. reg mini, a kingdom. reg na, kingdoms. 

Gen. reg ni, of a kingdom. regno rum, of kingdoms. 

Dat. regno, to or for a kingdom. reg n is, to or for kingdoms, 

Ace. re<? num, a kingdom. reg na, kingdoms. 

Voc. re^ num, kingdom ! reg na, kingdoms ! 

Abl. re^ no, tot</i, ^c, <z kingdom, reg nis, toi/A, 4" c > kingdoms. 

Rem. 1. Names of frees, plants, &c., are fern, by the general rule. 
Alvus, belly ; carbasus, linen; colus, distaff : humus, ground; and 
vannus, fan, are fern. 

Virus, juice, and pelagus, sea, are neuter. Vulgus, common people, 
is neuter — rarely masculine. 

Rem. 2. In proper names in ius, with filius, %on, and genius, guar- 
dian spirit, the vocative ending e is absorbed ; as, Tullius, voc. 
Tulli. Mcus has mi in the voc. Deus, god, has Z>«t/s in the vOc» 
and in the plural N. and V. Dii ; G. Deorum; Dat. and Abl. Diis, 
Deis, Dis ; Ace. Deos. 

Rem. 3. The ending orum of the Gen. pi. is sometimes contracted 
into urn. 

Rem. 4. Neuter nouns of all declensions have the nominative, ac- 
cusative, and vocative alike, and these cases in the plural end al- 
ways in a. 

§ 25. EXERCISE 6. 


ilominMi i*a*ter (of a family,) ■, t s f ambassador, 

dommtis,!, j tord> legatus,i, \ Heutenant 

servus,i, slave. vicus,i, village. 

nuntius.i, messenger. hortus,i, garden. 

Tnllius,i, TuUy. lupus,i, wolf. 

Craesus,i, Crassus. • Germanus,i, a German. 

captiYuSji, captive. re-voc-are, to recall, call bad-; 

Helvetiu8,i, a Helvetian. re- means back. 

Gallus,i, a Gaul. con-Toc-are, to call together ; 

nec-are, to kill, murder. con- means together. 

ulul-are, to Junol. rog-are, to ask for, entreat. 

auxilinm,i, aid. VI •! - ' 

Translate into English and analyze. 
JiUpi iilulant. Dominus servos amat. Regince filios 
aniant. Crassus nuntios Gallorum convocabit. Tullius 
agricolae hortum occupabat. Crassus vicos Helvetiorum 


oceupabit. Galli Germanorum legatos ntcabunt. Ger- 

mani captivoa necant. Helvetii legatos revocant. Belga) 

insularum ineolas necabant. Tullius servum vocat. 

Translate into Latin. 

Tullv's slaves love their* master. The master calls to- 
gether his* slaves. The slaves of Crassus will call the 
queen's maid-servants. The inhabitants of the island are 
killing the captives. We will call together the sons of 
Crassus. Tully's sou loves the sailor's daughter.. The am- 
bassadors of the HerVetians praise the queen. He will call 
together the farmer's sons. The messengers ask for aid. 
The Belgians will ask for aid. 

STEMS "IN er. 

§ 26. Nouns whose stems end in er, drop the endings 
us and e of the nom. and voc. ; as gener, not generus. 
Most of them likewise drop the e of the stem in the ob- 
lique cases (all but nom. and voc. ;) as ager, Gen. agri. 










A son-in-law. 

A field. 


Ge ner, 



A gcr, 

a gri. 


gen e ri, 

gen e ro rum, 



a gro rum 


gen e ro, 

gen e ris, 


a gro, 

a gris. 


gen e rum, 

gen e roa, 


a grum, 

a gros, 


gen er, 

gen e ri, 


a ger, 

a gri. 


gen e ro, 

gen e ris. 


a gro, 

a gris. 

Rem. 1. The following nouns retain e of the stem in all the cas«s 
adulter, adulterer ; gener, son^in-laxo ; Liber, Bacchus; liberi, chil 
dren ; puer, boy; sooer, father-in-law : vesper, evening ; and com- 
pounds oijer and ger ,• also the nationalnames Iher and Celiibrr. 

* See I 23, 3. 



§27, 28 

Rem. 2. The solitary nown vir> man, is. declined like gener. 
vir ; G. viri, &c. 

For Greek nouns of the 2nd Dec, see appendix II. 




- Vocabulary. 

puer,i, boy. 

Tir,i. man. 

socer,i, father -i,n-law. 

g«ncr,i, son-in-law. 

magister,i, master (of a echool.) 

*ger,i, field. 

Hb«ri, ovnm, children. 

eqnup,i, horse. 
infren-«re, to hridle. 
lani-are, to tear in pieces 
bellum.i, war. 
folium,i, leaf. 
ovum.i, egg. 
aper,i, wild boar. 

Traulate into English and analyze, 
Agricola equum filiae infrcnat. Apri gen«rum re^tnse 
laniobunt. Folia silvzc ancillam recuse delectant.- Magis- 
ter pueros convocabat. Pueri magistrum amant. Tullii 
filia eocerum ainabit. Germani (Jallorum agros occupa- 
bant. Columbarum ova liberos delectant. Yiri equos in- 
fire'riabunt. Bellum Germernos delectant. Socer generum 
amat. Servus domini equum infrenat. Nauta liberos amat. 

Translate into Latin. 

The poet's children love the queen. Crasaus praises the 
•field's of the Helvetians. The Germans love war. The 
woIvog will tear in pieces the farmer's children. "Wild 
boars love tke shade of the forest. The master will call 
back the boys. Tully's horse loves (bis) master. Tbe far- 
mer's slaves are bridling the horses. 


§ 28. The Dative Case. 

1. The Dative expresses that to or for which, or with 
reference to % which any thing is^ or is done. 

2. Rule of Syntax. The remote object of a verb is in 


the Dative ; as, servus domino medicinam parat, the 
servant prepares medicine for his master. 

Rem. The remote object of a verb is the thing towards which its 
action tends without necessarily reaching it. Thus in the above ex- 
ample the action expressed by paiat is exerted directly upon the 
medicine, — medicinam, and the point to which it tends is the master, — 
domino, — though it does not necessarily reach that point, since it is 
not implied that the master receives or uses the medicine prepared 
for him. 

3 Huh of Position. The remote object precedes the di- 



Uber,l, bonk. iHonetr-are, to show. 

via,se, way. niact-are, to sacrifice. 

laurus.i, bull. dare, to give, (the only verb of the In 

agnr.K,i, lamb. conj. having a Bbort in the pres.) 

hedus,i, kid. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Magister puero libruni dat. Puella Crasso viam mon- 
strabat. Agricola diis aram sedific«bit. Galli diis tauros 
mactant. Servi regiusa haedum parant. Lupi agnoa lani- 
abunt. Agricolae filius puellne ovum dat. Galli Germanis 
insidias parabunt. Crassus copiis Gallorum insidias parat. 
Rer/ma agricolae equum dat. Galli nautis insulam mon- 
strant. Kegmae ancilla Gallis Gtermanorum insidias mori- 

Translate into Latin. 

The queen's father-in-law will give (to) the poet a field. 
The queen of the Helvetians is preparing snares for Tully' 
forces. The inhabitants of the* island were sacrificing a 
lamb to the gods. The master is preparing a book for the 
boys. The slaves are preparing a way for their master. 
The master gives (to) his slave a kid. The slave gives (to) 
the farmer's son a dove's egg. 



§29. The Ablative Case. 

1. Rule of Syntax. The Ablative expresses the cause, 
manner, means, and instrument ; as, 

Caecus avaritia, Blinded by avarice. 
Hoc modo fecit, He did it in this manner. 
Aquila alii volat, The eagle flies with his wings. 
Captivum gladio necat, He kills the captive with a sword. 

2. Rule of Syntax . itp Ablative, (usually with the 
preposition in,) expresses the place where. 

3. Rule of Position. Expressions of cause, manner, 
means, instrument, time, and place, precede the predicate. 
Expressions of manner, means, and instrument, are placed 
after the direct object, while those of cause, time, and place 
usually precede it. 


in, in ; (preposition with abl.) Marcus,i, Mar J:., the earth, ground, ar-are, to plow. 

tuba,se, trumpet. vex-are, to annoy, trouble. 

signum,i, signal, sign. vulner-are, to wound. 

venenum,i, poison. culter,tri, knife. 

gladiue.i, sword. amlul-are, to wall: 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Marci filius Gallis signum tuba dat. (The predicate is 
here limited by Gallis, the remote object ; signum, the direct 
object; and tuba, the ablatio e of the instrument.) Agricola 
terram equis arat. CapU'vus Tulliuin cultro vulnerabit. 
Poeta in silvis ambulat. Marcus Helvetios injuriis vexc/- 
bat. Nauta retinae generum gladio necabit.* Grernmni 
capU'vos gladiis necant.* Aquihe alis volant. Retina 
filio regnum dat. Ancilla regitias Crassuni veneno neca- 

* Necare means to murder, usually with poison, hunger, &c. ; but 
somrtimcs also with a weapon. 


bit. Umbram silvrc amamus. Dominus servos tuba con- 
vocat. Reginae socer filium Tullii injuriis vexat. 

Translate into Latin, 

The farmer's sons will plow the fields with horses. Tho 
girls are dancing in the forest. The poet was walking in 
the garden. The slaves of Tullj are preparing snares for 
the ambassadors of the Helvetians in the forest. The in- 
habitants of the islands will kill the ambassadors with their 
swords. The Germans were annoying the Grauls with in- 
juries. Doves fly with their wings. The farmer will give 
the sailor's daughter a lamb. Wolves are howling in tke 


§ 30. Nouns whose genitive ending is is are of the 
third declension. 

Singular. Plural. 

Masc. and fern. Neut. Masc. and fern. Neut. 

N. a, (generally). e. {sometimes.) . es. a, (i;i). 

G. is. is. um, (ium). urn, (ium). 

D- i- i. ibus. ibus. 

Ac. em, (sometimes im). Like nom. es. a, (ia). 

V. Like nom. Like nam. es. a, (ia). 

Ab. e, {sometimes i). (e, sometimes i). ibun. ibus. 

Nouns of the third declension are divided into six 
classes, viz. : — 

I. Nouns which add s to the stem in the nominative with- 
out any vowel change. (Fein mines). As, urh-s, urbs. 

II. Nouns which insert a connecting vowel (e or i) before 
adding s. (Fcminines). As, rup-c-s, rupes. 

III. Nouns which change the stem-vowel i into e before 
adding s. As, stem milit, milet-s, miles. (Masculines.) 




IT. Nouns which add « to the stem. (Neuters'). As, 
mar-e, mare. 

V. Nouns which present the unchanged stem in the nom- 
inative without adding s. (Masculines, except nouns in al, 
ar, ur, which are neuter). As, consul. 

VI. Nouns which change the stem in the nominative 
without adding s. As, stem virgin, — Nom. virgo. 

N. B. A c-sound with s makes x. As, legs, lex ; arc-s, 
arx. D or t before s is dropped. As, fonts, fons. 

§ 31. CLASS I. The nominative is formed by add- 
ing 8 to the stem without changing the stem-vowel. 





N. A V. 


City. i 


Lex, (leg 





Lans, (land-s) 




Arg, (art-s,) 



Arx. (arc-s,) 





N. <fe V. 

! 1 


! _ Alj] - 

ur- bes, 


Ze-gi bus, 












■ * .. ... 



Rule. Stems ending in two consonants, with dos, lis, 
fraus, vis, faux, (nom. obs.), nix, compes, strix, have ium in 
the genitive plural. 

Rule. Stems of more than one syllable in nt and rt (add- 
ing «), with names of nations in as, have ium and some- 
times um. 

Hem. 1. Other nouns in as with fornaz and palm, sometimes have 
ium. Quiris and Samnis have ium. 

Rem. 2. Pan; part, and lens, lentile, have sometimes im in the 


accusative; and the same, with sors, lot, and tridcn3, trident, have 
e or i in the abl. Partim is usually an adverb. 

Ride of Gender. Nouns which form the nominative by 
adding s to the stem without vowel change, are feminine ; 


1. Dem, tooth, and its compounds; fons, fountain; pons, bridge; 
and mons, mountain ; clicns, client; nudens, rope, (rarely fem.); and 
compounds of as. \ 

2. Grex, flock ; Greek nouns in ax. and ix, with calix, cup ; fornix. 
arch ; perdix. partridge ; tradux, vine-branch. 

3. Paries, wall ; pes, foot ; lapis, stone. 

Masculine or Feminine. 

Many nouns denoting living beings, with scroti, ditch ; stirpt, 
trunk of a tree ; calx, heel ; calx, lime. 


§32. 1. The ablative is used with prepositions which 
imply rest in a place ; as, in urbe habitat, he lives in the 
city ; or motion from- % place ; as, ex urbe equitat, he rides 
out of the eity. 

2. The accusative (the wkitlvet case) is used with prepo- 
sition 1 ! inrnlritii* vhbtion t n a pl-'.ce • ftp in vrbem v^nit. he 
comes into the city ; as, ad regcm venit, he comes to -the 

3. Caution. To, when it implies motion must be trans- 
lated by ad with the ace. 

4. Ride of Position. A preposition with its case pre- 
cedes the predicate. 


in* (preposition with aco. cr aW.) fa or into. i«n«, dent-is, toeth, 

*A, farep. witil 8i>C.) to, towards. rudeiiM, rudont-in, rtyi' 

•X, (prep, -with abl.),ou< o/. }>»'P. ]>ed-i«, /oo*. 

•quit-Ore, 1" rule on fiortcback. ralx. ralc-in, I 


hiem-are, to winter, spend the winter. grex, greg-i«, Jlncl-. 

aerv-are, to preserve, protect. lapis, lapid-is, stone. 

Tiol-are, to dishonor, break, (a law, <£c.) Gallia,ac, Gall. 

habit-are, to divell, live., Germany. 

mand-are, to intrust. antenna,te, saiUyard. 

destt'iwzre, to fasten. malus,i, mast. * 

rex, reg-is. Icing. pilum,i, dart. 

plebs, pleb-is, common people. libertas, libertat-is, liberty. 

ferrum,i, iron, the sword. nobilitas, nobilitat-is, nobility. 

cliene, client-is client. Orgetorix, Orgotorig-is, Orgetdrix. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

'Orgetorix leges Helvetiorum violabat. Plebs liberta- 
teni ferro servabit. Nautse antennas ad malos rudentibus 
destmant. Puer calceni servi lapide vulnerat. Crassus ex 
urbe ad vicum equitat. Oopia? Germaaoruni in Gallia 
hiem«bunt. . Galli in Gallia habitant. Hex nobilittfti urbem 
mandat. Crassi Alius clientes ex agris in urbem convooat. 
Lupi dentibus agnos laniant. Galli Crassum pilis neccc- 
buntf Germani, G&llos bellis vexaat. 

Translate into Latin. 

Tbe boys are riding from the village to the city. The 
farmer's sobs live in the forest. The doves will fly out of 
the fields into the forest. The king was calling together 
the common people out of the village into the city. The 
king will give the kingdom to his son. Crassus will break 
the laws of Gaul. The king's son will preserve the liberties 
of the common people. The boys are wounding the king's 
messengers with stones. The inhabitants of Germany will 
winter in the island of the Belgians. Horses walk with 
(their) feet. A flock of doves is flying out of the forest. 
The sailor will fasten the yard to the mast with ropes. The 
king was slaying the nobility with the sword. 


§ 33. CLASS II. The nominative inserts a connect- 
ing vowel ie or i,) before adding s to the stem. [Femi- 



Rup e s r rock, 

N. and V. 

Ru pes. 


ru pig. 


ru pi. 


ru pern. 


ru pe. 


N., A. and V. 

ru pes. 


ru pi um. 

Dat. and Abl. 

jit pi bus. 

Vail i s, 


Val lis. 

val lis. 

i>aZ li. 

val lera. 

vaZ le. 

t'aZ les. 

val li um. 

vaZ li bus 

Rem. ,1. The following nouns have t'm in the accusative. 

(a) Names of places, rivers, and gods in is .- these sometimes also 
have in in the ace, Sraldis has in and im ; Liris has tm, in, and em .- 
and Liger has Ligtrim. 

(b) Amussis, o mason'' s rule. Ravis, hoarseness. 
Buris, a plough tail. Sec7*ris, an axe. 
Cannabis, hemp. Sinapis, mustard. 
Cucumis, (gen. is), a cucumber. Sitis. thirst. 
Mephitis, foul (air. Tussis, a cough. 
Pelvis, a basin. Vis, strength. 

Rem. 2. The following have im, and sometimes em : 
Febris, a fever. Puppis, the stern. 

Restis, a rope. Turris, a tower. 

Bern, 3. The following hare em, and rarely im : 

Bipennis, a battle-axe. Messis, a harvest. Proes«pis, a stall. 
Clavis, a key. N avis, a ship. Sementis, a sowing. 

Strigilis, a flesh-brush. 

Rem. 4. Nouns which have im in the accusative, with 
names of months in er and is, have i in the ablative ; as, 
vis, vim, vi ; rfprilis, Jlprili. 

But Bcetis, cannabis, and sinapis have e or i. 

Rem. 5. Nouns which have em or im in the accusative 
have e or i in the ablative ; as, turris, turrt or turri. 

But restis has e only. 

Rem. 6. The following, though th«y have only em in the 
accusative, have c or i in the ablative, but most of them 
have oftener c than i : a* i tin 




Ami: is, 





Rem. 7. Names of towns, when denoting the place where, 
have % in the ablative ; as, Carthagini, at Carthage. 

Rem. 8. Nouns of this class (adding s with connecting 
vowel e or i,) have turn in the genitive plural. 

Exc. Canis, dog ; juvenis, young man ; foiis, door ; mu- 
g\\\s, mullet; proles, offspring; strues, pile; vates, proph- 
et, have um ; also generally apis, tee ; strigilis, flesh-brush; 
volucris, bird; sometimes, mensis and coedes, __ 

Rule of Gender. Nouns of this class are feminine. 

Exc. 1. Palumbes, vates, vepres, are masculine or femi- 

Exc. 2. The following in is are masculine or feminine : 

Auinis, river. 
Anguis, snake,. 
Callis, path. 
Canalis, pipe. 

Canis, dog. 
Clunis, haunch. 
Corbis, basket. 
Finis, end. 

Funis, rope. 
Scrobis, ditch. 
Tigris, tiger. 

Fines, boundaries, is always masculine. 
Exc. 3. The following are masculine : 

Axis, axle. 
Aqualis, water<*pot. 
Caulis, stalk. 
Cassis, net. 
Collis, hill. 
Crinis, hair. 
Ensis, sword, 
Fascis, bundle. 

Follis, bellows. 
Fustis, club. 
Ignis, fire. 
Manes, pi., shades. 
Mensis, month. 
Mugilis, mullet. 
Grbis, cirtle. 
Panis, bread. 


Piscis, fish. 
Postis, post. 
Sentis, brier. 
Sodalis, companion. 
Torris, firebrand. 
Unguis, nail. 
Vectis, lever. 
Vermis, worm. 


§ 34. 1\ Conjunctions connect words which are in the 
same construction. As, Cce&ar et Brutus, Csesar and Bru- 
tus ; gladiis pilisque, with swords and darts. 

N. B. Et connects things which are separate and distinct, and of 





equal importance ; que (always written at the end of a word,) con- 
nects one thing closely to another as an appendage, the two making 
one complete idea. Thus the "swords and darts" above constitute 
together offensive armor. 

2. If the subject consists of more than one thing, the 
verb must be plural. Hence 

Rule of Syntax. A collective noun may have a plural verb ; as, 
plehs clamutit, the people shout. * 


iguiSjif?, fire. 
port-arc, to carry. 
forhrid-are, to dread. 
rigil-aro, to watch. 
festi'n-are, to hasten. 
import-are, to import. 
confirm-are, to cstabli$!t . 
vast-are, to lay waste. 
nidific-are, to build a nest. 
lev-are, to relieve., a valley. 
pare, part-is, apart. 
Athena), arum, Athen-. 
pax, pac-is, peace. 

host-is, (| 13. Rule 4.) enemy. 

cum, with (prep, with abl.) 

in, in, cm. (jprep. with abl.) 

eiv-is, citizen. 

av-is, bird. 

ov-is. sheep. 

class-is, Jleet. 

coll-is, hill. 

per, through, (prep, with ace.) 

Grecia,a\ Greece. 

litera,n?, a letter (of the alphabet.) 

Cecrops, Cecrop-is, Cecrops. 

Cadmus. i, Cadmus. 

amicitia,a?, friendship. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Cadmus in G-reciam literas importat. Aves in silvis nidi* 
ficant. Aqua sitim levat. Fons in valle poet-am delectat. 
Helvetii agros Germanoruni ferro ign/que vastabunt. Galli 
cum Germanis pacem et amicitiam confirmant. Crassus ex 
agro in urbem festinat. Plebs in urbe nobilitatem necant. 
Crassus copias gladiis pilisque armabat. Cives Cecropi 
claves urbis dant. Lupi oves et hjedos laniant. Crassus 
in colle turirem iedificat. Galli naves et copias German- - 
orum formidant. Crassus partem plebis cultris lapidibus- 
qne armabit. Columboe per silvam volant. Cecrops Ath- 
enas aRdificabit. Canes et lupi oves laniant. R«x et regi- 
na in horto ambulant. Cives in urbe vigilant. 

Translate into Latin. ^. 
Crassus will lay waste the fields of the Belgians with tire 


and sword (ferro igniquc). The liability dread the fleet of 
Tullius. The nobility will preserve the liberty of the citi- 
zens with the sword. The maid-servant is preparing a 
mullet for her master. The queen will walk in the garden 
with her daughters. The farmer's sons will carry sheep 
and kids to the city. The nobility will arm their slaves 
with stones and knivesl The farmer's son will show (to) 
the ambassadors of the Belgians the way through the for- 
est. Tullius will take possession of the hill. Medicine 
will relieve fevers. 


§ 35. CLASS III. The stem-vowel is changed (i into 

e) before adding s to fprm the nominative. 


Miles (milet-s), soldier. Princeps (prinecp-s), chief. 

prin ceps, 
prin ci pis, 
prin ci pi, 
prin ci pern, 
prin ci pe, 


pnn ci pes, 
prm ci pum, 
prin cip i bus. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns which change the stem-vowel, 
(i into c,) before adding * to form the nominative are mas- 

ouline. ., 

Exc. 1. Merges,, fem. (mergitis,) a sheaf. 

Exc- 2. Masc. or fem. Adeps, adipis, grease; forceps, foicipis^ 
pincers. . 


§ 36. 1 . A noun limiting another, and denoting the same 
person or thing, is said to bfc in apposition with it. 

N. an' 


mi les, 


mil i tis, 


mil i ti, 


mil i tern, 


mil i te, 


N., A 

. and V. 

mil i tes, 


mil i turn, 

D. am 

i Abl. 

mil tV i-bus, 


2. Rule of Syntax. Nouns in apposition agree in case ; 

as, Jugurtha rex, Jugurtha the king. 

Rem. A noun in apposition -with two or more nouns is put in the 
plural; as, Jugurtha et Bocchus, reges, Jugurtha and Bocrhus, kings. 


sec-arc, to cut. hospos, hospit-ig, guest . 

postul-are, to demand. obses, obsid-is, hostage. . 

viol-<ire, to maltreat. eques, equit-is, horseman. 

duplic-are, to double. pedes, petlit-is, footman. 

redintegr-are, to rc7iew. horreuui,i, granary. 

explor-ore, to explore, search out. merges, mergit-is, sheaf. 

crem-are, to burn. corner, comit-is, companion. 

virtus, virtwt-is, valor. csespes, ceespit-ia, turf. 

proflig-are. to rout, dash to pieces. traraes, trarnit-is, by-path. 

a or ab, from. (prep, with abl.) veles, velit-ls, skirmisher. 

prceliuin.i, battle. Davus,i, Davus. 

Numidia,a3, Numidia. Balbus,i, Balbus. 

numerus,i, number. Jngurtha,ee, Jugurtha. 

Translate into English and t analyze. 

Milites gladiis csespitem seeabant. Agricola in horreuin 
mergites portabit. Tullius a Germanis obsides postulat. 
Jugurtha, rex Numidise Crasso obsides dat. Davus et Bal- 
bus, servi agricola^, doinini liberos aniant. Orgetorix, prin- 
ceps Helvetiorum, ab iEdui3 obsides postulabit. Helvetii 
Orgetorigem igni cremabunt. Equites et pedites prcelium 
redintegrrtbunt. Poeta virtwtem Jugurthse, regis Numid- 
iae, laudat. Copise Crassi equites peditesque hostium pr©- 
fligabant. Velites Tullii tramites per silvani explorant. 
Comites Orgetorigis, principis Helvetiorum, agros Gall- 
orum ferro ignique vastant. Jugurtha numerum obfidum 

Translate into Latin. 

The farmer is walking with his sons, Davus and Balbus, 
in the forest. The Gauls dread the ships of Crassus. Davus, 
the king's slave, will show (to) the bojs the way through 
the forest. Part Of the skirmishers will occupy the hill. 
The Germans will maltreat their guests. Tully will give 



the signal to the king's horsemen with the trumpet. The 
horsemen are bridling their horses. 


§ 37. CLASS IV. Nouns which add e to the stem to 
form the nominative. 

Singular. Plural. 

N.. Ac. and V. 

mar e. the sea, 

mar i a, 


mar is, 

mar i um, 

i Dat. and Abl. 

mar i. 

mar i bus. 

Rem, Nouns of this class have i in the ablative singular, ia in 
nom., ace. and roc. plural, an turn in gen. plural. 

Exc. Names of towns in e have e in the abl. Rete, a net, has" e or 
* in the abl. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns wjrich add e to the stem to form 
the nominative are neuter. 



terra manque, by sea and land. rota, ret-is, net. 

donm't-are, to fall asleep. naval o, naval-is, dock-yard. 

celeritas, celeritat-is, swiftness. sedtle, Bedtl-is, seat. 

crudelitae, crudelitat-ia, cruelty. monile, mom'l-ls, necklace. 

Marcu8,i, Marcus. Romanus,i, Roman. 

Lucius,i, Lucius. CarthaginienBi8,is, GartMgenian. 

CassiuB,i, Cassius. dux, due-is, leader. 

Syphax, Syphac-is, Sypliax. Marius,i, Marius 

expugn-are, to storm. oppidum,i, town. 

cnbile, cubil-is, couch. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Begins filia in cubili dormitabit. Deus cervis et cani- 
'bus celeritatem dat. Marcus et Lucius, agricolae filii, 
(§ 36, Bern.) agros equis arabunt. Cassius in navalibus 
naves eedificat. Syphax, dux Carthaginiensiuin, Bomanis 
insidias parabat. Galli crudelitatem Grermanorum formz- 
dant. Marius, dux Bomanorum, oppida Jugurthae ex- 
pugnabit. Lucius, dux Bomanorum, hostium copias terra 




manque profligabit. Regma filiabus monilia dabit. Servi 
in silva domino sedile parant. Davus apris retia parabit. 

Translate into Latin. 

Syphax, the leader of the Carthagenians, will build ships, 
in the dock-yard*. The forces of 'the Gauls will storm the 
city. Jugurtha, king of Numidia, will rout the forces of 
the Romans by sea and by land. Lucius and Balbus, slaves 
of Marius, will prepare seats for their master. The queen's., 
daughter gives {to) the poet a necklace. Marius will lay. 
waste the fields of Numidia with fire and sword. The foot-, 
soldiers are bridling the horses of the horsemen.. Orgeto- 
rix dreads the cruelty of the Helvetians. 


§ 38. CLASS V. Nouns which present the atom un- 
changed in the nominative. 

I. masculines-.. 
Honor, honor $ masc. Pater, a father; masc. 

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 







ho no res. N. 
Iio no rum. G. 
ho nor i bus. D. 

ho no res. 
ho no res. 
ho nor i bus. 



pa ter, 
pa tris, 
pa tri,. 
pa trem, 
pa ter, 
pa tre, 

pat tres. 
pa trum. 
pat ri bus, 
pa tres. 
pa res. 
pat ri bus. 

drop e in the oblique cases ; as, 

ho nor, 
ho no ris, 
'ho no ri, 
ho no rem, 
ho nor, 
ho no re, 

Kern. 1. Nouns in ter and her 
imber 9 imbris ; pater, patris. 

Rem. 2. Imber, pugil, and vesper have e or i in the ablative, and 
imbcr, linter+ venter, uter. have turn in gen. plural. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns which present the unchanged 
stem in the nominative, (except stems in al\ ar, ur,) are 

Exc. 1. Arbor, trte, is fem. ; ador, spelt, aequor, sta, marmor, 


marble, cor, heart, fel, gall, lac. milk, mel, honey, os, bone, are neuter. 
(Masculine stems have o long, neuters, o short ; as, honor-is. of hon- 
or, requor-is. of the sea.) Cor, fel, lac, vicl. and os drop the last let- 
ter of the stem. 

Exc. 2. Linter, boat, is feminine. Cadaver, corpse- spinther, 
clasp; tuber, swelling ; uber, teat; ver, spring; verber, lash; also 
names of trees and plants in er, are neuter. But laver and tuber 
(names of trees) are feminine, and siser is masculine in the plural. 



Cassar, Caesar-is, Coesar. sagittariiiB,i, archer. 

impcrator, er-is, commander. funditor, or-is, slingcr. 

consul, consul-is, consul. pastor, or-is, shepherd. 

anser, anser-is, goose. venator, or-is, hunter. 

frater, fratris, brother. mercator, or-is, merchant. 

mater, matris, mother. hiberna, orum, winter-qu,arters. 

soror, eoror-is, sister. in hibeana colloc-are, fy put into winter- 

linter, lintris, boat. t quarters. 

imber, imbris, rain. defens-are, to defend. 

conjux, conjug-is, tiusband or wife. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Plebs libertatem ferro servabunt, (§ 24. Rule.) Imper« 
tor equites peditesque convocabat. Caesar ex urbe in Gral- 
liam festinabat. Agricola conjugem liberosqne amat. 
Pastor gregem a lupo defensabit. Crassus, consul, in nav- 
alibus naves et lintres aedificat. Agricolae anseres in horto 
habitant. Milites imperatorem a gladiis pilisque hostium 
defensabunt. Caesar copias in hiberna eollocat. Venator 
in silya apris retia parat. Caesar cum sagittariis et fundi- 
toribus in Gralliam fesUnat. Rex mercatores convooat. 
Balbus, Lucii gener, fratres sororesque amat. Puer pa- 
trem matremque amat. Imbres agricolas delectant. .• 

Translate into Latin. 
The horsemen will rout the arcbers and slingers of the 
enemy. The shepherds are sacrificiDg bulls and sheep tc 
the gods. The gees* are flying into the forest. The sis- 




ters of Orgetorix are dancing in the garden. The brother 
of Lucius was defending his mother and sisters with (his) 
sword. The common people entrust their liberty, to the 
consul. The hunter will show (to) the shepherd a by-path 
through the forest. Caesar will hasten from the winter- 
quarters into the city. The slingers are wounding the 
horsemen of the enemy with stones. 

§39. CLASS V. Nouns which present the unchanged 
stem in the nominative. 


Animal, an animal ; neut: Calcar, a spur ; neiit. 











an-i-nm lis, 





au-i-ma li, 











an-i-ma-li-a, • 







cal-caf- i-bus. 

Note. Nouns in e, al, ar, were originally adjectives, the adjective 
ending of those in al and ar having been dropped. Thus, anim-a, 
breath ; neuter adjective, anim-alc, (animal,) a thing having breath, 
an animal; calc-s, (calx,) the heel ; calc-are, (calc-ar,) a thing per- 
taining to the heel, a spur. 

Rem. 1. Nouns ending in al and ar have i in the ablative singu- 
lar, turn in gen. pi., and ia in nom., ace. and voc. plural. Other 
nouns of this class have the regular endings ; but 

Rem. 2- Os, bone, has ossium ; fur, thief ; rcn, kidney, lar, tute- 
lar deity, have urn or ium. 

Rem. 3. Baccar, far, jubar, nectar, par and sal have t in the abla- 
tive singular. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns which present in the nomina- 
tive the unch^ged stem in a/, ar, ur> are neuter. 

Exception. Sal, salt, is masculine or neuter in the singular, but 
always masculine in the plural, (.tales.) Fuj, thief; furfur, brat; 
salar, trout : turtur, dove ; vultur, vulture, are masculine. 



§ 40. EXERCISE 15. 


jumentum.i. worl-horzc, least of burden., bran. 
jubar,is, sunshine. (ioore, to dedicate ., (masc.) vulture. .- concit-erre, to arouse, urge on. 

tompluin,i, temple. rapt-are, to snatch away, carry off., marble. stimulus,!, goad. 

tetnplum de marmore, a temple of mar- fug-are, to put to fight, 
ble. tempestas, tempestat-is, tempex;. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Crassus diis templum de* marmore dicabit. Vultures 
agnos et haados raptant. Juba'r nautas delectat. Agricola 
jumenta stimulo concitat. Cecrops, rex (xrecia), equum 
calcaribus concitat. Regzna in insula aram de marmore 
redificat. Agricola jumentis furfurem dat. Velites Cassaris 
hostium sagittarios funditoresque fugabunt* Tempestates 
maris classem hostium profligabunt. 

Translate into Latin. 

* The boys love the master. Csesar will lay waste the 
fields of the Gauls with fire and sword. 1 Tully will rout 
the forces of the enemy by sea and land. Tully 's foot- 
soldiers occupy the hill. Farmers plough their fields with 
work-horses. Eagles and vultures build nests in the locks. 
Cesar's skirmishers will, search out the by-paths through 
the forests. Jugurtha^ king of Numidia, was sterming his 
brother's towns. Sailors dread tempests. Horsemen urge 
on their horses with spurs. 


♦ § 41. CLASS VI. Nouns which present the stem 
changed in the nominative. 






n of stem dropped. 
Singular. Speech, (m.) 







ser mo, 
ser mo nis, 
ser mo ni, 
ser tno nem. 
ser mo, 
ser mo ne, 

r of stem changed into s. 
Dust, (m.) Flower, (ni.) 

pul vis, 
pul ver is, 
pul ver i, 
/>u^ ver em, 
pul vis, 
jt>«£ ver e, 

flural. Speechs. 

flor is. 
flor i. 
j?or em. 
flor e. 


ser mo ues, 
ser mo num, 
ser mon i bus, 
ser mo nes, 
ser ?TC0 nes, 
ser mon i bus. 

/>mZ ver es, 
pal ver um, 
pul ver i bus, 
/w£ ver es, 
pul ver es, 
pul ver 1 bus. 

/or es. 
Jlor um. 
/or i bus. 
flor es. 
j/Zor es. 
flor i bus. 


Ac. • ' 
• Ab. 

Rem. 1. Most Latin nouns drop final n of the stem in the nomina- 
tive. Sanguis (sanguin,) and pollis (pollin,) change n into s. 

Rem. 2. Final r of the stem is often changed into s ; as, mos,' 

Rule of Gender. Nouns which drop n of the stem in the 
nominative are masculine. 

Exc. Abstracts in io (mostly formed by adding io to the supine 
stem of verbs,) are feminine. Bubo is masc. and fern. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns which change er ©f the stem into 
'•% r into s, are masculine. 

Exc. Os, mouth, is neuter. Cinis i? masculine or feminine in the 
singular ; cineres, ashes of the dead, is always masculine. Pulvis, 
dust, is very rarely feminine. 

EXEfcCISE 16. 


mos, mor-is, manner, custom. 
conturio, on-is centurion. 
leo, on-is, lion. 

mont-ia, '??>!. Exc. 1.) mountain. 
. on-is, robber. 
;iirata,nr\ pirate. 
• >n-iK, Onto. 
llio, on-is, (f.) rebellion. 
Varro, on-is,' Yarro. 

"n-is, (f.) speech, oration. 
tiTiciM- t». to najf. 

concit-are, to exc itc, raise. 

apud, (prep, with ac.) among, (of persons 

among whom anything is done.) 

apud Helvetica, among (he Helvetians 

apud Cat<>i:em, with, at the houtd of. 

Cicero, on-is, Cicero. 

orator, or-is, orator. 

coen-aro. to sup. 

more regis, after the manner of a king. 


)__ , : _: ^_ 

Translate into English and analyze. , # 

Caesar, more regis, obsides ab Helvetiis postulat. Cen- 
turio tures (§33. Rem. 2) aedificat. i Yarro consul in silvis 
more latronis habitat. Orgetorix apud Helvetios rebellio- 
n*eni concitabit. Cicero, orator, plebem oratione delectat. 
Orati© Catonis nobilitatem delectat. Pars nobilitatis apud 
regem coenant. Leones in montibus et silvis habitant. 
Latrones in silva filium reginae trucidabant. Kex latrones 
piratasque trucidabit. Regis filiae apud agricolam coenant. 
Nobilitas rebellionem r : -<} plebem fornudant. Cecrops 
nobilitatem concitat. IS'iiutse pirotas forimdant. 

Translate into Latin. 

The conversation (sermo) of the poet delights the queen. 
A lion will tear in pieces the children of Cadmus. The 
daughter of Cecrops giv*es flowers to her father-in-law. The 
common people are breaking the laws of the city. Marcus, 
the brother of Marius, was building a tower upon a hill. 
Crassus will sup at the house of Cicero. Caesar dreads a rebel- 
lion among the Gauls. Caesar demands hostages of (from) 
the Germans. The Gauls,' after the manner of the Ger- 
mans, burn pirates with fire. Kings slay robbers and 
pirates. Part of the nobility dread Cato. The poet loves 
Cato's daughter. 


§ 42. CLASS VI. Nouns which present the stem 
changed in the nominative. 


Virgo, a virgin; fern.; (stem virgin.) 
Singular. Plural. 

N. vir go, fir gi lies, 

G. vir gi nis, vir gi num, 

. D. vir gi ni, . vir gin i bus, 

Ac. vir gi nem, vir gi nes. 

V. vir go, vir gi nes, 

Ab. vir gi ne, vir gin i bus. 


Rule of Gender. Nouns which change la of the stem 
into o, are feminine. 

Exc. Ordo, cardo. and turbo are masculine. Nemo, homo, aud 
viurc/o are masculine or feminine. 

Rem. Caro, flesh, has camis. &c, contracted for carmit t and has 
in vi in the genitive plural. 


§43. Rule of Position. Adverbs usually stand imme* 
diately before the words they limit. 

Rule of Position. A genitive limiting the object* of a 
preposition usually stands between the preposition and its 
case ; as, in Csesaris liorto. 

Rule of Syntax. Adverbs limit verbs, adjectives, and 
other adverbs. . 

Vocabulary. ■ 

multitude), in-is, multitude. disput-are, to discuss, debate, dispute. 

turbo, turbiu-ia, whirl-wind. tiirb-«re, to confuse, disorder. 

' ort'go, origin-ia, origin. per-turb-ar«.v to throw into great confu- 
ovdo, ordin-is, rani:. *ion, confound. 

consiietudo, in-is, custom, habit. do, [prep, with abl.] concerning. 

magaitudo, in-is, greatness. pericuhim,i, danger. 

immortal itas, at-is, immortality. animus,!; soul, mind. ' 

noil, [adverb,] not. ex conauetudine, according to tuti 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Oratio Caesaris multitudinem delectat. Equites Crassi 
multitudinem hostium fugabunt. Cato de animi origine 
ciim Cicerone disputat. Magnitwdo periculi censuiom per- 
turbat. Equites copias hostium turbabunt. Rex ex con- 
suetudine in Crassi horto ambulabat. Cicero de animi im- 
mortalitate disput«bat. Pedites ordines non servabant. 
NautD.* piratas et turbines formidant. Rex captivos non 
nccabit. Lucius ex agricolse agro in vicuna festmat. Con- 
sul multitudinem hostium non form/'dat. .Vclitos in Hel- 
vetiorum agris proclium redinte°rabunt. 


Translate into Latin. 

The Gauls sacrifice virgins to the gods. The poet, ac- 
cording to custom, was walking in Tully's field. The King 
of the Belgians is sacrificing bulls and sheep in the Queen's 
garden. The Gauls do not debate concerning the origin of 
the soul. The Helvetians will not burn Orgetorix with 
fire. Caesar will not arm the skirmishers with javelins 
(pilis.) Caesar rides into the city after the manner of a 
King. ' Tully, according to custom, demands hostages from 
the Belgians. The soldiers will confuse the ranks of the 
enemy. Caesar does not dread the whirlwind. 


§ 44. CLASS VI. Nouns which present the stem 
changed in the nominative. 


Carmen, a verse; -neut. 
Singular. Plural. 


car men, 

car mi na, 


car mi nis, 

car mi nura, 


car mi ui ; 

car min i bus, 


car men, 

car mi na, 


car men, 

car mi na, 


car mi ne, 

car min i bus. 

Opus, a work ; neut. 
Singula r. Plu ra I. 


o pus, 


op e ris. 


op e ri, 


o pus, 


o pus, 


op e re, 

op e ra, 
.'op c rum 
o per i bus, 
op e ra, 
op e ra, 
o per i bus. 




a head ; 




N. ' 

ca put, 

cap it a, * 


cap i tis, 

cajt? i turn, 


cap i t\, 

ca pit i bus, 


ca put, 

cap i ta, 


ca put, 

ca;? i ta, 


oo/> i te, 

ca^ni i bus. 

RuU of Gender. Nouns which change in of the stem 

into en; or into ur; er> or, ur into r^, &c, are neuter. 

Exc. Pccten, pectin-is, comb; lepus, lcpor-is,' hare; and mus, 
mur-is, mouse, are masculine. Tellus, tellur-is, earth, is feminine. 
Rem. Occiput has a in abl. sing., and r«« has e and t. 



rotmr, roboris, strength. munus, muncr-is, #'/*■• 

corpus, corpor-i?, fcorfy. lepxis, lcpor-is, /iare. 
jus, jur-ip. justice, law, [generally tin- fcedus, feeder-is, treaty. 

written law, as opposed to lex, writ- onus, oner-is, burden. 

ten law.] flumen, flumin-is, river. 

mus, mur'-iB, mo«jf. tran-are, to swim across. 

port-are, to carry. Tiberis;is, [masc] the Tiber. 

aat«ra,», nature. nemus, nemons, grove. 
tard-are, to hinder. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Dominus robur servi laudat. Regma ancillis munera 
dabit. Belgse fcedus non yiolabunt. Lepores et mures in 
agris habitant. Serri regmae in oppidum onera 'portant, 
Carmina poetae imperatorenl delectant. y Crassus Tiberim? 
(§ 83, Rem. 1) tranobit. Robur corporis multitudincm 
delectat. Robur animi Catonem delectat. Equites flumen 
tranant. Cicero de jure legibusque disputat. Poeta CaBiari 
carmina dicabit. Magnitudo operis consulem non tardabit. 
Puellse in Csesaris nemore saltant. Cicero de animi 6t 
corporis nata/ra disputat. , 



Translate into Latin. 

The poet was walking with the king in Caesar's garden. 
The boys and girls are dancing in Tully's grove. The sold- 
iers of Orgetorix will swim across the river. Whirlwinds 
will dash in pieces the fleet of the enemy. The commander 
praises the valor of the soldiers. The consul is building 
ships and boats in the dock-yards of Gaul. The enemy 
violate the treaty. The nature of the work hinders the 
forces of the enemy. Davus and Balbu*, Tully's slaves, 
will carry burdens into the city. 





, strtr 








Ju pi ter, 



vi res, 



Jo vis, 
Jo vi, 


« D. 


vir 1 um, 
vir i bus, 


Jo veto, 




vi res, 


Ju pi ter, 



vi res, 


Jo ve. 



vir i bus. 

Iter, a journey ; neut. 
Singular. Plural. 


i ter, 

i tin e ra, 


i tin e ris, 

i tin e rum, 


i tin e ri. 

it i ner i bus, 


-i ter, 

i tin e ra. 


i ter, 

i tin e ra, 


i tin e re, 

i't i ner i bus. 



oath j neut. 


jus ju ran dum, 

ju ra ju ran da, 



ju ris ju ran di, 
ju ri ju ran do, 
jus ju ran duia. 


ju ra ju ran da, 


jus ju ran dum, 

ju ra ju Van da. 


ju re ju ran do, 




Materfamilias, mother of a family. 

N. ma ter fa mil i as, 

G. ma tris fa mil i as, 

D. ma tri fa mil i as, 

Ac. ma trem fa mil i as, 

V. ma ter fa mil i as, 

Afl ma tre fa mil i as, &c. 

Supellex, furniture ; fern. Jecur, liver ; neut. 

N. su j9e-£ lex. 

G. supel /<?c ti lis, 

D. eupel /ec ti li, 

Ac. supel lee ti-lem, 

V. su pel lex, 

Ab. supel lee ti le or i. 

Bos, am, ox or cotv ; 

N. bos, 

G. bov is, 

D. fcov i, 

Ac. bov em, 

V. bos, 

Ab. bov e. 

N. jecur, 

G. je cin o ris, 

D. je cm o ri, 

Ac. jc cur, 

V. je cur, 

Ab. je ci?i o re. 

masc. or fem 

bov es, 

bo um, 

4o bus, or bu bus, 

6ow es, 

bov es,. 

6o bus, or bu bus. 
Jecur has also jecoris and jecineris. Lac, milk, has fac- 
e's. Like materfamilias is declined paterfamilias, father 
of a family. 



comedo, on-is, glutton. 
provincia,a?, province. 
aurum,i, gold. 
argentum,i, silver. 
cibus,i, food. 


tent-are, to attempt. 
per Tim, by force. 
decor-are, to adorn. 
vor-are, to devour, gidp dovm. 

Translate into English, and analyze. 
Helvetii jurejurando foedus confirmant. Paterfamilias 
servos tuba corivocat. Imperator Jovi oves taurosque mactat. 
Jugurtha, rex Numidiae, Jovi templum de marmore dica- 
bit. Helvetii iter per provinciam per vim tentabant. Je- 
cinora anserum comedones delectant. Lcones inoolae in- 


sulae vorabunt. Comedo cibum more canis vorat. Galli 
templa deorum auro et argento decorant. Materfamilias 
ancillis cibum dat. Agricola genero supellectilem dabit. 
Agricola agros bubus arat. 

Translate into Latin. 
Tfie king will Bot violate his oath. \\ Farmers plow their 
fields with horses and oxen. Gluttons love the liver of the^ 
goose. The queen of the Belgians will sacrifice a flock of 
sheep to Jupiter. Dumnorix, the chief of the iEduans, 
will attempt a journey through the province by force. The 
Gauls will bring sheep and oxen to (ad) Caesar. The moth- 
er of the family will give food to her children. Farmers 
urge on their oxen with the goad. Robbers dread the pow- 
er (vis) of kings. The soldiers of Marius were cutting turf 
with their swords. The merchants will import swords into 
the villages of the Helvetians. 





1. Nouns which change stem vowel (i into e) and add s; 
as, miles (stem mutt,) princeps (stem princip.) 

Exc. Merges, fern. ; adeps and forceps, masc. or fem. N 

2. Nouns wkich present the stem unchanged in the nom- 
inative ; as, honor, consul, anser. 

Exc. 1. Unchanged stems in al, ar, ur, with ador,sequor, 
marmor, cor,fel, lac, mel, os, neuter. 

. Exc. 2. Arbor and linter, fern. Cadaver, spinther, tuber, 
uber, ver, verber, with names of trees and plants in er, are 
neuter. Rut laver and tuber (names of trees,) are fern. ; 
and siser is masc, in the plural. 

3. Nouns which drop n of the stem in the nom., without 

adding 5 ; as, sermo, sermonis. 

Exc. Abstracts in io all fern. Bubo masc. or fern. 

4. Nouns which change er of the stem into is, r into s ; 
as, pulvis, pulver-is ; Jlos, flor-is. 

Exc. Os, oris, neut. Ciyiis, cineris, masc. and fern, in 


1. Nouns which add s to the stem without vowel change; 
as, urbs, lex (legs), ars (arts), arx (arc-s). 

Exc. 1. Masc. Dens and its com-punds, font) pons, mons, 
cliens, rudens (rarely fern.), and compounds of as ; grex, 
Greek nouns in ax and t*?,with calix, fornix, perdix, tradux; 
paries, pes, lapis. 

Exc. 2. Masc. or fem. Many nouns denoting living be- 
ings, with scrobs, stirps, calx. 


• 2. Nouns which insert a vowel (e or i) befpre adding s; 
as, host-i-s, ritp-e-s. 

Exc. 1. Masc. and fern. Palumbes, vates, vepres ; amnis, 
unguis, callis, canalis, canis, dunis, corbis, finis, (always 
masc. in pi.), funis, scrobis, tigris, torquis. 

Exc. 2. Masc. Axis, aqualis, caulis, cassis, collis, crinis, 
ensis, fascis,follis, fustis, ignis, manes, mensis,mugilis,orbis, 
panis, piscis, postis, sends, sodalis, torris, unguis, veetis 
vermis, ' 

3. Nouns which change in into o ; as, virgo, virgin-is. 
Exc. Ordo, cardo, turbo, masc. Nemo, homo, mdrgb, masc. 
or fern. 


1. Nouns which add e to the stem ; as, mare, mar-is. 

2. Nouns which present the unchanged stem in al, ar, ur; 
us, animal, a nim art-is ; calcar, calcar-is ; fulgur, fulgur-is. 

Exc. Sal, masc. or neut. in singular, always masc. in pi.- 
Masc. Fur, furfur, salar, turtur, vultur. 

3. Nouns changing in into en; or into ur z er, or, to-,' 
into us. 

Exc. Masc. Pecten, lepus, mus. Fern. Tellus. 
N. B. Many nouns on account of their meaning vary 
from these rules. See § 13, Kules. 



§ 47. I. The tenses which express incomplete action 
are the present, imperfect and future; those which ex- 
press completed action are the present-perfect (perfect,) 


past-perfect (pluperfect,) and future-perfect These 
three tenses are always formed on the same stem, called 
the perfect-stem. 

II. The perfect-stem in the first conjugation is formed 
by adding -av- to the present-stem ; as, present-stem, 
am- ; perfect-stem, am-av-. 

III. The present-perfect tense expresses completed 
action in present time ; as, pres. cocno, / sup ; pres. 
perf. coenavi, / have supped. The same form of the 
verb is used to express an action indefinitely as past, 
without reference to its continuance or completion. This 
is called the aorist-perfect,. or indefinite-perfect ; as, 
coenavi, / suppled, (at some indefinite past time.) 

IV. The past-perfect tense expresses completed ac- 
tion in past time ; as, imp. ccenabam, / was supping ; 
past-perf. ccenav-eram, I had supped. 

V. The future-perfect tense expresses action com- 
pleted in future time ; a>s,fut. ccenabo, I shall sup; 
future-perf. coenav-ero, / shall have supped. 




lest j»ers. i, v e ram e ro. 

2nd " * is ti, e ras, e ris. 

, 3rd " it, eirat, erit. 


1st " imus. e ra inns, rr i mua. 

2nd ¥ is tis. c ra tis, er i tia. * 

3rd " e runt or t re e rant. • rint. 

By adding tkcse endings to the perfect stem, am-av-, of 

ainare we obtain the following : 

♦Aectnted *yll*bles ar« italicized. 





Present-Perfect, loved, or have loved. 

Sing, a ma vi, / have loved, 

am a vis ti, thou hast loved, 

a ma fit, he has loved ; 

Plur. a mav i mus, toe have loved, 

am a vis tis, ye have loved, 

am a ve runt or re, they have loved. 

Past-Perfect, had. 

Sing, "a mav e ram, 1 had loved, 

a mav e ras, thou hadat loved, 

a mav e rat, he had loved ; 

Plur. a mav e ra mus", ice had loved, 

a mav e ra tis, ^e ^ad! loved, 

a mav e rant, they had loved. 

Future-Perfect, shail, or will have. 

Sing. & mav e to, J shall have loved, 

a mav e ris, thou wilt have loved, 

a mav e rit, Ae wiVJ have loved ; 

Plur. am a ver i mus, t«c shall have loved, 

am a ver i tis, 3/e wn7£ have loved, 

a mav e rint, they will have loved. 

Bern. 1 .. A few verbs of the first conjugation form the 
perfect stem by adding it to the present stem ; as, nec-at, 
he kills ; nec-u-it, he has killed ; — or by . lengthening the 
present stem ; &s,juv-at, (u short) he helps ; juv-it, (w long) 
he has helped. 

Rem. 2. The supincsUm is generally formed in the 1st 
conjugation by adding -at to the present-stem ; as, amo, 
am-aUum. Tke ending of the supine is -um. 

Noti. The pupil should hereafter give the principal parts, in 
analyzing verbs. Where the perfect and supine stems vary from 
the usual formation, they will be given iu the vocabularies. 




Daro [per/, stem ded-, tup. stein dat-,] to give. 
Nec-arc,Tnocav- or necu-, necat-, rareiy nect-,] to liU* 
Seo-are, (seen-, Beet-,] to cut. 
Lav-are, [lav-, lavat, Iant-, lot-,] to wash, bathz. 
The other verbs used, thus far, form the perfect supine stems reguarly. 

Translate into English and analyze^ 

Germani in fluminibus lavant. Rex filio regauiEt dbdit, 
Princeps capttvos veneno neeavit. Milites caespiles. gladiis 
seouerunt. Orgetorix leges Helvetiorum vidlavifc.. Sel- 
yetii iter per provinciam per viin tentaveruufc. Principes 
Galloruni Csesari obsides dederant. Caesar cum; Gallis 
foedus jurejurando confirmaverat. Lupi ©t leones^ incizdas 
insulae voraverunt. Jugurtha more regis a Romania obsides 
postulaverat. Servi equos infrenaverint. Crassi oopise in 
Gallorum agris hiemaverant. Latrones tramites per silitam 
exploraverunt. Equites Caesaris bostium funditores fugav- 
erant, et in vicum festinabant. Marius numerum obsid;«m 
duplicovit. Magister puero librum dedit. ♦ 

Translate into Latin. 

Cicero disputed concerning tbe origin of the soul. The 
consul had routed the forces of the enemy bj land and sea. 
The brother of Cicero the orator, called together the com- 
mon people. Balbus, Tully's slave, brought burdens into 
the city. The queen had walked in the farmer** garden. 
The king's son had given (to) his sister a neoklace. The 
boys loved the master's ehildrea. The ambassadors of the 
j92duans had asked aid. The nobility dreaded a rebellion 
among the common people. Caesar hastened into Gaul 
The Gauls prepared snares for Crassus, 



§ 48. Nouns -whose genitive ending is us (long,) are 
of the fourth declension. The nominative endings are 
us and u. 

Rem. 1. These nouns were originally of the third declension, the 
termination us of the genitive being contracted from uis. 

Masculine Endings. Neuter Endings. 


Plural. Singular. 


N. and V. 


us, u, 




uutn, us, . - 




ibus, (ubus,) u, 

ibus, (ubusi) 



us, u, 




ibus, (ubus,) u, 

ibus, (ubus.) 

Fructus, fruit, mas. Cornu, a horn, neut. 

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 

N. fruc tus, 'fruc tus. N. cor nu, cor nu a. 

G. /rue tus, fruc G. cor nus, cor nu um. 

D. fruc, tu i, fruc ti bus. D. cor nu, cor ni bus. 

Ac. fruc turn, /rwc tus Ac. cornu, cornu a. 

V. fruc tus, /rue tus. V. cor nu, cor nu a. 

Ab. fruc tu, fruc ti bus. Ab. cor nu, cor ni bus. 

iJem. 2. Some nouns of this declension have likewise the inflection 
of the second declension, especially in the genitive singular ; as, 
stnatus, senati. 

Rem. 3. A contracted form of the dative in u sometimes occurs. 

Rem. 4. The following nouns have ubus in the dative and ablative 
plural : — 

Acus, a needle. < Artus, a Joint. Partus, a birth. Specus, a den. 
Arcus, a bow. Lacus, a lake. Pecu, a flock. Tribus, a tribe. 

Genu, a knee ; portus, a harbor ; tonitrus, thunder ; and veru, a 
spit, have ibus or ubus. 
Rem. 5. Domus, a house, is thus declined : 





do mus r 

do mus. 


do mus, or do rni. 

dom u urn, or do mo rum . 


dom u i, or do mo. 

dom i bus. 


do mum, 

do mus, or Jo mos. 


do mus, 

do mus. 


do mo, 

cfom i bus. 

Domus in the genitive singular generally means of a house ,• r/omi 
a£ Aome, The ablative domu is found. Domorum and domos are 
tbe most common forms of the gen. and ace. plural. 

Rule of Gender. Nouns of the tourth declension in us are masou- 
line ; those in u, neuter. 

Exc. 1. The following are feminine: 

Acus, needle. Idus, Ides. Manus, hand. Tribus, tiibe. 

Domus, house, Ficus, *fuj. Porticus, gallery. 
Exc. 8. Penus, storehouse, is masculine or feminine. Secus, sex, 
is neuter. Specus, den. is masculine, rarely femiuine or neutef . • 



fluctus, us, wave. expect-are, to avmtt. 

arbor, or-is, [fern.] tree. cre-are, to create. 

homo, in-is, mart. exercitus, us, army. 

Lemaiinu3,i, Lcmannus. acjventus, us, arrival. 
Rhonus,i, Shine. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Agricola in'penum m'ergites portaverat. Deus fructus 
arborum creavit. Poeta in domo ambulat. Agricola do- 
niuni aidificat. ^Deus tauris cornua dedit. Deus he-mini- 
bus animos dedit. Agricola in doinum fructus terra) portat. 
Venator arcum sagittasque parat. Nauta) fluetus non form- 
rdant. Caesar a lacu Lemanno ad flumen Rhenum festina? 
yit. Ciaesar adventuni legatorum expectaverat. Impera- 
toris adveatus exercitum delectat. Leones in specubus 
habitant. \i. 

Translate into Latin. 

Tbe soldiers bathed in the lake. The consul will hasten 




with the army to Lake Lemannus. The master will build 
houses for his slaves in the field. Marcus gave (to) his son 
Lucius a bow and arrows. The boys awaited their father's 
arrival. The waves will dash in pieces the enemy's ships. 
The sailors fastened the yards to the masts with ropes. 
Lions do not dread the horns of bulls. The chief of the 
Germans lives in a cave. A hunter wounded the consul's 
son-in-law in the King's forest. 

§ 49. Nouns which have ei in the genitive from es of 
the nominative are of the fifth declension. They are 
all feminine except dies b day, (masc. or fern, in the sin- 
gular, and always masc. in the plural,) and mei-idies, 
midday, (masc). 





N. and V. 




ei, • 








Ab. • 




Res, a 












di es, 

di es, 


re i, 

re, rum. 


di e i, 

di e rum, 


re i, 



di e i, 

di e bus, 





di em, 

di es, 





di es, 

di es, 


, re, 

re bus. 


di e, 

di c bus. 

Rem. 1. Dies, day, is feminine only when it denotes a fixed day. 
Rem. 2. The genitive and dative singular sometimes end in e or i, 
instead of ex. 
Rem. 3. There are only about eighty nouns of this declension, 


~1 : ' " ' 

and of these only two. ves and dies, are complete in the plural. Acics. 
effigies, eluvics, fades, glacies, progenies, series, species, spes, want the 
genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and the rest want the plural al- 

Rem. 4. All nouns of this declension end in ies, except four — fides, 
faith; res, a thing ; spes, hope; and plebes, the common people; — 
and all nouns in ies are of this declension, except abies, aries, paries 
quies, and requies, which are of the third declension. 


Benqrtas, us, senate, [$ 48. Rem. 2.] currus, us, chariot. 

plebes, ei, common people. fides, ei, faith, promise. 

tribuntiHji, tribune. spes, ei, hope. 

.-icies, ei, edge, point, victoria, te, victory. 

also line of batik. progenies, ei, offspring. 

parens, cnt-is, parent. effigies, ei, likeness, image. 

fades, ei, face. praada, ee, booty. 

vul t us, us, countenance, scelus, er-is, crime. 

solus, salut-is. safety, health. dictator, or-is, dictator. 
nox, noct-is, night. 

Translate into English and analyze, 
Senatus dictatori salwtem urbis mandaverat. Animal ia 
progeniem amant. Leones facieni vultumque honiinis forn- 
idant. Spes praed» latrones ad scelera concitat. Lucius, 
tribwnus plebis, centuriones convocavit. Marcus filium 
acie gladii vulneravit. - Spes yietoriae exercitum delectavit. 
Jugurtha, rex Numidiae, fldein non servayit. Tribwni 11b- 
•crtrttcm plebei servaverunt. Cracsus eonsql m teaiflo effi 
giem Jovis collocavit. Helvetii exercitum Cassii consulis 
fugavere. Parentes progeniem amant. Regzna poetae cur- 
rum equosque dedit. Turbines classem bostium profliga- 

Translate into Latin. 

Caosar put his army into winter-quarters. The dictator 
\vi]l slay robbers and pirates. Crassus the tribune. will not 
violate his promise. The hope of victory and booty urges 
the chiefs to {etc!) war. The queen's daughter will set-up 


__ . . ^ 

(collocare) an image of Jupiter in the Ring's garden. The 
queen aclorned the image of. Jupiter with silver and gold. 
The boy wounded his brother's foot with the point of a 
knife. The senate committed to the tribunes the liberty 
of the common people. Gfod created day and night. The 
waves of the sea dashed in pieces the ships of the enemy 
The poet's children loved their parents. 

\ 50 Te^p' Mica, (fern.), the state. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. V. res pub li ca, N. V. res pub li ca?, 

G. D. re i pub li ca;, G. re rum pub li ca rum, 

Ac. rempub li cam, . D. Ab. re bus pub li cie, 

Ab. re pub li ca. . Ac. res pub li caa. 

§ 51. Irregular nouns are either variable or defective. 


Nouns which vary in gender are called heterogeneous; 
those which vary in declension are called heteroclites. 

1. Heterogeneous nouns. 

(a.) Masculine in the singular, and neuter in the plural; as, 
Avernus, a hill in Campania. Pangceus, a promontory in Thrace, 
Dindymus, a hill in Phryyia. Tcenarus, a promontory in Laronia. 
Ismarus, a hill in Thrace., Tartarus, hell. 
Meena'us, a hill in Arcadia. Taygetus, a hill in Laconia. 

(b-) Masculine in the singular, masculine and neuter in the plu- 
ral ; as, jocus, a jest, plural joci and joca ■• locus, a place, plural 
loci, passages in books, topics, places ; loca, places ; sibihis, a hissing, 
plural, sibila, rarely sibili. 

(c.) Feminine in the singular, neuter in. the plural; as, carbasus, 
a sail,' plural cctrbasa ) Pergamus, the citadel of Troy, plura! Per- 

(d.) Neuter in the singular, masculine in the plural ; as, Aryos 
Argos, a city, in Greece plural Aryi ; JElysivni, the Elysian fields, 
plural Elysii; ccelum, heaven, plural cceli. 


Note 1. — Argos, in the singular, is used only in the Norm and Ace. 

(e.) Neuter in the singular, masculine and neuter in the plural ; 
as, frenum, a bridle, plural freni and frcna ; rastrum, a rake, plural 
rastri and rostra. 

(f.) Neuter in the singular, feminine in the plural ; as, balneum, a 
bath, plural balnea', seldom bain A ■ epulum, a banquet, plural epulce. 

(g.) Feminine Or neuter in the singular and feminine in the plural; 
as, delicto, or delictum, plural delicicc. 

* 2. Hcterocltbes. 

(a.) Second and third declension in the singular, and third in the 
plural; as, jugerum, an acre ; gen. jugeri, or jvgeris ; abl. jugere or 
jugero ; plur.,'nom. and ace. jxgera ; gen. jugerum ; abl. jugeris and 
jugeribus, from the obsolete jugus or juger. 

(b.) Third declension in the singular, and second in the plural. 


Defective nouns want some of their cases. The follow- 
ing list contains most nouns defective in case. Those 
occurring but once in Latin authors are marked with the 

"*Abactus, ttcc. pi. ; a driving a- Astu, nam., ace; a city. 

way. A*tus, nom.; astu, abl.; craft; — 

Accitu, abl.; a calling for. as^tus, ace. pi. 

Admissu, abl..; admission. Cricoethes, nom., ace; anevilcus- 

Admonita, abl; admonition. torn; — cacoethe, nom. pi. ; -e 

iEs, not used in gen. pi. and -es, ace. pi. 

AtTatu, abl. ; an addressing ,— pi. Codite, abl.\ pi. entire, inhabitant 

affatus, -ibus. of heaven. 

Algus; nom. ; algum, ace.; algu, *Commutatuin, arc ; an alteration, 

or o, abl.; cold, Compedis, gen. ; compede, abl. ; 

Ambage, abl. ; a winding stair; a fetter; — pi. compedes, -ium, 

pi. entire. -ibus. 

^Amissum, ace; a loss. Concessu, abl.; permission. 

Aplustre, nom. and arc; the flag Condiscipulatu, abl. ; companion- 

of a ship; — pi. aplustria, or ship at school. 

aplustra. Cratim. or -em, ace; -e, abl. : a 

Arbitrator, n&m. ; -urn, ace; -u< hurdle;— pi. crates, -ium, ibus 

abl.; judgment. Cetos, ace; a whale ; — ccte, nam. 

Aicc.Sbitu, abl.; a sending for. and ace. pi. 




Ohaos, nam., ace ; chao, abl. • 

Cassera, ace. : casse, abl. : a net ; 

pi. entire. 
Circumspectus, nom.; -urn; -u ; a 

looking around. & 

.Coactu, abl. • constraint. 
Daps, nom.; scarcely used: dapis, 

gen. $c. ; a feast. 
*Datu, abl. ; a giving. 
Derisui, dat. ; -um, ace ) -n, abl. ; 

Despicatui, dat.: contempt. 
Dica, nom. '• dicam, ace. ; a legal 

process ; — dicas, ace; pi. 
Dicis, gen. ; as, dicis gratia, for 

form's sake. 
Ditionis, gen. ; -i, dat.; -ent, ace. ; 

-e, abl. ; power. 
Diu, abl.; in the day time. 
Divisui, dat.; a dividing. 
Ebur, ivory ; — not used in the 

*Efflagitatu, abl. ; importunity 
*Ejectus, nom. ; a throwing out. 
Epos, nom. and ace. ; an epic poem. 
Ergo, abl. (or adv.); for the sake. 
Eseedas, ace. pi.; war chariots. 
Evectus, nom.; a carrying out. 
Ftex, dregs, wants gen. pi. 
Fnr^e, abl'.; hunger. 
Far, corn, not used in the gen., 

dat. and abl. pi. 
Fas, nom.; ace; right. 
Fauce. all. ; the throat ; — pi. 

entire. ' 
Fax, a torch, "wants gen. pi. 
Eel, gall, wants gen. pi. 
Feminis, gen. ; -i, dat. ; -e. abl. ; 

the thigh ; — pi. fetnina, -ibus. 
Flictu, abl.; a striking. 
I'oria, nom. and gen.; -em, ace.) -e, 

abl.; a door ; — pi. entire. 
Fors, nom.; -tis, gen.; -tem, ace: 

-te, abl. ; chance. 

*Frustratui, abl.; a deceiving. 
Fv\ix, fruit, nom.; scarcely used ; 

— frugis, gen., etc. 
Fulgetras, ace. pi.; lightning. 
Gausape, nom., ace., abl.; a rough 

garment ; — gausapa, dec. pi. 
Glos, nom.; a husband '« sister . 
Grates,; — gratibus, abl.; 

Hebdomadam, ace; a week. 
Hiems, winter, not us«d in gen., 

dat. and abl. pi. 
Hippomanes, nom. and ace. 
*Hir, nom.; the palm of the hand. . 
Hortatu, abl.; an exhorting ;— pi. 

Impetis, gen.; -e, abl. ; a shock ; 

— pi. impetibus. 
Incitas, or -a, ace. pi. ; as, ad in- 

citas redactors, reduced to a 

*Inconsultu, abl.; without adricc. 
*Indultu, abl.; indulgence. 
Inferice, nom. pi. ; -as, ace. ; -is, 

abl.: sacrifices to the dead. 
Infitias, ace. pi.; <* denial; as, 

ire infitias, to deny. 
Ingratiis,, (used adverbi- 
ally); against one's will. 
Interdiu, abl. (or -adv.); in the 

day time. 
*Invitatu, abl.; an invitation. 
Irrisui, dat.; -urn, ace; -u, abl.; 

Injussu, abl. ; without command. 
Inquies, nom.; restlessness. 
Instar, nom., ace; a liksness. 
Jovis, nom., rarely used ; — pi. 

Jugeris, gen.; -e, abl. ; an acre; 

— pi. jugera, -urn, -ibus. 
Jussu, abl.; command. 
Labes, a spot, wants gen. pi. 
Lucu, abl.; day -light. 
*Ludificatui, dat.; a mockery. 




Lux, light, "wants gen. pi. 
Mandatu, abl.; a command. 
Mane, nom., ace; mane or rarely 

-i, abl.: the morning. 
Mel, honey, not used in gen., dat. 

and abl. pi. 
Melo's, now., ace. ; melo, dat. ; 

melody; — mele, nom,. a'ce. pi. 
Metus, fear, not used in gen., dat. 

and abl pi. 
Missu, abl.; a sending; — pi. miss- 
us, -ibus. 
Monitu, abl. ; admonition ; — pi. 

Natu, abl.; by birth. 
Nauci, gen., with non ; as, homo 

non nauci, a man of no account. 
Nefas, nom., ace; wickedness. 
Nemo, nobody, wants the voc. and 

the pi ; gen. & abl. rarely used. 
Nepenthes, nom., ace; an herb. 
Nex, death, wants the roc; — neces, 

nom., ace. ph. 
Nihil, or nihilum, nom. and ace. ; 

-\,gen.; -o, abl.: nothing. 
Noctu, abl.; by night. 
Nuptui, dat.; -um, ace; -u, abl.; 

Obex, nom. ; -icem, ace. ; -ice or 

-jice,' abl; a bolt ; — pi. obices, 

Objectum, ace; -u, abl.; un inter- 
position : — pi. objectus. 
Obtentui, dat.; -um, ace; -u, abl.; 

a pretext- 
Opis, gen.; openyacc; ope, abl.) 

help ? — pi. entire. 
Oppositu, abl. ; an opposing ; — pi. 

oppositus, ace 
Opus, nom., ace ; need. 
Os, the mouth, wants the gen, pi. 
Panaces, nom.; -is, gen.; -e, abl. ; 

an herb. 
Pax, peace, wants gen. pi. 
Peccatu, abl.; a fault. 

Pecudis, gen.; -i, dal.; -em, ace : 

-e, abl.; — pi. entire. 
Pelage, ace. pi. of pelagus ; the 

Permissu, abl. ; -um, ace. ; per- 
Piscatus, nom. ; -i, gen. ; -um, 

ace; -u, abl.; a fishing. 
Pix, pitch ; pices, ace. pi, 
Pondo, abl.; in weight. 
Prcci, dat. ; -em, ace; -e, aSt. ; 

prayer ; — pi. entire. 
Procer, nom.; -em, ace; a peer; 

— pi. entire. 
Promptu, abl.; readiness. 
Pus, wants gen., dat. and abl. pi. 
Relatum, ace; — u, a*bl; a recital. 
Repetundarum, gen. pi.; -is, abl.; 

money taken by extortion. 
Rogat.u, abl.; a request. 
Ros, dew, wants gen. pi. 
Rus, the country, wants gen., dat. 

and abl. pi. 
Satias, ; -atem, ace. ; ate, 

abl. ; satiety. 
Secus, nom., ace; sex. 
Situs, nom.; -um, ace ; -u, abl. ; 

situation ; — situs, nom. and uec. 

Situs, nom.; -us, gen.; -um, ace.; 

-u. abl.; rust; — sitns arc. pi. 
^ol, the sun, wants gen. pi 
Sordis, gen.; -em, ace; -e and -i, 

abl.; filth; — pi. sordes, -ium. 
Suboles, offspring, wants gen. pi. 
Spontii, gen. ; -e, abl. ; of one's 

own accord. 
Suppetiap, nom. pi. ; -as, ace. ; 

Tabum, nom. : -i, gen. ; -o, aid. j 

cotrupt matter. 
Tempo, worn., ace.; av<;ii 

in Thessaly. 
Tus, wants gen., dat. and abl 


Venui and -b, dat.; um, ace, -o, Vespera, nom. ; -am, ace. ; -a, 

abl.; sale. abl.; the evening. 

Veprein, ace; -e, abl.; a brier;— Virus, nom. ; -i, gen. ; -up, ace. : 

pi. entire. ' -o, abl.: poison. 

Verberis, gen.; -e, abl.; a stripe; Vis, gen. and dat. rare; strength : 

— pi. verbcra, -um, -ibus. pi. vires, -ium, etc. See $ 4 5. 

Vesper, nom.; -um, ace; -e , -i, Vigcus, nom.; -eris, gen.; -ere, 

or -o, abl.; the evening. abl. ; an internal organ ; pi. 

Vicis, gen. ; -i, dat. ; -em, ace. ; viscera, etc. 

-e, abl. ; change ; — pi. entire, Vocatti, abl.; a calling; — vocatus. 

except gen. ace. pi. 


§ 52. 1. All verbs that have ere (penult long) in the In- 
finitive-Present are of the second conjugation. 

2. The perfect-stem in verbs of this conjugation is usu- 
ally formed by adding u, and the supine-stem by adding it, 
to the present-stem; as, mon-eo, I advise; monu4, I have 
advised, supine mon-it-um. (Perfect and supine stems 
which are otherwise .formed will be given in the vocabu- 



Singular. Plural. 

1st Pers. 2nd.. 3rd. 1st Pers 2nd.- 3rd. 

Present. eo, es, et, c mus, e tis, ent. 

Imperfect, e bam, e bas, e bat, e ba mus, e ba tis, e bant. 
Future. e bo, e bis, e bit, . eb i mus, eb i tis, e bunt. 


Singular. Plural. 

1st Pers. 2nd. 3rd. 1st Pers. ' 2nd.. 3rd. 

Present-perf. i, is ti, it,, i mus, is tis, c runt or c re 

Pa3t-perf. e ram, e ras, e rat, e ra musi e ra tis, e rant. 

Future-perf. ero, eris, e rit, er i mus, «• i tis, e rint. 







I advise, 
mo neo, 
mo net, 
mo ne raus, 
mo ne tis, 
mo nent. 

7" was advising. 

S. mo ne bam, 

mo ne bas, 

mo ne bat, 
P. mon e ba mus, 

mon e ba tis, 

mo ne bant. 

/ shall or trill advise 
'S. mo nc bo, 
mo ne bis, 
P. mo ne bit, 
mo «e6 i mus, 
mo neb i tis, 
mo ne bunt. 


Present-perfect! . 
I advised, or have advised. 

S. mon u i, 

mon u is ti, 

mon u it ; 
P. mo Tiw i mus, 

mon u is tis, 

I had advised. 

S. mo mi* e ram, 
mo nu e ras, 
mo nu e rat ; 

P. mon uera mus, 
mon uera tis, 

mon u e runt or c re. mo nu e rant. 

§ 53. EXERCISE 23. 


I shall have advised. 

S. mo nu e ro, 

mo nu e ris, 

mo nu e rit , 
P. mon u er i mus, 

mon u er i tis, 

mo nu e rint. 

nab-«re, to ftarc, hold. 

Prieb-ere, (for prae-hab-e re,) to offer, 

Lat-ere, to lie hid, (no sup.) 
Terr-ere, to frighten. 
Per-terr-cre, to frighten thoroughly, 

to terrify. 
Tim-«r«, to fear, (no sup.) 
Impetus, in, attack. 

Mov-cre, (mor — ,mot-,)to move. 
Man-ero, (mans — ,mans-,)~to remain. 
Mord-ere, (momerd — ,mors-,) to bite, champ 
Tond-«re, (totond — ,ton8-,) to shear. 
Vid-«re, (vid — ,vts-,) to see. 
Castra, orum, pi. camp. 
Frumentum,i, corn. 
Frenum,i, (g 61. I. 1. e.) bit. 
Legio, legion-is, (f.), legion. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
« Plebs nobilitattm timu^runt (§ 34, 2, Rule.) Puertau- 
rum cornibus habebat. Impetus equitum hostes terret. 
Puer librum in manu babet. Agricolse ores totonderant. 
Canig ancillam mordebit. Rex Germanorum castra move- 
rat. Plebs in regis borto reginam vidit. Leones in ipecu- 
bus, (5 48, R. 4,) latent. Magnitude periculi servos per- 
terrebit. Nautsc fluctus turbinesque non timent. Extrci- 


tus Crassi in hibernis mansit. Galli Cassaris exercitui 
frumentum praebebunt. Equi frena momordcre. Hostes 
iinpetum equitum timebant. Marius consul castra ad col- 
lem moverat. 

Translate into Latin. 

The chief of the Eduans feared the cruelty of the Hel- 
vetians. The attack of the cavalry thoroughly frightened 
the enemy's archers and slingers. The skirmishers lay hid 
in the forest. The works of Cicero the orator delight the 
poet. The farmers had not sheared their sheep. The 
horses were champing their bits. The King and Queen 
remained in the temple. The Helvetians had moved their 
camp from the hill to the river. The Grauls furnished corn 
to Caesar's army. 


§54. 1. An adjective is a word which qualifies or 
limits the meaning of a noun. 

2. Adjectives are declined like nouns ; they are ei- 
ther of the first and second declension, or of the third 


§55. Adjectives of this class have their masculine 
and neuter endings of the second declension, their femi- 
nine endings of the first. ' 


Bon-us, bon-a, bon-um, good. 





bon us, 

bon a, 

bon nm, 

bon i, 

bon », 

bon i, . 

bon o, 

bon as, 

bon o,> 

bon am, 

bon am, 

bon nm, 

bon e, 

bon a, 

bon um, 

bon o, 

bon a, 

bon o. 



bon i, 

bon sb, 

£>o/i a, 

bon o rum. 

bon a rum, 

bon o rum, 

bon is, 

bon is, 

Jew is, 

bon 08, 

6ora as, 

bon a, 

bon i, 

6on se, 

oora a, 

bon is, 

bon is, 

ion is. 

Rem. 1. Participles and pronouns in us aro declined like bo?ius. 

Rem. 2. Adjectives whose stems end in cr generally drop the end- 
ings us in the nominative, and e in the vocative ; aud most of them 
drop e of the stem in inflection ; as, puloher, pulchra, pulchrum, 
beautiful; pulchr-i, pulohr-ce, pulchr-i, &c. 

Rem. 3. The, following retain e of the stem : 

Asper; rough ; exter, foreign ; gibber, crook-backed ; lacer, torn ; 
liber,/re«; miser, wretched-, prosper, prosperous ; and compounds of 
fer and ger ; as, corniger, horned. 

Rem. 4. Alter, the other of two, .has altera, alterum ; and dexter, 
right, has sometimes dextera, dexterum. 

Satur, full, has satura, saturum. 

$ 56. Six adjectives in us, and three in er, have their genitive sin- 
gular in ius, and their dative in i, in all the genders : 
Alius, another. Totus, whole. Alter, -tera, -terum, the othtr. 
Nullus, no one. Ullus, any. Uter, -tra, -trum, which of the tiro. 

Solus, alone. Unus, one. Neuter, -tra, -trum, neither. 

To these may be added the other oompounds of uter, — namely, 
uterque, each of two ; utercumque, uterlibet, and ulervis, which of the 
two you please ; gen. utriusque. etc. — also, alteruter, one of two ; 
gen. alterutrius, and sometimes alterius vtriu's; dat. alterutri. So 
alteruterque, aud unusquisque. 

Nullus, solus, totus, ullus, and unus are thus declined : 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 


u nus, 

u na, 

u num, 


u ni us, 

u ni us, 

u ni us, 


u ni, , 

u ni, 

v ni, 


u num, 

u num. 

u num, 


u ne, 

u na, 

v num, 


u no. 

u na. 

m no. 

Tbe plural is regular, 

like that of bonus. 



Rem. 1. Alius has aliud in the nominative and accusative singu- 
lar neuter, and in the genitive alius contracted 1 for aliius. 

Ron. 2. Some of these adjectives occasionally form their genitive 
and dative regularly. 

§ 57. x EXERCISE 24. 


Alt-us, a, um, high, deep. Bemgn-us, a, am. kind. 

Long-us, a, um, long. Fid-us, a, um, faithful. 

Lat-us, a, um, broad. Iniprob-us, a, um, wicked. 

Magn ; us, a, um, great, large. Imqus, a, um, unjust: 

Mult-us, a, 6m, inuch, many. Judex, judic-is, jud^re. 

Dens-us, a, um, thick. Thrax, Thracis, Thracian. 

1. Rule of Position. The adjective, unlesi emphatic, 
follows the noun which it limits ; as, puer bonus, a good 

2. Rule of Syntax. Adjective words agree with the 
nouns to which they refer in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Puer bonus, A good boy. 

J'u.eU.&.pulchra, A beautiful girl. 
Flumen latum, A bread river. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Rex Thracum in colle turres altas sedificat. Filius im- 
probus patrem lapide vulneraverat. 

Silvae densse nuncios regmae terruerunt. Ven«tor canes 
fidos amat. Improbi homines faciem vultumque.judicis 
timent. Plebes iniquum judicem formidat. Nubes densao 
lunam obscuraverant. JEquites hostium flumen latum 
tranabunt. Agricolas filii bobus magnis agros aravere. 
Caesar multa oppida expugnavit. • Puer cultrum longum in 
manu habuit. Pueri boni parentes amant. Magister be- 
nignus bonis pueris libros dedit. 

» , Translate into Latin. 
The consul slew many robbers. The kind mother gives 


food to her children. The wicked consul killed the tribunes 
of the people. The chief of the Thracians lay hid in the 
King's grove. The shepherd armed his sons with lopg 
knives. The enemy's skirmishers swam across a broad riv- 
er. The faithful servants defended their master with knives 
and stones. The attack of the enemy did not frighten the 
general. The great commander slew many captives. The 
hunter saw many wolves in the forest. Wicked men do 
not fear the countenance of an unjust jadge. The kind 
master, according to custom, was advising the boys. 

§ 58. I. Ride of Position. When a noun is limited by 
an adjective and a genitive, the adjective is generally put 
first, as, Jidus Tullii servus, Tulhj s faithful slave. 

2. Ride of Position An adjective limiting the object 
of a preposition is often put before the preposition ; as, 
magno in proelio, in a great battle. 

o. Rule of Syntax. With words expressing a part, the 
genitive is used to denote the whole ; as, unus militum, one 
of the soldiers; mutti equitum, many of the horsemen. 

Remark. This is usually called the partitive genitive. 
The partitive word, if an adjective, agrees in gender with 
the word denoting the whole. Unus militam is equivalent 
to unus miles militam. 

. Translate into English and analyze. 
Magnac hostium copiac in silva latu/runt. Magna pars 
nobilitatis apud Crassum coenabant. Cives multi magna 
in urbe habitant. Consul in hostium castris multos mili- 
tes vidit. Pastor oves multosque agnorum totonderat. Ibi- 
perutor magnus uno in prcelio copias hostium fugavit. Alter 
fratrum magnum ad oppidum festinat. Una Romanorum 


s , » , , 

legio totum hostium exercitum perterruit. Neutra ancil- 
larum canes timet. Gerjnoni in proelio nullum ordinem 
servant. Rex Thracum nullam reipublica3 (§ 50) legem vio- 
laverat. Una in urbe homines multi habitant. Impetus 
hostium nullius legienis ordmes turbavit. 

Translate into Latin. 

The Thracians will furnish corn to the consul's great ar- 
my. One of the skirmishers saw the enemy's horsemen in 
the dense forest. The shepherd's faithful dog defended 
the sheep from (a) the wolves. The general, after the 
manner of a king, demanded a great number of hostages. 
The whole army dreaded the cruelty of the general. The 
inhabitants of the whole village feared the farmer's big 
bull. Caesar feared no danger. A great multitude of foot- 
men hastened to the camp. 


§ 59. Class II. Adjectives having two endings in 
the nominative. Third Declension, 

Adjectives of the second class have is in the mascu- 
line and feminine, and e in the neuter, and are of the 
third declension. 

Paradigm. Brev-is, short. 
Singular. Plural. 

M. & F. 


M. &F. 


N. V. brev is, 

brev e, 

brev es, 

brev ia, 

G. brev is, 

brev is, 

brev ium, 

brev ium, 

D. brev i, 

brev 1 , 

brev ibus, 

brev ibus, 

Ac. . brev em, 

brev e, 

brev es, 

brev ia, 

Ab. brev i, 

brev i, 

brev ibus, 

brev ibus. 

Rem. 1. Comparatives may be considered of this class. 

Rem. 2. Adjectives which have e in the nominative neuter, have i 
in the ablative singular; ium in gen. pi. ; and ia in nom. ace. voc. 
pi. neut. Comparatives have um and a. 


Rem. 3. The following have also er in the nominative Singular 
masculine ; as, acer ot acris, acris, acre. 

acer, sharp. celeber, famous. Silvester, woody. 

alacer, cheerful. equester, of a horse. terrestcr, of the earth. 

campester, of the paluster, marshy. volucev, winged. * 

plain. ■ pedester, on foot. salwber, wholesome,, 

celer, swift. puter, rotten. 

R>m. 4. Voluccr has um in the genitive plural. 

§60. EXEKCISE 26. 

Vocabulary. * 

Fort-is, e, brave. Adventus, us, arrival. 

Agil-is, e, active. Fatig-are, to weary. 

Crudel-is, e, cruel. Civitai, civitat-is, state.. 

Grav-is, e, heavy, sevtPe. Locus,i, [g 51, 1, 1, (b)] place-* 

Omn-is, e, all, every. Leria, e, light, tlight. 

Nobil-is, e, noble. Piger, g»a, gnim, lazy. 

Rem. The adjective is often used as a noun, the noun 
•with which it agrees being omitted ; as, boni, the good ; 
bona, good things, property. Masculine adjectives thus 
used express persons ; neuter adjective, things. 

m Translate into English and analyze. 

Imperator fortis centuriones omnes convocavit. Magister 
bonus omnes pueros monuerat. Servi agiles taurum corn- 
ibus habebant. On era gravia magnos agricolae boves fati'- 
gant. Materfamilias liberis strvisque omnibus cibum salw- 
brem dabit. . Puer manum cultro secuit. Pedestres Car- 
thaginiensium copiaj equites fortes fugaveratit. Bella 
longa multas civitates ferro ignique vastavere. Princeps 
noDifis apud regem coenaverat. Deus omnia creavit. Boni 
gravia bella fornndant. Latrones improbi multos cives 
trucidaverunt. Velites agiles multos silvarum tramites ex 
plorabunt. Canis fidus per totam noctem vigilat. Equites 
palustria loca timent. 

Translate into Latin, 
The cruel chief has slain all the captives with the sword. 


All the citizens dreaded the great cruelty of the wicked 
king. Lazy slaves love short days and' light work. One 
of the swift horsemen is hastening to (ad) the camp of 
Cassar. The active sailors were fastening the yards to the 
masts with long ropes. The arrival of*the brave consul 
thoroughly frightened all the chiefs of the Gauls. Lazy 
boys do not love their books. Csesar's army laid waste 
many states of Graul. The farmer's lazy son loves the shade 
of the thick trees. The brave general fears no danger. 
Caesar put all the legions into winter-quarters. 


§ 61. Class III. Adjectives of the Third Declension. 
One Ending, 

1. Adjectives of this class have but one ending' for 
all genders in the nominative. 

felix, happy.- 



M. &F 


M. & F. . 


N. fe lix, 

fe lix, p 

fe lie es, 


G. fe lie is, 

is. . 

fe lie ium, 


D. fe lie i. 


fe lie ibus, 


Ac. fe lie em, 

fe lix, w j 

fe lie es, 


V. fe lix, 

fe lix, 

fe lie es, 


Ab. fe lice orl. e or i. 

■ fe lie ibus, 



prudent. , 


M. &F. 




pru dens, 




pru dent is, 


dent is, 


pru dent i, 


dent i, 


pru dent em. 





pru den.s, 




pru dent e or i, 


dente or i ;' &c. 


2.. Present participles are declined like prudens. When used as 
participles they have c rather than i in the. ablative singular ; but 
when used as adjectives they have * rather than c. Comparative- 
ateo have oftener e than i. 

3. Adjectives of one termination have either e or i in the ab- 

Exc. 1. The following adjectives of one termination have only c 

in the ablative: # 

Eicorpor, bipes, coslebs, compos, deses, discolor, hospes, impos, 
impwbes, juvenis, locuples, pauper, princeps, pubcr or pubes, senex. 
sospes, superstes, tricorpor, tricuspis, and tripes. 

Exc. 'J. The following adjoctives of one termination have only e 
in the ablative : 

Aueeps, concors, discors, hebes, immemor, iners, ingens, inops, 
memor, par, prrccepg, recens, repens, vigil, and most adjectives in 
x, especially those in plez. 

Rem. 1. Inerte. recente, and precipe sometimes occur. 

Rem. 2. Pra'sens, when used of things, makes the ablative in t; 
when used of persons, it has c. 

4. The neuter of the nomiuative and accusative plural ends in 
e'a, and the genitive plural of all genders in iuvi; but vctus, old, and 
uber, fertile, have a, and um. 

Exc. 1. Those adjective that have only e in the ablative singular, 
have um in the genitive plural. * 

Exc. 2. Compounds of facio and capio, and of such nouns as make 
um in their genitive plural, with celer, compar, cicur, dives, memor, 
immemor, prcapes, supple?, and vigil, make their genitive plural in 

Exc. 3. Bis, locuples, sons, and insons have either um or ium : and 
other adjectives have sometimes um instead of ium in the poets and 
later prose writers. 

§ 62 EXERCISE 27. 


Dives, divit-i.-., rich. . Ineens, ent is, huge. 

Ferax, ac-is, fertile. Augvre. (aux-.-nict -.)(., inoreas . swell, 

Inndcens, ent-is, innocent. ' Ferox,'ferooifl, warlike, ft, 

£aup«r, pauperis, poor. Atrox, atroo-is, terYi^t'. yueli 

Vetts, veter-Is, ancient; pi. *6teres, the Recons. ent-is, r 
ancients. Civtlis/e, civil. 


Translate into English and analyze. 

Imbres recentes flumina omnia auxerunt. Yir bonus 
pauperibus cibum dabit. Pastor prudens oves agnosqu^e 
a lupis defensabit^". Orgetorix, princeps Helvetiorum, co- 
pias auxerat. Veteres Jovi tauros ingentes mactabant. 
Agricolae prudentes in penum mergites omnes portant. Cae- 
sar fortes centuriones laudabat. Marius, Romanorum 
iniperator, feraces Numidiae agros ferro ignique vastavit. 
Princeps crudelis innocentem plebem trucidavit.' Bella 
civilia nobilitatem et eives divites perterruerant, Princi- 
pes feroces atrocia bella amant. Rex ferox nobilitatem "ad 
bellum magnum et atrox concitavit. 

Translate into Latin. 

No prudent (man) will give his sheep to the wolves. The 
happy mother loves her children. The innocent do not 
fear the face and countenance of a judge. The consul will 
preserve the ancient laws of the commonwealth. The pru- 
dent shepherds had sheared their sheep. A terrible lion 
tore in pieces all the inhabitants of the village. The ene- 
my's soldiers had laid waste the whole city with fire and 
sword. The rich dread civil wars. The recent rains have 
swelled the gi;eat river. The poor (man) does not fear the 


§63. 1. Adjectives expressing number are called 
numerals, and are divided into three classes, viz. : 
(a.) Cardinals, which answer the. question " How 

many V* as, unus, one ; duo, two : 

(b.) Ordinals, which express order or rank ; as, pri- 
mus, first; secundus, second: 




(c.) Distributives, which answer the question, " Hoio 
many to each?" — u How many apiece?" as, singuli, 
one to each, one at a time, one apiece ; bini, two apiece. 

2. To these may be added numeral adverbs, which 
answer the question " How many times ?" as, semel, 

once ; bis, twice. 




One, two, $c. 

First, second, fyc. 

One by ont 

, §c. Once, twice, §c 

1 Umi8 - . 




2 Duo 




3 Tres 




4 Quatuor 




5 Quinquc 

Quint us 


• Quinquics 

6 Sex 


Feni • 


7 Septem 


• Septani 


8 Octo 




9 Novcin 




10 Decom 




11 Undccim 




12 Duodecim 




IS Tredecim 

Tortius- ") 



14 Quatuordecim 

Quartus- | 


Quatuordcciv sa 

15 Quindceim 

Quintus- J 



16 Sexdecim 

Sextus- V decimus 


■ deni Sedecies • 

17 Septendecim 

Septimus- j 


Decies & septies 

IS Octodecim 

Octavus- 1 



19 Novendeciru 

Nonus- J 


I Undevicies 

'JO Viginti 




30 Tringinta * 




40 Quadraginta 




50 Quinquaginta 



ai Quinqnagie8 

60 Sexaginta 




70 Septuaginta 




80 Octoginta 




90 Nonaginta 




160 Centum 




200 Ducenti 




300 Trecenti 




400 Quadrmgenti 



jteni Quadringenties 

500 Quingenti 



li Quingenties 

600 Sexccnti 




700 Septingenti 



«ni Septingenties 

R0e Octingenti 



ni Octingentie:* 

990 Noningenti 



i Nongentie* 

1000 Millc 




Rem. 1. The first three cardinal numbers are declined. 
From four to a hundred they are indeclinable ; those de- 
noting hundreds are declined like the plural of bonus. 

73 NUMERALS. A % 64 

Rem. 2. For the declension of unus. See § 56. Tres is 
declined like the plural of brevis. 
§ 64. Duo is thus declined : — 



y F. 



du o, 

du 33, 

du o, 


du o rum, 

du a rum, 

du o rum, , 


du o bus, 

du a bus, 

du o bus, 


<&6 OS, or c7« o, 

ffai as, 

C?M 0, 


die o, 

1 1 it to« 

du o, 


du o bus. 

du « bus. 

du o bus. 

Rem. 1. Duorum,duarum, are often contracted into duurn, especi- 
ally in compounds, as, duumvir, and when joined with milliuin. — 
Ambo, both, is declined like duo. 

The cardinal numbers, except unus and wz7Ze, are used in the 
plural only. 

Rem. 2. The plural of turns is used with nouns which have -no 
singular, or whose singular has a different sense from the plural ; 
as, unce nuptice, one marriage ; una castra, one camp. It is used 
also with nouns denoting several things considered as one whole j 
una vestimenta, one suit of clothes. So, also, when it takes the sig- 
niflcation of '« alone " or "the same;'' as, uni JJbil, the Ubiaus 
alone ; tints moribus vivcre, — with the same manners. 

3. (a.) Thirteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen, are 
often expressed by two numbers, the greater of which usually pre- 
cedes, united by et ; thus, decern ct tres, decern et novem, or, omitting 
et, decern novem. Octodecim has no good authority. See infra, 4. 

(6.) From twenty to a hundred, the smaller number with ct is pat 
first, or the greater without et ; as, unus ct viginti, or viginti v 
Above one hundred, the greater precedes, with or without et ; as, 
centum et turns, or centum unus y trecentf sexuginta sex, or irecenii c. 
scxaginta sex. 'Et is never twice used, but the poets sometimes tako. 
ac,atque, or que, instead of et. 

4. For eighteen, twenty eight, &c, duodeviginti, duodetn'j. 
(Jtco-from-ttventg, two-frorn-thirty, §c.) are more commonly used ; and 
for nineteen, twenty nine. &c. ; undeviginti undeiriginta. Sf6. (one-from- 


twenty, one-from-thirty, &c.) Neither tin [tmut) .nor duo are de- 
clined in these combinations. 

5.- (a.) Thousands are generally expressed by prefixing the small- 
er cardinal numbers to millia ,• as, decern millia, ten thousand : 
centu millia, two hundred thousand. As there is in Latin no unit 
above mille,(p, thousand,) the higher units of modern numeration are 
expressed by prefixing the humeral adverbs to the combinations 
centena millia ; as, decics centena millia, a million; .ratlin centena. 
millia, ten millions. In such combinations ccntena millia is some- 
times omitted ; as, dccic.a, scil, centena millia. 

(b.) The poets sometimes mako use of numeral adv»rbs in express- 
ing smaller nil tubers ; &*, bix scr for duodeevmy bis centum for du- 
cent;, etc. 

G. Millc is used either as a substantive or as an adjective. 

(a.) When taken subtantively, it is indeclinable in the singular 
uuinber, and, in the plural, has millia, millium, millibus, etc ; as, 
mille hominum, a thousand men; duo* millia hominum, two thousaud 
men, etc. When mille is a substantive, the things numbered are put 
in' the genitive, as in the preceding examples, unless a declined nu- 
meral comes between ; as, habuit tria millia trecento^ ntitiies. 

[b.) As an adjective, faille is plural only, and indeclinable ; 
m tile homines, a thousand men ; cum bis mille homivibns, with two 
thousand men. H 

\ 65. i. In the ordinals, instead or primus, j>rior is used, if only 
tyo are spoken of. Alter is often used for secundes. 

2. (a.) From thirteenth to Nineteenth, the smaller number is usu- 
.ally put first without el ; as, tei'tius deriving, but sometimes the 
greater with or without ct ; as s et tertins. or decimus t< > 

(b.), Twenty-first, thirty-first, etc,, are often expressed by um 
/nus, units et trieesimi's, etc., one 'and twentieth, etc.; and twenty- 
second, i tc., b} r duo, or alter it vicfsinius. etc., in which duo is not 
changed. In the other compound 1 numbers, the larger precedes with- 
out et, or the smaller with ct ; as, vircsimus quartus, or qi 
■ uias. 

{c}) $pr eighteenth, etc., to ia'iy-eighl, and for niiiytecuib, etc., 
to fifty-ninth, the stibtr active forms, duodevicesimus, etc., ac 
'nus, etc.. are often used. \ 


3. In the distributives, eighteen, thirty-eight, forty eight, and 
nineteen and twenty-nine, are often expressed by the subtractives, 
duodcviceni, etc., undcviceni, etc. 

4. (a.) Distributives are sometimes used by the poets for cardinal 
numbers : as, bina spicula, two darts. Virg. So likewise in prose, 
with nouns that want the singular ; as, binos nuptice, two weddings. 

(6.) The singular of some distributives is used in the sense of 
multiplicatives ; as, binm, two-fold. So ternus, quinus, septenus. 

5. In the numeral adverbs, for the intermediate numbers 21, 22, 
etc., the larger number also may be put first, either with or without 
et; and for twenty-eight times'and thirty-nine times, duodetricies and 
widequadragies are found. 

§66. 1. Rule of Syntax. The point of time at which 
any thing occurs is expressed by the ablative. As, tertia 
hora, at the third hour. (Ablative of Time.) 

2. Rule of Syntax. Duration of time, and extent of 
space, are the accusative, sometimes by the 
ablative. As, tres horas mansit, he remained three hours ; 
fossa duos pedes lata, a ditch two feet wide. 

3. Rule of Position. Designations of time usually pre- 
cede the predicate. 


Fossa, a?, ditch. Passus, us, pace. 

Hora, act, hour. Con-tin -«re, (tinu-, tent-,) to keep, hold in, 
Mensis, is, (g 33. Exc. 3.) month. restrain. 

Dies, ei, day. Sus-tin-ere, (tinu-, tent-,) to sustain, bear. 

Ann us,, i, year. Tempus, or-is, time. 

Una ex parte, on one side. No.stcr, a, urn, our. 

Hienis, hiem-is, winter. JEsws, a*stat-is, summer. 

Translate into English and analyze. ' 
Servi fidi ho'ras multas vigilaverant. Nullus agrieola 
prudens oves hieme toadebit. Co3sar,Romanorum inipera- 
i r, tres legiones in hibernis* collocavit. Consul multos 

* In kibemis refers to the resting of trcops in winter-quarters ; in hiberna, to the 

motion of going there. 

§67 ESSE, TO BE. 75 

annos in urbe habitaverat. Mons ftltns una ex parte Hel- 
vetios continuit. Equites nostri hostium impetuni duas 
horas sustinummt. Pastor prudens oves omnes estate to- 
tondit. Legatus fortis decern dies Csesaris adventum ex- 
pectabat. Imperator tertio die castra movit. Princeps 
atrox multos menses civitatem perterrebat Consul fortis 
nullo anni tempore adventnm bostium timuit. Rex latro- 
nes omnes brevi tempore trucidavit. Crassus tria niillia 
passuum equitavit. Consul mille passus castra movit. 
Translate into Latin. 
The great rains had kept our soldiers in the camp many 
months. In one summer Csesar laid waste many States of 
Gaul with fire and sword. For many years (ace.,) the Ro- 
mans routed all their enemies by sea and land. Cjesar 
moved his camp ten thousand paces from the city. The 
soldiers of the tenth legion had carried heavy burdens for 
many hours (ace.) Our skirmishers sustained the attack 
of the Germans three hours. Lake Lemannus held-in the 
Helvetians on one side. The farmer had a ditch tkree feet 
wide in his field. The farmer will have in his fields five 
ditches, each three feet (temos) vide. The- master gave (to) 
the boys four books apiece. A ditch twelve feet wide and 
six feet deep had hindered the attack of the enemy many 

§ 67. 1. PARTIAL PARADIGM OP ESSE, to be. 

Present Tense. 


of 1 - su,n ' ^««»i «i mus, we arc, 

(1. sum, I am, 
2. es, thou art, 
3. est, he is • 

es Us, ye or you arc, 
sunt, they arc. 



1. e ram, I was, e ra mus, we were, 

2. e ras, thou toast, e ra tis, ye or yow. were, 

3. i? rat, Ae teas ■ e rant, ^<>y were. 

Future. s7ia//, or «m'o\ 

1. e ro, I shall be, cr i mus, we shall be, 

2. c ris, if Aou wtW be. er i tis, ye or you will be, * 
8. e rit, Ae wn7J be ; e runt, iAey «?z7Z be. 

^Present-perfect, have been, or was. 

1. /m i, I have'been, fu i mus, ice have been, 

::. fu w ti, £/tow Aasi 6ec^, fu is tis, ye eave been, 

r >. /« it, helms been, fu e runt or re, 7Aey Aave Aec?2. 


1. fu e ram, T had been, fu e r« mus, ive had been, 

2. fu e ras, thou hadsl been. f u e ra tis, ye had been, 

3. /u e rat, he had been j /w e rant, £Aey Aad 6ee». 

Future -perfect. sAa// or e0j£# Aave. 

1. fu e ro, I shall have been, fu er i mus, we shall have been, 

•2. fu e ris, thou ivilt have been, fu er i tis, ye will have been, 

Z. fue rit, Ae wn7Z have been ; . /« e rint, they will have been. 

2. A noun or adjective may limit the predicate as well 
as the subject ; thus we may say Cicero orator, Cicer,o the 
orator ; and Cicero orator fuit, Cicero was an orator ; ager 
ferax, a fertile field, and ager ferax est, the field is fertile. 


3. Rule of Syntax. A noun in the predicate denoting 
the same thing as the subject, agrees with it in case, and is 
called the predicate nominative ; as, Cicero orator fuit, 
Cicero was an orator. * 

Rem. 1. If the subject consists of more than one thing, the pr 
cate nominative is plural. 

Mem. 2. Adjectives in the predicate agree with the subject. See 
g 57, 2. 

* The aorist-perfeci is translated. I was. thou wast, he was. we were. &c. 


£67 EXERCISE. 77 




Ditcher, a, nm, untouched, unhurt, Yulnus, vulner-ie, wound. 

fresh. Vita, se, fife. 

Humanus, a, urn, human. V< lox, veloc-is, sivift. 

Incertus, a, nm, uncertain. Csecus, a, um, mind. 

Verue, a, um, true, Mendocium,i, lie. 

Turpi*, e, base. Cornlger, n, um, horned. 

Ingens, out-is, A l'rtechuus, a, um, distinguished. 

Duplex, duflic-is', double. Acies, ei, linenfbaldr. 

Triplex, triplic-ia, triple. Kenuuciatio, cm-is, report. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Non omnia animalia cornigera sunt. Aquilarum alee 
magna) sunt. Non amines homines sapientes sunt. Res 
humgpra incertao sunt. / Vita hominum incerta est. 
Onus cquorum caucus fuit. Cassaris milites veloces fortes- 
que fiKTunt. Cassar fuit imperator magnus. Marius dux 
fuit Romanorum. Regis films rex erit. Renuneiatio leg- 
atoruni vera fuit. Aper ingens in silva habitat. Impera- 
tor in prcclio integer fuit. Vulnera militum gravia sunt. 
Consul annos rnultos caccus fuerat. Caesaris acies triplex 
fuit. Omnes decirnao legionis milites integris viribus (§ 45) 
proolium redintegraverant. Mendacia turpia sunt. Cicero 
fuit orator praccl«rus. Improborum (§ 60 Rem,) vita 
onus est grave. Gallorum acies duplex est. 
* Translate into Latin. 

The farmer's oxen are large. Many bulls are horned. 
All generals are not wise. The inhabitants of the villages 
dread the huge lion. Cicero was a wise consul and a great 
man. The wounds of the brave soldiers were severe. Ma- 
ny of the swift horsemen were unhurt. Davus, Caesar's 
slave, has been blind many years. Our soldiers in a triple 
line renew the battle. All human things are uncertain. The 
shade of the dense forest will frighten the king's swift 



§ 68. 1. The change which adjectives undergo to ex- 
press different degrees of quality is called comparison. 

2. Grammarians generally give three degrees of oom- 
parison, the positive, comparative and superlative. 

3. The simple form of the adjective is usually called 
the positive ; as, altus, high. 

4. The comparative represents the quality as existing 
in one of two things or sets of things, in a higher de- 
gree than in the other ; as, mons arbore altiof e'st, a 
mountain is higher than a tree. 

5. The superlative represents the quality as existing 
in one of several things, or sets of things, in a higher 
degree than in any of the rest ; as, trium montium altis- 
simus, the highest of the three mountains. 

Rem. 1. When two qualities of the same thing are com- 
pared, the comparative is used ; as, Aristides justi6r quam 
sapientior fuit, Aristides was more just than wise. 

Rem. 2. The comparative may often be translated by too 
or rather with the positive, especially when one of the things 
compared is omitted ; as, rex clementior est, the king U too 

Rem. 3. The superlative often expresses a high degree 
of a quality ; as, mons altissimusy a very high mountain. 


§69. 1. The comparative is formed by adding ior 9 and 
the superlative by adding issimus (to the stem of the adjec- 
tive ; as, alt-us, high, alt-ior, higher, alt-issimw, highest. 

2. Superlatives are of the first and second declensions. 


_J m ; 

Comparatives are of the third declension, and are thus d© 
clined : 



M. & F. 


Mi & F. 



dur ior, 

dur ius, 

dur ior es, 

dur ior a, 


dur ior is, 

dur ior is, 

dur ior um, 

dur ior rum, 


dur ior i, 

dur ior i, 

dur ior ibus, 

dur ior ibus, 


dur ior em. 

dur ius, 

dur ior es, 

dur ior a, 


dur ior, 

dur ius, 

dur ior es, 

dur ior a, 


dur ior e or i. 

dur ior e or i. 

dur ior ibus. 

dur ior ibus. 


§ 70. 1. That with which anything is compared is con- 
nected by the conjunction quam, than, in the same case, ©r 
in the nominative, subject of est,, fyc, understood . 
as, fortiorem vidi neminem quam Marium, / have seen no 
braver man than Marius ; or fortiorem vidi neminem quam 
Mariut (est,) / have seen no braver man than Marius is. 

2. Quam is sometimes omitted ; then 

Rule of Syntax. The ablative is used with the compar- 
ative degree, when quam is omitted, to express that with 
which something is compared ; as, nions est arbore altior, 
a mountain is higher than a tree. 


Sanctus, a, um, sacred ; (of a man, pure.) Nihil, (indeclinable,) nothing. 
Damn, a, um, hard. Rogio, on-is, region. 

Nemo, nerain-is, no man. Gens, gent-is, race, nation. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Prudentiorem vidi neminem quam Marium, Roman- 
orum ducem. Lupi sunt canibus ferociores. Nulla regio 
est Gallia feracior. Nihil est jurejur-ando (§ 45) sanctius. 
Equus est bove velocior. Germani fuerunt Gallis feroci- 
ores. Nullum bellum est bellociviliatrocius.\ Nemo Roman- 
orum sanctior fuit quam Cato. Consul gentem ferociorem 



nullam videbil quam Helvetios. Caesar in exercitu" forti- 
orem habet neminem quam Lucius. Aurum gravius est 
ouam argentum.^ Ferrum^st auro durius. Nihil incertius 
est quam vita humcma. Agricola canem quam lupum feroci- 
o re in habuit. Equites quam pedites sunt velociores. 
Translate into Latin. 

The general is braver than the soldiers. The consul's 
son will be more prudent than his father. No nation was 
braver'than the Helvetians. The king's messengers are 
swifter than horses. Lions are fiercer than dogs. Nothing- 
is more sacred than the oath of a good man. A good man's 
promise is more sacred than a wicked man's oath. The 
Belgians were a braver race than the Gauls. No general 
was more prudent, than Caesar. The king's garden is more 
fertile than the farmer's field. Iron is harder than silver. 
Silver is not heavier than gold. The general is not more 
prudent than the centurion. 


§ 71., She pdrtitive genitive is used with comparatives 
and superlatives ; as, fortior duorum fratrum, the braver 
of the two brothers ; fortissimus milltum, the bravest of 

the soldiers. 


Jura, x, (masc.) Jura, (a mountain.) Ira, sa, unrjcr, wrath. 

Italia, SB, Italy. . Noster, tra, truin, our. 

Roma, se, Rome. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
* Jura, mons altissimus, (§ 69 3 Rem. 3) Helvetios una 
ex parte continet. Imperator fortissimos militum laudavit. 
Judex im'quus quam latro est turpior. Velitum velocis- 
simi omnes silv«rum tramites exploraverant. Prudentior 
duorum imperatorum copias hostium fugabit. Fortissimi 




eenturioaum magnitudinein periculi tiniebant. Orgetorix 
fuit Helvetioruni noblissimus. *Nostrorum (§ 60, Renu) 
impetus fortissimos bostium perterruerat. Jugurtha, bomo 
improbissinius, fratres trucidavit. Vulnera militum fue- 
runt gravisaima. 

- Translate into Latin. 

Tbe bravest of the enemy did not sustain the attack of 
our horsemen. The Rhine, a very broad river, keeps in 
the Helvetians on one side. The wicked king had slain 
the noblest of the hostages. The consul will lay waste the 
most fertile states of Gaul. On the third day the* general 
moved his camp into the most fertile part of the province. 
The most wicked of men fear the wrath of God. The great- 
ness of the danger frightened the bravest of our soldiers. 
The general is wiser than the king's ambassadors. One of 
the enemy wounded Lucius, a very brave man, with a stone. 
Pavus is the most faithful of all the slaves. Rome is the 
noblest city of Italy. 


§ 72. 1. Adjectives whose stems end in er form the su- 
perlative by adding rimus ; as, pulcher y beautiful, pulchrior y 

2. Six adjectives in lis form their superlative by adding 
limits to the stem : 

Facilis, facilior, facillimus, easy. 

Difficilis, difficilior, difficillimus, difficult. 

Gracilis, gracilior, gracillimus, slender. 

Humilis, humilior, humillimus, low. 

Similis, similior, simillimus, like. 

Dissimilis, dissimilior, dissimillimus, unlike. 

hnbecillus or imbecillis, weak, has two forms, imbecillissi- 
mus and imbecillimus. 




3. Compound adjectives ending in <licus 9 ficus and volus, 
form the conip. and superl. by adding entior and entissimiis 
to the stem ; as, benevolus, benevolent, benevolentior, bene- 

4. These five have regular comparatives, but irregular 
superlatives : 

Dexter, dexterior, 

Extern, {fern.) exterior, 

Postera, {fern. ) posterior, 

Inferus, inferior, 

Superus, superior, 

dextimus, right.- * 

extr^mus, or extimus, outward. 
postrcmus or postumus, hind. 
iufimus, or emus. below. 

supremus, or summus, above. 

Remark 1 . The nominative singular of postera does not 
occur in the masculine, and that of extern wants good au- 
thority, i 

5. The following are very irregular in comparison • 




good, . better, 





bad, worse. 





great, greater, 





little, less, 



plur,imus, ") 


plurima, > 
plurimum, J 

mnch, more, 






ivorthless, etc. 




frugal, etc. 

Plus, more, is thus declined : — 
Singular. Plural. 

iV. M& F. • N. 







plu ris,. 

" ■> 


N. plu res, plu ra, rarely plu ri a, 
Q. plu ri um, plu ri um, 
D. plu, ri bus, plu ri bus, 
Ac. plu fes, plu ra, 
V. ■ — , 

plu re, (obs.) ' Ab. plu ri bus, plu ri bus. 
So, but in the plural number only, complures, a great 



§73. The partitire genitive is frequently used with neu- 
ter adjectives, such as multum, plus, minimum, plurimum, 
&c. ; as, multum auri f much gold. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Principes Gallorum Csesaris exercitui plurimum frumen- 
ti prsebuerunt. Cives in domibus multum auri habent. 
Minimum virtfctis est in judice inzquo. Agricolse plus 
frumenti habent quam auri.\ Iter per Alpes difficillimum 
est. Magister optimos puerorum laudabit. Caesar maxi- 
mus fuit imperatorum Romanorum. Multum cibi coniedo- 
nem delectat. RegVnse filia est pulcherrima. Agricoloo 
boves pigerrimi sunt. Pastor minimos agnorum non to-* 

Translate into Latin. 

The great whirlwinds will clash in pieces very many of 
the ships. The poet's daughter is the most beautiful of all 
the girls. The greatest city in Italy is Rome. The soldiers 
will bring much corn into the city. The commander will 
remain in the camp the whole winter. The consults soldiers 
demanded gold from the citizens. The citizens gave (to) 
the consul's soldiers i*iore (of) wounds than (of) gold. The 
general called together the greatest of the chiefs. Caesar 
was a greater general than Crassus. 


§ 74. 1. Seven adjectives want the positive : 

Citerlor, citimus, nearer. Prior, primus, former. .' 

Deterior, deterrimus, worse. Proper, proximus, nearer. 

Interior, intimus, inner. Ulterior, ultimus, further. 
Ociftr, ocissimus, swifter. 


2. Eight want the terminational comparative : 

Consultus, consultissirnus, skillful. Par, parissimus, (very 

Intlutus, inclutissimus, renowned. rare), equal. 

InvictuS; invictissimus, invincible. Persuosus, persuasis- 

Invrtus, invitissimus, unwilling. simum (neuter) per- 

Meritus, meritissimus, (very rare), suaded. 

deserving. Sacer, eacerrimus, sa- 

o. The following want the terminational superlative ; 

Adolescens, adolescentior, young. Proclivis, procliv^or, doping. 

Agrestis, agrestior, rustic. Pronus, pronior, bending dolvn. 

Alacer, alacrior, active. Protervus, protervior, violent. 

Ater, atrior, black. Propinquus, propinquior, near. 

Ceecus, ciecior, blind. Salutaris, salutarior, salutary. 

Deses, desidior, inactive. Sati<, sufficient; satius, preferable. 

Diuturnus, diuturnior, lasting. Satur, saturior, full. 

Infim'tus, infinitior, unlimited. Senex, senior, old. 

Ingens, ingentior, great. Silvestris, silvestrior, woo'dy. 

Jejunus, jejunior, fasting, Sinister, sinisterior, left. 

Juvenis, junior, young. Supinus, supinior, lying on the 
Licens, licentior, unrestrained. back. 

Longinquus, longinquior, distant. Surdus, surdior, deaf. 

Opt'mus, opimior, rich. Teres, teretior, round. 

Rem. 1. Tke superlative of juvenis and adolescens is applied by 
minimus natu, youngest ; and that of sencx by maximus natu, oldest. 
The comparatives of minor naiu and major natu sometimes also occur. 

4. Many adjectives form the comparative and superlative by pre- 
fixing magis, more, and maxime, most ; as, pius, magis pius, maxime 
pius ; pious, more pious, most pious. This is especially the case 
with adjectives in bundus, imus, inus, orus, wus, and us with a vowel 
before it. 



§ 75. Verbs of the third conjugation hare ere (short) 
in the infinitive present ; those of the fourth conjuga- 
tion, ire. 









1. 2. 

Present, -o, -is, 
Imperfect, -e-bam, -e-bas. 
Future. -am, . -cs, 

3. 1. * 2. 3. 
-it, -i-mus, -i-tis, ' -unt. 
-«-bat, -e*-4a-mus, -e-ia-tis, -«-bant 
-et, -6-mus, -fi-tis, -ent. 














-i-c bos. 

















4.. By adding these endings to the stems reg-, rule, and 
awe?-, hear, we have the following 

Sin. 2. 







/ rule. 

J was ruling. 

/ shall or will rule 

re go," 

S. re <je bain, 

S. re gam, 

re gis, 

re go ba.;, 

re ges, 

re git ; 

re ye'bat ; 

re get ; 

reg i mus, 

P. reg c ha mu-. 

P. re ft' mus, 

re i tis,' 

reg e ba tis, 

re yc tis, 

re gunt, ' 

io at bant- 

re gent, 






/ hear. 

au di o, 
an (lis, 
aw'dit ; 
au di mus, 
au di tis, 
au di unt. 

I was hearing. 

S. au di e bam, 
au di e bas, 
au di e bat ; 

F. au di e ba mus, 
au di e ha tfs, 
au di e bant. 

/ shall or tw'W Acar. 

S. au di am, 

<m di es, 

aw di et ; 
P. nu di c mus, 

au di e tis, 

at* di ent. 

5. The endings of the perfect tenses are the sam* in all 
conjugations. The perfect-stem is variously formed in the 
third conjugation ;- in the fourth it is formed by adding ~iv 
to the present-stem ; as, aud-io } I am hearing ; aud-i-vi, I 
have heard. See § 47. 

6. The supine-stem is generally formed, in the third con- 
jugation by adding t to the present-stem ; in the fourth, by 

adding -it; 

as, duc-ere, duct-um , aud~?'re, aud-?'t-um. 
EXERCISE 33. • • 


Reg-ere, (rex,rect-) to rule. 
Buc-ere, (dux-, duct-) to had. 
E-dwc-er<3, (edux-, educt-) to had out. 
Re- dwe-ere, (redux-, reduct-) to had bad: 
Vert-ere, (vert,- vers-.) to turn. 

Mun-i're to fai tifu 
Pun-tre, to punish. 
Sc-t're, to know. 
Vallum, i, rampart. 

Castellum, i, tower. 

Fur, fur-is, (g39, Rem. 2,) thief, 

Finis, is, (g33, Rem. 6, Ex. 2,) boundary, 

Vigilia, se, wahh. 

Tertiufc, a, am, (233, 1, b,) third. \ , 

De, (prep, with abl.) about, concerning ; 
of time, at, after ; de tertia vigilia, at, 
or after theViird watch. 

Tergum, i, baclc. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Deus omnia regit. Imperator magnus civitates multas 
rexit. Consul annos multos (§66, 2,) provinciam rexerat. 
Consulis frater exercitus reipubjicce ducet. Princeps ferox 
plebem omnem ad bellum ducebat,. Csesar de tertia vigilia 
exercitum e castris eduxit. Marius nostros ad victoriam 
duxerat. Hostes terga vertcre. Fureslatronesque vultum 

§77 PRONOUNS. 87 

regis timent. Imper«tor castra vallo fossaque mum'vit. 
Prineeps prudens omnia Helvetiorum oppida muniet. Ma- 
rius consul exercitum ad urbem reduxit. Principes Thra- 
cum castella niulta munient. Rex fures latronesque-puni- 
<cbat. Dominus pigros servos punit. Davus nihil scit de 
legibus reipublicse. 

Translate into Latin. 

The centurion has led back many of the brave soldiers. 
All the horsemen of the enemv are turning: their backs. 
The boy rules his horse with the bridle. Our men knew 
nothing about the journey of the enem}^. Cassar was lead- 
ing the whole army through the boundaries of the iEdiiT 
ans. The consul will lead out the army from the town 
after the third watch. The great king will punish many 
thieves and robbers. The prudent general had fortified his 
camp with a rampart and ditch. One of the consuls has 
led the Romans to victory. 


§77. 1. A pronoun is a word used instead of a 

2. There are eighteen simple pronouns : 

Ego, I. • Hie, this, the latter. Suus, his, hers, Us, etc. 

Tu, thou. Is, that or he. Cujus ? whose? 

Sui, of himself, etc. Quis ? who ? Noster, our. 

Ule, that, the former. Qui, who. Vester, your. 

Ipse, himself. . Meus, my. Nostras, of our country. 

Iste, that, that of yours Tuus, thy. Cujas? of ivhat country? 

8, Of these ego, lit, an.d sui, are called 9ub$tanti -..-, be- 
cause they are used as nouns ; and personal, because t go, 
always denotes the speaker; tu, the person spoken to ; and 
! id, the person spoken of. * 





§ 78. The substantive personal pronouns are thus de- 
clined : 


tu, thou. 

tu-i, of thee. 

tib-i. to thee. 
te, (tie* 

tu, X) . '■'."■. 
te, with thee. 


N. e-go, I. 

G. me-i, of me. 

D. mi-hi, to me. 

Ac. me, me. 

V. U — — ■ 

Ab. me, with me. 

f su-i, of himself ', her' 
\ self, itself. 

sib-i, to himself, 9 &c. 

se, himself, &c. 

se, with himself &c. 


nos, we. 

vos, ye or you. 

f nos-trum 1 f ves-trum or ) r 

< . . yofus. . . V of you. 

\ or nos-tn, J J ves-tri, J J J 

D. no-bis, to its. vo-bis, to yen. 

Ac. lios, us. vos, you. 

V. vos, O ye or you. 

Ab. no-bis, with us. vo-bis, with you. 

su-i, of themselves. 

sib'-i, to themselves. 
se, themselves. 

se, ifz'i'/i themselves. 

Rem. 1. The nominatives eyo, fw, nos, vos, are expressed with the 
verb only for the sake of emphasis or contrast ; us, ego equito. tu 
c-nb'ulas ; /am riding, you are walking ; nos vocabamus, respondistis 
vos ; we were calling, ye answered. 

Rem. 2. The syllable metis annexed to all the forms of the per- 
sonal pronouns, except tu, nostrum and vestrum, for emphasis ; sese 
is- frequently used for se, beiug more emphatic ; also tute; and tute- 
met for tu. 

Rem. 3. The pronoun sui is also called reflexive, because it refers 
to the subject of the sentence ; as, puer se laudat, the boy praises 

§ 79. 1. Rule of Syntax. If the subject consist of more 
than one, the verb is plural. If the nominatives be of dif- 
ferent persons, the verb takes the first person rather than 
the second, and the second rather than* the third ; as, ego 


et tu (=nos) valemus, I and you are well ; tu et Cicero 
(==voa) valetis, yoti and Cicero are well. 

2. Rule of Position. The preposition cam is always put 
after the ablative of the substantive personal pronouns ; as, 
mecum, with me. 

3. Rale ef Position. The substantive personal pronouns, 
when connected by conjunctions to other words, stand first ; 
as, tu et rex, you and the king. 

Ego always precedes ; as, ego et rex, the king and I ; 
ego et hi, you and I. 

4. Rule of Position. Contrasted words are put as near 
together, or as far apart as possible. Nos equitamus, am- 
bulatis vos ; or, equitamus nos, vos ambulatis. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Nos equitabimus, ambulatis vos. In urbe magnam mul- 
titf^dineni hominum videbis. Ego et pater in regis horto 
coenabimus. Tu et Lucius nobiscum manebitis. Ego et 
Cicere pueris libros dabamus. Rex Th-racum tibi multum 
auri dabitjyltegincO nuncius mihi viam monstrwbit. Tu et 
Tullifts mecum ambulabatis. Ancilla sibi medicmam par- 
averat. Imperator fortis multos captj'vos secum ducet. 
Consul mercatores omnes ad se convocaverat. Poftoe car- 
mina auditmms. Sapiens sese non laudat. Ego et tu apud 
Tullium ccenab«mus, Improbi sese timenrT Puer bonus in 
urbem nos ducet. Davus, Catonis servus, sese cultro vul- 

Translate info Latin. 

In a great city we see inapy men. ' (My) father and I 
sustained the attack of the enemy many hours (§66. 2.) 
In a short time Lucius and I will have given books to all 

90 possessive pronouns- §80,81 

the boys. I rude, you* walked. You and Tully will re- 
main inauy days with us. The general has given (to) one 
of the soldiers much silver and gold. Wise men do not 
praise themselves. We shall hear the songs of the great 
poet. We have punished all the thieves in the province. 
I have held the fierce bull- by the horns. The wicked king 
does not rule himself. Ye have walked five thousand paces 
(§ 66. 2.) 


§ 8$. From the substantive pronouns are derived the 
adjective-personal, or possessive pronouns, so called^ be- 
cause they are adjectives, and denote possession. They 

mens, mea, meum, my, mine. 

(Voc. masc., mi. rarely mous ;) like bonus. 

tuns, tua, tuum, thy, thine, your, (like bonus.) 

suus, sua, suuni, his, her, ii$ : their, his own, her own, 

its own, their own. 
noster, nostra, nostrum, our, ours, (like pulcher. 
Tester, vestra, vestrum, your, yours, (like pulcher.) 

Rem. 1. The emphatic suffixes met and pie, are sometimes added 
to the possessive pronoun.-., ecpeuialjy in Jhe ablative singular; as, 
meamet manu, with my own hand. 

Qtcm. 2. Suus^ like sui, is always reflexive, referring to the subject 
of the sentenee in ^hich it stands. 


§ 81. 1. Questions expecting the answer yes or no, are 
asked in Latin* by "means of the interrogative particles fie, 
vonne, num. 

:l. («.) The enclitic ne asks for information, and is pla- 

are : 



From tui, 







* You will be translate^ by tu when it refers to one; by vos when it means more 
than one. . 


ced after the verb, usually standing with it at the beginning 
of the sentence. 

Scribit-??c Caius ? h Cains writing ? 

Pater tuus tibi equum dedit-??e. ? lias your father gi 
you a hone ? 

(b.) jtfe stands with anj specially emphatic word at the 
beginning of the sentence. 

Tu-ne scribis ? Are you writing ? 

3. Num stands at the beginning of the sentence, and ex- 
pects the answer no. 

Num tu patrem tuum necavisti 1 Have you murcl 
your own father ? 

4. JYonne (placed at, or near the beginning of the sen- 
tence,) expects the answer yes. 

Nonne epistolam scripsisti ? Have you not written the 


Scn'b-ae, (tcrips-^sciipt-,) to vjritc. Cubiculurn,i, bed-chamber. 

Con-pen'b-M-e. (conecripe-, conscript-.) to SaltiK, sal«t-is, safety. 

levy, to cnndl. Tuee salut-is causa, for tlie sake of your 

Rellnqu-ere, (rolinqui. relictum.) to leave, own safety, (causa, always put last.) 
V;'ii-ijo. ( ven-, \cnt-.) to come Cantus, us, tinging, 

Dorm-i're, to slctp. ■ "Vox, roc-is, voice. 

Translate into English and analyze, 

Audis-ne vocem patris mei? Nonne magnitude)' operis 
consulem sapientem tardabit ? Nonne filii iinperatoris in 
castris dormiebant? Num servus tuus totam noctem in 
silva mansit ? Vidisti-ne magnum ovium gregem in agro 
meo ?7^Tu-ne regem nostrum vidisti. Nostri (§ 60. Rem.) 
totuin diem impetum nostrum sustinuerant. Vestrse sahrtis 
causa vos inonui. Tuce salwtis causa in urbem te duxi. 
Audies-ne cantum arium ? Num consul tres legiones parvo 
in vico conscripsit ? Pulchra puella manu sua epistob.i:. 


scribet. Veniet-ne in urbem imperator magnus cum omni- 
bus copiis ? Conecripsit-ne Caesar legiones duas in prov- 
incia ? Mater improba suam filiam veneno necavit. Marius, 
dux Romanus, omnes copias suas ex hibernis eduxerat. 

Translate into Latin. 

{My, thy, his, he?', their, our, &c, will not be translated 
into Latin when the relation is obvious.) 

My father advised the poet's daughter. Will not the 
beautiful queen write the whole letter with her own hand? 
Will a kind father murder his own children ? Will a wise 
king break the laws of the state ? Shall we sup with 
(apud) Tully's son-in-law ? Will not the brave , general 
lead the forces of the republic to victory ? Has your fath- 
er seen my slave in his garden 1 Were your slaves carry- 
ing heavy burdens through the eity ? Our kind brother 
will advise us for the sake of ©ur own safety. The shep- 
herd will shear all his own sheep. Will not the good shep- 
herd defend all his own sheep from dogs and wolves. Thou 
shalt sleep in the little bed-chamber. Will a brave gen- 
eral leave his army in the boundaries of the enemy ? Hast 
thou heard the singing of the birds in the forest ? We 
shall hear the voice ©f the general. 


§.82. 1. Demonstratives are so called, because they 
are used to point out things ; as, itle puer, that boy ; 
hcec silva, this forest'. 

2. They are is, Mo, iste, (lie, and their compounds, 
and are thus declined : 



* 9* 








il le, 
il li us, 
i/ li, 
i7 lum, 
il le. 


# la, 
il li us, 
t7 li, 
il lam, 
i7 la, 

Ab. il lo, i71a, 


e7 lud, 
il /i us, 
il li, 
i7 lud, 
i7 lud, 
il lo. 


tY li, 

1 lo rum, 

Z lis, 

I los, 
i7 li, 
il lis, 


»7 Ire, 
il fa rum, 
i7 lis, 
CI las, 
il lit;, 
il lis. 


?7 la, 
il lo rum, 
i7 lis, 
il la, 
t7 la, 
i7 lis. 

Iste is declined like itte. 








N. ■ 










, tajas, 



fa rum, /m-ruui, 


























ngular % 






F. N. 






e-a, id. 






c-jus, c-jus. 






Hi e i, 


or e-is, 

vis or c-is, 

vis or e-is 



e-am, id, 

e os 




v ■ 



«-a,. e-o. 


or c-is, 

i-is or c-is, 

i-is or e-is 

3. Jstic, (sometimes written isthic,) and illic are com- 
pounded of iste hie, and t7/e &ie, and are more emphatic 
than iste and ille. 

N. m tic, is ttcc, is toe, or is tuc, N. — 
Ac. is tunc, u tanc, is toe, or w tuc, Ac. — 
Ab. is toe, is tac, is toe. 

7/7ic is declined in the same manner. 

is tie, 

is tiec, 

4. The suffix item is annexed to w, forming icfcm, "the 
same," whieh is thus declined : 


. Singular. 

M. F. N. 

N. i dem, e a dem, i dem, 

G. ejus dem, e/?<s dem, e/wsdecj, 

D. e t dem, e * dem, e i dem, 

Ac. e un dem, e an dem, a' dem. 

Ab. c o dem, « a dem, e o dem. 


N. i i dem, e a dem, eadem, 

G. e o rvn dem, e a run dem, e o r«» dem, 

D. e is dem, or i i*- e t's dem, or i e's dem, e is dem, or i w- 

dem, dem, 

Ac. e 05 dem, e #s dem, e a dem, 

V. , 

Ab. e is dim or i is dem, e 7s dem or i w dem e is dem or i« 

w dem. 

exercise 36. — Is, and Idem. 

§83. 1. is, that, is very often -used as a substantive-per- 
sonal p¥onoun, (lie, she, it, they, them, &e.,) of the same 
gender with the noun for -which it stands; as, Cicero 
multos libros scripsit ; eos (=z= libros) libenter lego ; Cicero 
lias written many books; I read them (i.' e. the books,y^ith 

2. (a.) Mis, her, its, their, will be translated by situs when 
they Tefer to the subject ; ,(&.) if they refer to any other 
word in the sentence, they will be translated by the geni- 
tive of the demonstrative, is, ea, id. 

(a.) Hex filium suum ad se The king calls his (own) son to 
Tocat ; him. 

(b.) Rex agricolam et filium The king calls the j miner and his 
ejus ad se vocat ; (the farmer's) son to him. 


Scriptor, -or-is, writer. Contendere, (contend, content) to strive, 

Prasatana, -ant-is, excellent, distinguished, fight. 

vidias, i, Ovid. Ger-ere, fgess, gest-] to carry on, to wage- 

Virgilius, i, Virgil. Dumnorix, -ig-is, Dumnorix. 

Plato, jou -is, Flato. Libenter, (adv.] gladly, with pleasure. 


Translate into English and analyze. 

Caesar hostes fugavit, et ab iis obsidcs multos postulavit.' 
Roniani cum Gallis coniemWunt, atque in eorum finibus 
bcllum gesserunt. Rex mercatores onines ad se convocffvit, 
atque iis multuni auri (§73) dedit. Consulis Alia pulcher- 
rima est; eam in urbe vidi. Dumnorix eo (that) tempore 
(§66, 1,) in Germania.bellum gerebat. In eodem oppido 
multi milites fuerunt. Tullius eundem servum ad se voc#- 
bit. Eodem die imperator clarus ad Castra venit. Ovidi- 
us et Virgilius sunt poetae clarissimi ; opera eorum libenter 
legimus. Caesar Labienum et ejus fllium in Gallia relique- 
rat. Poctai opera sua laudant. Poeta clarus imperatorcm 
amat, et ejus virtatem laudabit. Pater tuus flliani suam 
amat, et ejus liberis multuni argenti (§73) dabit. In ea 
provincia sunt quatuor legiones. 

'/ranslate into Latin. 

Cicero is a very distinguished orator ; we shall hear him 
with pleasure. Plato is an excellent writer ; have you read 
all his works? Will the Queen see her son and his daugh- 
ter in our city ? The King will not leave Tully and his 
(Tully's) son in the city. A wise man does not carry all 
his gold with him. In one day Caesar led the whole army 
through the boundaries of the Helvetians to lake Leman- 
nus; on the same day he routed very great forces of the 
enemy. At that time the rains had swollen all the rivers, 
and were keeping (continere) the Germans in their own 
boundaries. The King loved his faithful slave, and gave 
him a golden necklace. Have you seen the centurion's 
beautiful daughter ? I saw her in the King's grove. Art 
thou a famous general. 


exercise 37. — Hie, Iste, Ille, 
§84. 1. Hie, HiEc, hoc, this, points out a thing near 
the speaker in place or time, and is sometimes called the 
demonstrative of the first person. As, hie liber, this 
book, (near me ;) lioe die, on this day. 

2. Iste, ista,- istud, this, that, points out a thing 
near the person spoken to, and is sometimes called the 
demonstrative of the second person. As, iste liber, that 
book, (of yours.) It is often used to express contempt ; • 
as, iste homo, that fellow. 

3. Ille, illa, illud, that, points out a thing re- 
mote from the speaker, and is often called the demon- 
strative of the third person. As, ille liber, that book 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Hie scrvus dominum amat. Hsec epistola sororem meam 
delectabit. Hoc bellum civile gravissimum et atrocissiinum 
est. Hie puer bonus est, ille improbus (supply est.) Hie 
miles, ©mnium est fortissimus. Iste tuus equus pulchrum 
animal est. Ista tua oratio rempublicam servavit. Iste-ne 
nos puniet ? Ille bos magna cornua habet. Illos milites in 
castra ducemus. Equites omnes ad illud oppidum festiaant. 
Hie pastor bonus gregem servabit. 

Translate into English. 
This good master gives food to all his slaves. That dove 
of yours will fly through the thick woods. Those dogs of 
yours will frighten all the boys in the village. That fierce 
lion has torn in pieces many sheep and cows. This excel- 
lent orator will delight th« common people with his speech. 
That maid-servant of yours will prepare medicine for the 


^ueen and her {the queen's daughters.) Will you give that 
beautiful horse to my father ? Has the king punished all 
the thieves and robbers in this city ? These horsemen wil} 
urge on their horses with spurs. 


§85. The pronoun ipse, ipsa, ipsum, himself, herself, 
Itself, is called intensive, because it makes the word 

to which it is added more emphatic. As, 


(a.) Regem ipsum vidi ; I have seen the king himself. 

(Jb.) Ego me ipse laudo ; I myself (and not another,) praise 

(c. ) Ego me ipsum laudo ; / praise myself, (and not another.) 

Singular. Plural. 

M. F. . N. M. F. N. 


ip se, 

ip sa, 

■ip sum, 

ip ei, 

ip sac, 

ip 8a, 


ip si us, 

' ip si us, 

ip si us, 

ip so rum, 

ip sa rum, 

ip so rum 


ip si, 

ip si, 

ip si, 

ip sis, 

ip sis, 

tp sis, 


ip sum, 

ip sam, 

ip sum, 

ip 80S, 

ip sas, 

ip sa, 


ip se, 

ip sa, 

ip sum, 

ip si, 

ip B8E, 

</> Eft, 


ip 80, 

ip sa, 

ip 80. 

ip sis, 

ip sis, 

ip sis. 


§86. 1. Rule of Syntax. The infinitive mood is often 
used as a neuter noun in the nominative or accusative, and 
may be the subject of a verb ; as, Gratum est tecum am- 
bulare, It is pleasant to walk with you. 

2. -Rule of Syntax. . The infinitive is used as a comple- 
ment (filling up,) with certain verbs and adjectives express- 
ing an incomplete idea. Complementary Infinitive. 

Parat bellum gererc. He is preparing to wage war. 




Pr*dic-are, to tell, to boast Vine-ire, (vinx-, viuct-] to bind. 

Instru-ere, (instrux-, instruct-) to draw Vinculum, i, chain. 

up. Vinc-ere, [yi'c-, vict-] toconqw. 

Constitu-ere, [constitu-, constitut-] to de- Ferreus, a, um, of iron^ron. 

termine. Iracundia,»se, hasty temper. 

D« se ipso, about one's self. Orbis [§33] terrarum, the world, {the fctfr- 
Iater, [prep, with ace.,] between, among. clt of the countries.) . 

Inter se, among themselves, with one an- Alexander, -dii, Alexander. 

ot/ur. Macedonia, », Macedonia. 

Sua, [pi. neut.,) his [owix]lhings, his [own] Semper, (adv.) always. 

property. Facinus, facinor-is, deed, crime. 
A6cend-ere, [ascend-, ascens-J to ascend. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
JSgo ipse totam noctem vigil.avi. Rex ipse exercitum tri- 
plici acie instruxerat. Nonne regina ipsa in hae donio dor- 
nnvit ? Decinia ipsa legio magnitudinem perieuli tiinebat. 
Tu-ne te ipse laudabis ? Me ipsum non laudabo. Poeta 
se ipse laudabat. Turpe est de se ipso praedicare. Pater 
ipse et filius suus de agri finibus contendunt. Alexander 
niagnus, rex Macedonia?, orbem terrarum vincere parave- 
rat. Alexander se ipsum non rexit. Imperator magnus 
suam iracundiam,non regit. Dimcilliinuni (§66, §67, 3,) 
est montem altum ascendere. Facinus est civem Romanum 
vincire. Sapiens semper se ipse regit. Helvetii sua om- 
nia portabant. 

Translate into Latin. 

Our king has determined to conquer the whole world. 
Your king is a boy. The common people have bound our 
king with chains. These soldiers are always boasting about 
themselves. It is not very difficult to ascend a hill. Noth- 
ing is more difficult than to rule a hasty temper. Have 
you read the works of Cicero, the distinguished orator 1 
Will a father and a son contend with one another about 
an eagle's wing? They will not contend. Am I myself 
praising myself ? Has not this fellow (§83, 2,) always 


praised himself? It is a gjeat crime to kill (one's) father. 
The wicked judge is preparing to bind Roman citizens. 
The common people will bind the judge himself. The 
greatness of this work will hinder Caesar himself. The 
general has determined to put three legions into winter 


§87. 1. The pronoun qui, quae, quod, (who, which,) 
is called relative, because it refers to some word or 
phrase going before, called the antecedent. 
Singular. - Plural. 

M. F. % M. F. N. 

N. qui, quae, quod, qui quse, quae, 

G. cu jus, cujus, • cujus, quo rum qua rum, quorum, 

©• cui, cui, cui, qui bus, qui bup, qui bus, 

Ac. quern, quam, quod, quos, quas, qua), 

V. . 

A. t quo, qua, quo qui bus, qui bus, qui bus. 

Rem. Qui is sometimes used in the ablative in all genders. 

2. From qui are derived quicumque or quicunque and 
quisquis, tohoever, whosoever. Quicumque is declined like 
qui ; quisquis is thus declined : 

N. quis quis, quis quis, quid quid, N. qui qui, 

Ac. qnem quem, <7i«VJ-quid, D. qui bus qui bus, 

Ab. quo quo, qua qua, quo quo. 


1. Sentences are either principal or dependent. A 
principal sentence makes complete sense when standing 
alone ; a dependent sentence does not make complete sense 
alone, but must be connected with another sentence. 

2. A sentence introduced by a relative pronoun is called 
a dependent relative sentence. 


3. Rule of Syntax. The relative pronoun agrees with 

its antecedent in gender, number, and person ; but its case 

depends upon the construction of the relative sentence. 


E^o qui scribo, / who write. 

Vos qui scribitis, You who write. 

Patella quatri vidi, The girl whom / taw. 

(Here quam is sing., fern., 3rd person, because puella is the same* 

but accusative, because it is the object of the transitive verb 


4. Rule of Position. The preposition dim is annexed to 
the ablative plural of the relative qui, and sometimes also 
to the ablative singular ; as, quibuscum. 

5. Rule of Position. The relative generally stands at 
the beginning of the relative sentence, after the antece- 
dent, and as near the latter as possible ; but for the sake of 
emphasis the relative sentence is often placed first. 

6. In general expressions the forms of is are often used 
merely as the antecedent of a relative clause ; as, Is stultus 
est qui de se ipso prxdicat. lie is foolish who boasts ©f 
himself. Is is emphatic when it stands at the beginning of 
the principal sentence. 

7. When the antecedent is indefinite, it is often omitted 
altogether ; as, Qui tertiam partem incolunt Gadi appellan- 
tur. (Those) who inhabit the third part are called Gauls. 
(Compare the English, " Who steal my purse, steals trash," 
i. e. any one who, &c.) 


Incol-ere, [incolu-, incult-] to inhabit. Continenter, [adv.] continually. 

Divid-ere, [dirt*-, divis-] to separate, to Trans, [prep, with ace..] across, 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Omnis Gallise sunt partes tres, quarum unam incolunt 


Belgas. Trans Rhenum incolunt Germani, quibuscum 
Belgac continentur bellum gerunt. Flurnen Rhenus, qui 
agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit, latissimus est atque 
altissimus. Jura, qui una ex parte, Helvetios continet, 
mens est altissimus. Csesar legiones duas, qua3 in Gallia 
hiemabant, ex hibernis eduxit. Puelke pulchrse, quas in 
horto vidisti, filiai sunt Ciceronis. Recentes imbres, qui 
fluinina omnia auxerunt, cpus nostrum tardabunt. Puer 
eui magister librum dedit, optknus est pusr^rum. Agri- 
cola cujus canis ancillam terruit, in urbem venit. Helvetii 
cos qui leges reipublicse violant igni cremant. Qui sua omnia 
secum portat non sapiens est. ' Qui sese non regit, est-ne 
is vir magnus ? 

Translate into Latin. 

Caisar will hasten into the province with three legions 
which he has levied in Gaul. The centurion has divided 
his field into three parts, one of which he will give to his 
son. Have you, showed to your father the letter which the 
queen wrote with her own hand 1 The general had placed 
in winter-quarters the legions which he had levied in the 
province. The great river which we saw is the Rhine. 
Will not the general slay the robber who lives in the for- 
est ? Is not he (is) a fool who holds (tenere) a fierce bull 
by the horns ? The fields through which we were walking 
are very fertile. (He) who boasts about himself is a fool, 
(He) who conquers himself is a brave man. 


§ 88. 1. Interrogative pronouns arc used in asking 
questions. Thty arc » 

n!!;! \'Mo? Uluii? $ u ! \ Which? What ? 

Quisnam ) ■ Quinam J 


Rem. 1. Qui and quinam are declined like the relative qvi. They 
are almost always adjectives. 

Rem. 1. Quis and quisnam are usually substantives, but sometimes 
adjectives. Quid is always a substantive. Quisnam is stronger than 
quis )— Who then ? Who , pray ? 

2. Quis is thus declined : 

Singular. Plural. 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

quod or quid, qui, quae., qure, 

cu jus, • quo rum, qua rum, </«o rum, 

cui, qui bus, gw bus, qui bus, 

quid, quos, quas, quse, 




cu jus, 


cu jus, 


quo. qui bus, qui bus, gm bus, 

3. The genitive cujus, whose? is sometimes used as an 
adjective, agreeing with the noun which it limits in gender, 
number and case ; as, Cujum pecus est hoc ? Whose flock 
is this t It is thus declined. 

'N". cm jus, cwja, cujum, N. cm joe, 

Ac. cttjum, cu jam, — Ac. cujas. 

Ab. — cu ja. — * — - 


Translate into English and analyze. 
Quis tecum in horto ambulabat? Quae regio est Gallia 
(§ 70, 2,) feracior ? Qui consul est Cicerone prudentior ? 
Quem hominem vidisti quam Balbum (§ 70, 1,) turpiorem? 
Qua in terra est poeta Yirgilio pnestantior 1 Cuja ancilla 
est hsec ? Regince. Qui puer calcem Davi lapide vulner- 
avit? Quid argenti (§ 73) apud te habes? Quinam rex 
tibi aurum dabit, Dave ? Quisnam te vocavit, Tulli 1 (§ 24, 
Rem. 2.). Qui pastor prudens oves hieroretondebit 1 Cu- 
jus canis bovem meum momordit 1 Qua in civitate imper- 
rttor legiones in hibernis collocajbit ' 


Translate into Latin. 

• "Who, pray, will show (to) us the way through the King's 
forest ? What enemy will sustain the attack of our war- 
like soldiers ? What is baser than a lie ? Who gave (to) 
you that (§ 83, 2) beautiful horse of yours ? What citi- 
zens were with (apud) Cicero ? . Who, pray, has called to- 
gether all these merchants ? Which of you slept in the 
little bed-chamber? What general will leave his army in 
the enemy's country (finix) ? Who art thou ? Art thou 
the consul's son-in-law? Is the king preparing, according 
to custom, to wage war with the nearest states ? 


§ 89. Indefinite pronouns do not refer to any particu- 
lar thing. They are 

Aliquis, some one, some. 

Quid am, a certain one, pi. some. 

OuilitW } an 'J ( wnere ^1 ate included, ) any one you please. 

Quisquam, anyone, where all are excluded; almost always a sub- 
• stantive, and used in negative sentences. 

Quispiam, any one, some one ; used in affirmative sentences. 

Qui s, qui, any one, some one, especially after si, ne ; and the 'inter- 
rogative prefixes num- anu ec- } forming nvmquia • iiad 

Quisque, each one i every one. 

Unusquisque, each one, (stronger than quisque.) 

Rem. 1. All these pronouns have quod or quid in the 
neuter; the quod forms are adjectives; the quid forms, 

Rem. 2. The indefinite qitis or qui has qua in the nomi- 
native singular feminine, and nom., and ace. pi. neut. So 
also aliquU. 

Rem. 3. Quidam, qm'libet and quivis are declined like 



the relative qid; and qufcque, quiqyiam and quisquam like 
the interrogative quis. But quisquam wants the feminine, 
except quam-quam, (ace. sing, fern.) 

Note. In pronouns w» is changed into /* before d. As, quendam, 
for quemdam ; quorundum for quorumdam. 

Rem. 4. Unusquisque is used only in the singular, and 
both units and quisque are* declined. Unusquisque, una- 
quaeque, unumquodque or quidque ; gen. uniuscujusque,kc. 

EXEKt'ISE 41. 

§90. 1. The partitive genitive (§58,3) is used with 
many pronouns ; as, Quivis militum,.any one you please of 
the soldiers ; aliquid novi, some news, (novi is gen. sing, 
neut. of novus, a, urn, used as a noun.) 

2. After quidam, ex with the ablative is generally used 
instead of the gen. ; as, QuvLim ex militibus, a certain one 
of the soldiers. 

• Vocabulary. 

Mitt-ere, (m/s-, rm'ss-,) to send. 

Parren-ire, (perven-, pervent-,) to come t'<vo;.:^i, to-artive. 

In urbem pervem're, to reach the city. 

Defend-ere, (defend-, defens-,) to defervl. 

Neque, (conjunction,) neither, .nor. 

Disc d-ere, (discess-, isces-,) to depart. 

Occid-ere, (occid-, doccis-,) to kill, cut dotvn. 

Occasus, is, setting. 

Sol, sol-is, sun ; solis occasu, (§ 68. 1,) at sunset. 

CatiKna, se, Catiline. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Gicero quendam'" Galium ad Csesarein misit. Aliquid 
solis occasu in domum tuam venit. Quidam ex militibus 
se Buaque (§ 60, Rem.) ab hostibus defendebant. Mater 
benigna unicw/que liberorum suorum dat cibum. Nostri 
copias hostium fugavere, neque quisquam omnium in oppi- 
dum pervenit. Lucius in urbe aliquid n^ovi * audiet. Rex 




filiabus suis aliquam partem regni dabit. Milites Catiline 
cxercitum reipublicae non timucnmt, neque quisquani ex 
castris discessit. Nonne quisque sese defendit? Quodvi? 
animal cor habet. 

Translate into Latin. 

The faithful slaves will watch all night,' nor will any one 
leave (depart from) his place. Some one has wounded one 
of our horsemen with a javelin ? Caesar sent a certain one 
of the Gallic (Galium,) horsemen to Cicero's camp. The 
cruel chiefs will kill all the prisoners at sunset. The pru- 
dent general will move his camp at sunset. The master 
gave (to) each of the boys & beautiful book. 


§ 91. 1. The correlative pronouns are such as answer 
to each other ; as, tantus, so great, quantus ; as, talis, 
such, qualis ; as, tot, as many, quot, as. 

2. The Correlative Pronouns are 

talis, jsuch. 

tantus, so great, 
so much, 

*tot, so many. 
^'totidem,,/^ so 

, Relative. 


qunlis, as, of what qualiscunquc, of whatever 
kind. ' kind. 

quant uscunque, however 
quantus, as great. ■{ great. 

aliquantus, somewhat great 

■quut, 06- many 

j " x " aliquot, some. 

( *quotquot, however mar;/. 

Rem. 1. Qualis? of what kind? quantus? how great? 
quot ? Jwic many ? are also used interrogatively. 

Rem. 2. Those marked thus (*) arc indeclinable; the 
rest are declined like adjectives. 

106 verbs. §92,93 

§ 92. EXERCISE 42. 


Voluptsis, voluptat-is, pleasure. 
Praemiuiii,i, reioard. 
Timor, -or-is, fear, panic. 

Aliquantum, agri, a considerable piece of ground. 
Sententia, te, opinion. 
Opera, ae, labor, pains. 
$ Tanta opera, so great labor. 

( Tantum opera:*, so much (vf) labor. Tantus, meaning so gi-ent, agrees with the 
noun ; meaning so much, it is neuter aud followed by the partitive genitive. 
Quantus is used in the ■same way. 

('Quali8 est dominus, talis est servus; As is the master, so is the slave. Or, est feft- 
-. ing omitted, 

{Qnalis dominus, talis servus, Tlie slave is such as the master is: 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Quantum voluptatis virtus praebet ! Tantus tiinor cen- 
turiones occupavit. Quot homines, tot sententia3. Quantus 
est agricolse taurus ? Quanta sunt hujus bovis cornua '( 
Quot legiones in castris sunt? Quot homines, totidem ani- 
mi. Qualis est imperator, tales sunt milites. Quanta prae- 
mia virtus habet ? Quantum operse poetas carminibus suis 
dant ! Rex huic servo aliquantum auri dedit. 

Translate into Latin. 
The burdens are as great as the slaves can carry. The 
Thracians will ^ive us as many hostages as de- 
manded. The consul gave the soldiers such food as they 
demanded. Lucius will give his daughter as much land as 
Caius has given to each of his twelve sons. Each of the 
boys will remain, just as many, hours in the city as the 
master remained. Such bread as Marius gives the soldiers 
will kill a dog. 


§93. 1. A verb. is a word which declares or affirms 


$34 moods. 107 

2. That pf which the declaration is made is called the 

8. Verbs have 

(a) Moods, or different forms which express different 
kinds of affirmation ; as, amo, I love ; amarem, I might 

(b) Tenses, or different forms to show the time when the 
thing declared takes place; as, amo, I lovr, I am loving; 
amabam, I was loving. 

(c) Voices, or different forms which show whether the 
subject acts, (as, John strikes;') or is acted upon, (as, John 
it struck.) 

■ (d) Persons and Numbers, or different forms which cor- 
respond with the person and number of the subject. 

4. These various forms are distinguished from one ano- 
ther by Certain endings ; and the adding of these endings 
to jthe stem is called Conjugation. 

5. Verbs are either transitive or intransitive. 

6. A transitive verb is one which requires an object to 
complete the sense. As, Poefa reginam laudat, The poet 
praises the queen. 

7. An intransitive verb is one which does not require 
an object to complete the sense. As, Aquita votat, The 
eagle flies. 

§94. 1. There are four moods,, the indicative, subjunctive* 
imperative, and infinitive. 

2. The indicative mood declares a fact, or asks a ques- 
tion. As, amat, he loves ; amat-ne ? Does he love? 

3. By the subjunctive mood a thing is asserted, not as ;; 
fact, but as simply conceived in the mind. As, amarem, 
I would love. 

1Q8 tenses. §95 

4. The imperative mood is used in commanding, exhort- 
ing, or entreating. As, Hue veni, come hither. 

5. The infinitive mood expresses the action of the verb 
simply, without reference to any subject. As, amarr, to 


§95. There are three divisions of time, the present, past, 
and future. In each division there are two tenses ; one 
expressing incomplete action; the other, completed action. 
There are therefore six tenses ; three for incomplete action, 
viz : the present, imperfect, and future ; and three for com- 
pleted- action, viz : the present-perfect, past-perfect, and 
future-p e rfect . 

Name. n Incomplete Action. .Name.'A Complet ed Action. I Name. 
Present tlME.I amo, lam loving. Prbs. i amayi, I have loved. 
Past time. jamabam, Iwasloving. Imp. aniaveram, I had loved. 
Future time, iamabo, I shall love. |Fut. Ilamavero, I shall have loved 

•I. The present tense expresses incomplete action In pres- 
ent time; as, amo, I love, I am loving. 

Rem. 1/ This tense also expresses an existing custon or general 
truth ; as, Romani signuin tuba dant, the Romans give the signal 
vith a trumpet. 

Rem. 2. The present tense is often used for a past to give greater 
animation to the narrative. This is called the historical present. 

Re?n. 3. This tense may also express what has existed and still 
exists ; as, tot annos bella gero, for so many years I have waged war, 
and am still waging it ;-or, for so many years I have been waging 

II Th*e imperfect tense expresses incomplete action in 
past time ; as, amabam, I was loving. 

Rem. A. This tense expresses, 

(a) A customary past action ; as, amabam, I used to love ; 

(b) What had existed and was still existing in past time ; as, tot 
annos bella gerebam, for so many years I had been carrying on war ; 

(c) The bee/inning, or attempting of a thing in past time ; 


$96 voices. 109 


(d) In letters, this tense is ?oraetimcs used (in* Reference to their 
being read,) for a present. 

III. The future tense expresses incomplete action in fu- 
ture time. As, amabo, I shall lore. 

IV. The present-perfect tense expresses completed action 
in present time ; as, amavi, I have loved. 

The same form of the verb is used to express an action 
Indefinitely as past, without reference to its continuance or 
completion. This is called the aorhi-perfect, or indefinite- 
perfect. As, ccenavi, I supped, (at some indefinite past 

V. The past-perfect tense expresses completed action in 
past time ; as, amaveram, I had loved. 

VI. The future-perfect tense expresses uomplcted action 
in future time ; as, amavero, I shall have loved. 


§96. 1. There are two voices, the active and passive. 

2. The active voice represents the 'subject as acting; as, 
a mo, I love 

3. The passive voice represents the subject as acted upon; 
amor, I am loved. 

Rem. 1. The same idea maybe expressed both in the active and 
passive form ; as, puer librwih legit, the boy reads the book; or liber 
apiiero Icyitur, the book is read by the boy. The object in the ac- 
tive becomes the subject in the passive, and the subject in the active 
is expressed by the ablative with the preposition a or ab. 

Rem. 2. As intransitive verbs have no object in the active, they 
have no personal passive form. See $ 114, 4. 

Rem. 3. The passive voice frequently represents the 
agent as acting upon himself ; as, ftror x I carry myself, I 
go. This use of the passive is common with the poets. 

110 CONJUGATION. §97-99 


§ 97. Verbs have three persons, the 1st, 2nd, and 
3rd ; and two numbers, the singular and plural. These 
either correspond to, or indicate, the person and num- 
ber of the subject. 


§ 98. 1. To the yerb belong the participle, or adjective 
verb ; and the gerund and supine, or noun verb. 

H. Transitive verbs have two participles in the active, 
viz. : the present and future; as, amans, loving ; amaturus, 
about to love ; and two in the passive, viz. ^the per- 
fect and future; as, amatu$ y loved, having been loved; 
amandus, to be loved. 

3. The gerund is a verbal noun of the second declension, 
in the genitive, dative, and accusative, (the nominative 
being supplied hy the infinitive) ; as, modus operandi, the 
manner of working. • 

4. The supine is a verbal noun of the fourth declension, 
in the accusative and ablative; as, amatum, to love; amatu, 
to be loved, or Jo> love. 


§ 99. 1. There are four conjugations, distinguished 

from each other by the ending of the infinitive present 


The infinitive present active of the 1st conj. ends in a-re. 
it a u a a a 2nd " " " e-re. 

a a a a a a 4^ a u a fa* 

Exception. Dare } to give, has, art (a short.) 

S100 VERBS — ESSE. Ill 

2. Every verb-form consists of two parts, the stem and 

3. The present-stem, or general-stem, is found in every 
part of the verb, and may always be obtained by striking 
off the ending of the infinitive-present active or passive. 

4. Besides this general stem, there is also a perfect stem, 
on which the perfect tenses in the active voice are formed ; 
and a supine-stem, on which the supines, the future active 
participle, and perfect passive participle, are formed. 

5. The perfect-stem is formed for the most part 

In the first conj. by adding «av (long) to the present-stem. 
" " second " " " -zi " " " 

" " third " ." " -5 M " " 

" " fourth M "" " -iv (long) " " " 

For other modes of formation see Appendix. 

6. The supine-stem is generally formed 

In the first conj. by adding -at (long) to the present-stem. 
" " second " " " -it (short) " " " 
" " third " " • iC -t " M " 

" " fourth * « " -it (long) " " " 

For other modes of formation see Appendix VII. 
ESSE, to be. 




Pres. Indie. 

Pres. Inf. 

Per/. Indie. 

Put. Part 





Present Tense. 



^J C 1. Bum 
2 \ 2. es, i 
a 1 3. est, 

, I am, 

thou art 
he is , 

su mus, we are, 
, es tis, ye arc, 
sunt, they are. 




1 . c ram, 1 was, 

2. c ras, thou wast, 

3. e rat, he was : 

1. e ro, / sAuZ/ be, 
'2. e ris, *Aou wilt be, 
3\ e rit, ae will be ; 


c ra mus, we icerc, 
e ra tis, yc were, 
e rant, tfAct/ urrf. 

Future, shall, or un7/. 

cr i mus, tre 5Aa/Z 6e, 
cr i tisj ye will be, 
e runt, they xcill be. 

Present-Perfect, have been, or teas. 

\. fu\, I have been, 

2. fu is ti, thou hast been, 

3, /wit, Ac Aas 6ccn ; 

fu i mus, tre have been, 

fu w tis, ye have been, 

fu c runt or re, 2Aey A«vc been. 


1. fu e ram, / Acd 6cm, 

2. fu e ras, Mow Aadsi been, 

3. /u e rat, Ac Aar/ &cen; 

fu e ra mug, wc AacZ jew, 
fu e ra tis, ye had been, 
fu e rant, they had been. 

Future-Peffect. shall, or will have. 

1. /« e ro, i" aAaZZ Aat>e been, 

2. /w c ris, f/jow wilt have been, 

3. fu e rit, he will have been ; 

fu er i mus, we shall have been. 
fu er i tis, yd willjiave been,, 
fu e rint, they will have been. 

1. sim, I may be, 

2. sis, 2Aou mays/ be, 

3. sit, Ac may 6e ; 


Preient. may. ► 

«i mus, we may be, 
si tis, ye may be, 
sint, they may be. 

Imperfect, 'might, would, or should. 

es se mus, we would be, 
es se tis, yc would be, 
es sent, *Aey would be. 

1. m sem, I would be, 

2. e* ses, f Aou wouldst be, 

3. es set, Ac would be ; 


1. /w e rim, / may have been. fu cr i mus, we may have been, 

2. fu e rig, /Aou mayst have been, fu cr i tig, ye may have been, 

3. fu e rit, Ae may have been / /it e rint, ZAcy may Aai'c. 


Past-perfect, might, would, or should have. 

1. fu is sem, I would have been, fu is se mus, we would have been, 

2. fu is ses, thou wouldst have been, fu is se tis, ye would have been. 

3. fa is set, he would have been ; fu is sent, they would have been. 


Pres. 1. es, be thou, este,bege t 

Fut. 2. es to, thou shalt be, es to te, ye shall be, 

' 3. es to, let him be; sun to, let them be. 


Present, es se, to be. 

Perfect, fu is se, to have been. 

Future, fu tu rus, (a, um) es se, or fo re, to be about to be. 


fu tu rus, a, um, about to be. 


The following table exhibits the endings of the active 
and passive voices in all the conjugations : 

Bern. 1. On the present-stem are formed all the. moods 
of the present, imperfect, and future tenses, (except the 
infinitive future, active and passive,) the gerund, present 
active participle, and future passive participle. 

Rem. 2. On the perfect-stem are formed all the perfect- 
tenses in the active voice. 

Rem. 3. On the supine stem are formed the supines; the 

future active, and perfect passive participles ; the infinitive 

future, active and passive ; and all the perfect tenses in the 

passive voice. These latter are compounded of the perfect 

passive* participle and the verb esse. 



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Ind. Pres. , Inf. Prcs. Ind. 

Per/. Supine. 

A mo, a ma re, a ma vi, a ma turn, 



Present. love, do love, am loving. 

Sing, a mo, 
a mas, 
a miat, 

/ love, 
thou lovest, 
he loves ; 

a ma mus, 
a ma tis, 
a mant, 

we love, 
ye love, 
tliey love. 

; Imperfect, icas loving, loved, did hvc. 

■ Sing, a ma bam, 
a ma bas, 
a ma bat, 
Plur. am a ba mus, 
am & ba tis, 
a ma bant, 

I ivas loving, 
thou wast loving, 
he was loving; 
we were loving, 
ye were loving, 
they were loving. 

Future, shall, or will. 

Sing, a ma bo, 
a ma bis, 
a ma bit, 

PJwr. a mab i mus, 
a mab i tis, 
a ma bunt, 

I shall love, 
thou wilt love, 
he will love ; 
we shall love, 
ye will love, 
they xvill love. 

Present -Perfect, loved, or Aat'e loved. 

Sing, a ma vi, 

am a t>w ti, 

a ma vit, 
PZwr. a www i mus, 

am a vis tis, 

am a ve runt or re, 

J have loved, 
thou hast loved, 
he has loved ; 
we have loved, 
ye have loved f 
they have loved. 




% Past-Perfect, had. 

Sing, a mav e ram, 
a mav e ras, 
a mav e rat, 

Plur. a mav o ra mus, 
a mav e ra tis, 
a mav e rant, 

J had loved, 
thou hadst loved, 
. . he had loved : 
we had loved, 
ye had loved, 
they had loved. 



shall, or 20 ill have. 

Sing, a mav e ro, 
a mav e ris, 
a mav e rit, 

Plur. am a ver i mus, 
am a ver i tis, 
a 7?j«v e rint, 

I shall have loved, 
thon wilt have loved, 
he will have loved ; 
we shall have loved, 
ye will have loved, 
they will have loved. 


Present! may. 

Sing, a mem, 
a mes, 
a met, 
, Plnr. a me mus, 
a me tis, 
a ment, 

I may love, 
thou mayst love, , 
he may love ■ 
we may love, 
ye may love, 
they may love. 


Imperfect, might, 

could, would, or should. 

Smg. a ma rem, 
a ma res, 
a ma refc, 

Plur. am a re mus, 
am a re tis, 
a ma rent, 

I would love, 
thou wouldst love, 
he would love ; 
we would love, 
ye would love, 
they would love. 


may, or can have. 

Sing, a mav e rim, 
a mav e ris, 
a mau e rit, 

Plur. am a ver i mus, 
am a ver i tis, 
a mav e rint, 

I may have loved, 
thou mayst have loved, 
he may have loved; 
we may have, loved, 
ye way have loved, 
they may have loved. 




Past-Perfect, might, could, would, or should have 

Sing, am a vis sem, 
am a vis ses, 
am a vis set, 

Plur. am a vis se mus, 
am a vis se tis, 
am a vis sen., 

1 would have loved, 
thou wouldst have loved, 
he would have loved ; 
we would have loved, 
ye would have loved, 
they would have loved. 


Pres. Sing, a ma, 

Plur. a ma te, 
Fut. Sing, a ma to, 
a ma to, 
Plur. am & to te, 
a man to, 

love thou • 
love ye, 

thou shalt love, 
he shall love ; 
ye shall love, 
they shall love. 


Present, a ma re, 

Perfeci. am a vis se, 

Future. am a tu rus, (a, um) es se, 

Fut. per/, am a tu rus fu is se, 

to love. 

to have loved. 

to be about to love. 

to have been about to lovt. 


Present, a mans, 

Future, am a tu rus, a um, 

abont to love. 


G. a man di, 
D. a man do, 
Ac. a man dum, 
Ab. a man c?o, 

o/ loving, 
for loving, 
by loving. 


a ma turn, 
a ma tu, 

to love. 

to love, to be loved. 






Indie. Pres. Infin. Per/. P e ,f. Pari. 

A mor, a ma ri, a ma tus. 


Present, am. 

Sing, a mor, 

a ma ris or re, 
a ma tur,. 

Plur. a ma mur, 
a mam i- ni, 
a man tur, 

/ <m loved, 
thou art lovedj 
he is loved ; 
we are loved, 
ye are loved, 
they are loved. 

Imperfect, was, . 

Sing, a ma bar, 

am a ba ris or re, 
am a ba tur, 

PZur. am a ba mur, 
am a bam i ni, 
am a ban tur, 

/ was loved, 
thou wast loved, 
he was loved ; 
we were loved, 
ye were loved, 
they were loved. 

Future, shall, or will be. 



a ma bor, 

a mab e eris or re, 

a mab i tur, 

a mab i mur. 

am a bim i ni, 

am a bun tur. 

I shall be loved, 
thou wilt be loved, 
he will be loved ; 
we shall be loved, 
ye will be lovedj 
they will be loved. 

Present-Perfect, have been, or was. 

Sing, a am tus sum or fu i, 
a ma tus es or fu is ti, 
a ma tus est or fu it, 

Plur. a via ti su mus or fu i mus, 
a ma ti ea tis or fu is tis, 
a 74a ti sunt, fu c runt or re, 

J Aave 0«e7i loved, 
thou hast been loved, 
he has been loved ; 
we have been loved, 
ye. have been loved, 
they have been loved. 




Past-Perfect, had been. 

Sing, a ma tus e ram or fu e ram, 
a ma tus e ras or fit e ras, 
a ma tus c rat or fu e rat, 
a ma ti e ra mus or fu e rtz mus, 
a ma ti e r» tis or fu e ra tis, 
a wia ti e rant or fu e rant, 


I- had been loved, 
thou hadst been loved, 
he had been loved ; 
we had been loved, 
ye had been loved, 
they had been loved. 

Future-Perfect, shall have been. 


a ma tus e ro or fu e ro. 
a ma tus e ris or fu or. , 
a ma tus e rit or/*/ e m, 
P£«r. a ma ti er i mus or fu er i mus, 
a ma ti er i tis or fu er i tis, 
a ma ti e runt or fu e rint, 

i" «AaM have been loved, 
thou IvUt have been loved, 
he will have been loved; 
we shall have been loved, 
ye will have been loved, 
they will hme been lovicL 

Present, may be. 



a mer, 

a vie ris or re, 
a me tur, 
a me mur, 
a mem i n*i, 
a men tur, 

7 way oe loved, 
thou mayst be loved, 
he may be loved • 
we may be loved, 
ye may be loved, 
they may be loved. 

Imperfect. might, could, would, or should be. 

Sing, a ma rer, / would be loved, 

thou wouldst be loved, 
he would be loved; 
we would be loved, 
ye would be loved, 
they would be loved. 


a ma rer, 
am a re ris or re, 
am a re tur, 
am a re mur, 
am a rem i ni, 
am a ren tur,* 

Present-Perfect, may have been. 

.Sing, a ma tus sim or fu e rim, 
a ma tus sis or fu e ris, 
a ma tus sit -or fu e rit, 
a ma ti si mus or fu er i mus, 
a ma ,ti si tis or fu er i tis, 
a ma ti sint or fu e rint, 


I may have been lovid, 
thou mayst have beek? loved. 
he may have been loped ; . 
we may have been hived,, 
ye may have been lived, 
they may have been loved* 


Past-Perfe<H. might, could, woujd, or should have been. 

Sing, a ma tus es sem or fu is seni, I would have been loved, 

a ma tus e* ses or fu if ses, ^Acw wouldst have been I- 

a ma tus es set or fu ts set, /j<j would have been loved; 

Plur. a via ti es se mus or fu is se mus, we would have been loved, 

a ma ti es se tis or fu is so tis, ye would have been loved, 

a ma ti es sent or fu ts seat, they would have been lor 


Pres. Sing. 

a. ma re, 

oe thou loved ; 


a mam i ni. 

6e ye loved. 

Fut. Sing. 

a ma tor, 

thou shalt be loved. 

a ma tor, 

he shall be loved, ; 


(am a bim i ni, 

ye shall be loved), 

a man tor, 

they shall be loved. 


.Present, a ma ri, to be loved. 

Perfect, a mu tus es se or fu is se, to have been loved. 

Future, a ma turn » ri, to be about to be lov 


Perfect, a ma tus, loved, or having been loved. 

Future, a man dus, to be loved. 




Ind. Pres. mon ne o. 

Ind. Pres. mo ne or. 

inf. Pres. mo nc 


Inf. Pres. mo ne ri. 

Ind. Perf. mon u 


Perf. Part, mon i tus*. mon i 




/ advixc. 

/ am advised. 

Sing, mo ne o, 

Sing, mo ne or, 

mo nos. 

mo ne ris or re 

mo net ; 

mo ne tur ; 

Plnr. mo ??e mus, 

P/?/r. mo ns mur, 

mo ne. tis, 

mo w«wi i ni, 

no nenV 

mo- ven tur. 





/ was advising. 

S. mo ne bam, 

mo ne bas, 

mo ne bat; 
P. mon e ba mus, 

mon e ba tis, 

mo ne bant. 

/ snail or ttfU advise. 

S. mo we bo, 
mo ne bis, 
mo we bit; 

P. mo we6 i mus, 
mo neb i tis, 
mo ne bunt. 



J was advised. 

S. mo ?ie bar, 

mon e ba ris or re, 
mon e 6a tur ; 

P. mon e 5a mur, 
mon e bam i ni, 
mon e ban tur. 


I shall or we7Z be advised. 

S. mo W6 bor, 

mo neb e ris or re, 
mo weft i tur ; 

P mo weo i mur, 
mon e bim i ni, 
mon e bun tur. 


/ advised or have advised. I was or have been advised. 

S. mon u i, 

mon u ts ti, 

mon u it ; 
P. mo mm i mus, 

mon u is tis, 

mon u e runt or re, 

1 had advised. 

S. mo nu e ram, 

mo wm e ras, 

mo nu e rat ; 
P. mon uera mus, 

mon u e ra tis, 

mo nu e rant. 

S. mon i tus sum or fu i, 

wiow i tus es or fu a's ti, 

mon i tus est or fu it ; 
P. mow i ti sm mus or fu i mus, 

won i ti es tis or fu is tis, 

wow i ti sunt fa e runt or re. 


/ had been advised. 

S. mon i tus e ram or fu e ram, 
mon i tus e ras or fu e ras, 
mow i tus e rat or fu e rat ; 

P. mon i ti e ra mus or fu e ra mus, 
mow i ti e ra tis or fu e ra tis, 
mow i ti e rant or/tt e ran*. 

/ shall have advised. I shall have been advised. 

S. mo nu e ro, 
monu e ris, 
mo nu e rit ; 

P. mon u er i mil?, 
mon u er i tis, 
mo ww e rint. 

& mow i tus e ro or fu e ro, 
mon i tus e ris or fu e ris, 
mon i tus e rit or/w e rit ; 

P. 7?iow i ti er i mus or fu er i mu3, 
mow i ti er i tis or fu er i ti*, 
mon i ti e runt or fu e rint. 





/ may advise. 

S. mo ne am, 
mo ne as, 
mo ne at ; 

P. mo ne a mus, 
mo ne a tis, 
mo ne ant. 




/ may be advised. 

S. mo ne ar, 

mo ne a ris or re, 
mo ne a tur ; 

P. mo ne a mur, 
mo ne am i ni, 
mo ne an tur. 


"Inyght, could, would or should 

S. mo ne rem, 

mo ne res, 

mo ne ret ; 
P. mon e re mus, 

mon e re tis, 

mo ne rent. 

/ might, could, would or should 

be advised. 
S. mo ne rer, 

mon e re ris or re, 

mon e re tur ; 
P. mon e re mur, 

mon e rem i ni, 

mon e ren tur. 

/ may have advised. 

JS. mo nu e rim, 
mo nu e ris, 
mo nu e rit; 

P. mon u er i mus, 
mon u er i tis, 
mo «m e rint. 

I might, could, would, or 
should have advised. 

S. mon u w sem, 
mon u is ses, 
mon u is set ; 

P. mon u is sc mus, 
mon u is se tis, 
»on u is sent. 


i~ mag have been advised. 

S. mon i tus sim or fu e rim, 
mon i tus sis or fu e ris, 
mon i tus sit or fu e rit ; 

P. mon i ti si mus or fu er i mus, 
mon i ti si tis or fu er i tis, 
mon i ti sint or/w e rint. 


I might, could, would, or should have 
been advised. 

S. mon i tus es sem or fu is sem, 
mon i tus es ses or fu is ses, 
mon i tus es set or fu is set ; 

P. mon i ti es se mus or fu is se mus 
m?n i ti es se tis or fu is sc tis, 
mon i ti cs sent or fu is sent. 




Pre*. S. mo ne, advise thou ; Pres. S. mo ne re, be thou advised . 
P. mo ne te, advise yc. P. mo nem i ni, be ye ad- 

Put- S. mo tie to, thou shalt ad- vised. 

vise. Put. S. mo ne tor, thou shalt be 

mo ne to,, he shall advise- advised, 

P. mon e to te, ye shall ad- mo ne tor, Ae shall be ad- 

vise, vised / 

mo -nen to, f/icy shall ad- P. (mon e 5tm i ni, ye shall 

vise. be advised,) 

mo nen tor, i/iey shall be 


Pres. mo ne re, to advise. Pres. mo w<? ri, to be advised*. 

Perf. mon u is se, to /iave advised. Per/, mon i tus es se or fu is se, 
Put. mon i fw rus es se, to 6e a- to have been advised. 

bout to advise. Putt mon i turn i ri, to be about 

Fvf. Perf. mon i tu rus fu is se, to to be advised, 

have been about to advise. 


Pres. mo n^ns, advising. Perf. mon i tus, advised. 

Put. mon i tu rus, about to advise. Put. mo nen dus, to be advised. 


G. mo nen di, of advising. 

D. mo nen do, etc., 
t . * .^c. mo nen dum, 

-46. mo nen do. 


mon i turn, to advise. mon i tu, to be advised, to advise.' 



Ind. Pres. re go. Ind. Pres. re gor 

Inf. Pres. reg e re. Inf. Pres. re gi. 

Ind. Perf. rex i. Perf. Part, rec tus. 

Supine. rcc turn. 








I rule. 

Sing, re go, 
re gis, 
re git ; 

Plur. reg i mus, 
rtg i tis, 
re gunt. 

i" was ruling. 
'8. re ge bam, 

re ge bas, 

re ge bat ; 
P. reg e ba inns, 

reg e ba tig, 

re ge bant. 

7 shall or un7Z r«Ze. 
S. re gam, 

re ges, 

re get ; 
P. re #e mus, 

re ge tis, 

re gent. 

/ ruled or /joue ruled. 
S. rex i, 

rex is ti, 

rez it ; 
P. rex i mus, 

rex is tis, 

rex e runt or re. 

i" am ruled. 
Sing, re gor, 

re^ e ris or re, 

re^ i tur; 
Plur. ng i mur, 

re gim i ni, 

re gun tur. 



7 was ruled. 
re ^e bar, 
reg e ba ris or re, 
reg e ba tur ; 
reg e ba mur, 
reg e bam i ni, 
reg e ban tur.» 


I shall or tw/Z 6e ruled. 
S. re gar, 

re ge ris or re, 
re ge tur ; 
P. re ge mur, 
re #em i ni, 
re gen tur. 


I was or /iosre oeen ruled. 

S. rec tus sum or fu i, 
rec tus es or fu w ti, 
rec tus est or /u it; 

P. rec ti s« mus or/u i mus, 
rec ti es tis or fu w tis, 
rec ti sunt, fa e runt or re. 







I had ruled. 

S. rex e ram, 
rex e ras, 
rex e rat ; 

P. rex e ra mus, 
rex e ra tis, 
rex e rant. 

/ shall have ruled. 

S. rex e ro, 
rex e ris, 
rex e rit ; 

P. rex er i mus, 
' . rex er i tis, 
rex e rint, 

. I may rule. 

S. re gam, 

re gas, 

re gat ; 
P. re ga mus, 

re ^a tis, 

re gant. 

/ Aarf 6ee» ruled. 

S. rec tus e ram or fu e ram, 
rec tus e ras or/w e ras, 
rec tus e rat or fu e rat ; 

P. rec ti e ra mus or fu e ra mus, 
rec ti e ra tis or f u e ra tis, 
rec ti e rant or/tt e rant. 


I shall have been ruled. 

S. rec tus e ro or fu e ro, 
rec tus e ris or/u e ris, 
rec tus e rit or/w e rit,; 

P rec ti er i mus 07- fu er i mus, 
rec ti er i tis or fu er i tis, 
rec ti e runt or/w e rint. 



I may be ruled. 

S. re gar, 

re ga ris or re, 
re ga tur ; 

P. re ga mur, 
re gam i ni, 
re gan tur. 


plight, could, would, or should 
S. reg e rem, 
reg e res, - 
reg e ret ; 
P. rcg e re mus, 
reg e re tis, 
reg e rent. 

I might, could, would, or should 
be ruled. 

S. reo- e rer, 

reg e re ris or re, 
reg e re tur ; 
P. reg e re mur, 
reg e rem i ni, 
res e ren tur. 





/ may have ruled. 

S. rex e rim, 
rex e ris, 
rex e rit ; 

P. rex er i mus, 
rex er i tis, 
rex e rint. 



/ might, could, would, or 
should have ruled. 
S. rex is scm, 

rex is sea, 

rex is set ; 
P. rex is se mus, 

rex is se tis, 

rex is sent. 

/ may have been ruled. 

S. rec tus sim or fu e rim, 
rec tus sis or fu e ris, 
rec tus sit or fu e rit ; 

P. rec ti si mus or fu»er i mus, 
rec ti si tis or fu er i tis, 
' rec ti sint or f u e rint. 


/ might, could, would, or should have 
been ruled. 
*T3. rec tus cs sem or fu Is sem, 
rec tus es ses or fu es ses, 
rec tus es set or fu is set ; 
P. rec ti es se mus or fu is se mus, 
rec ti es se tis or fu is se tis, 
rec ti es sent or fu is sent. 



Pres. S. re ge, rule thou, 
P. reg i te, rule ye. 
S. rey i to, thou shalt rule, 

reg i to, he shall rule : 
P. regi to te, ye shall rule, 

re #ttn to, they shall rule. 

Pres. S. reg e re, 6e thou ruled, 

P. re g*m i nj, be ye ruled. 

Fut. S. reg i tor, thou shalt be ruled 

reg i tor, he shall' be ruled; 

P. (re^em i ni, ye shall, etc.) 

re gun tor, ^cy shall, etc. 


Pres. reg e re, to r«£e. Pres. re gi, 2o 6e ruled. 

Perf. rex t's se, to have ruled. Perf. rec tus es se or fu is se, to 

Fut. rec tu rus es se, <o be about have been ruled. 

to rule. Fut. rec turn i ri, to be about to 

Fut. Perf. rec lu rus fu is se, to be ruled, 

have been about to rule. 


Pres. re gens, ruling. Perf. rec tus, ruled. 

Fut. rec tu rus, about to rule, Fut. re gen dus, foie ru/er/. 


G. re gen di, o/* ruling 
D. re ^e»i do, etc. 
* Ac. re gen dum, 

Ab. re gen do. 




rec turn, to rute. 



rec tu, to be ruled, to ;ule. 



Ind. Pres. 
Inf. Pres. 
Ind. Perf- 

au di o, 
au di re, 
au di vi, 
au di turn. 

Ind. Pres. au di or. 
Inf. Pres. au di ri. 
Perf. Part, au di tu?. 


/ hear. 

S. au di o, 

au dis, 
au dit ; 
P. au di mus, 
au di tis, 
au di unt. 

/ tvas hearing. 

S. au di e bam, 
au di e bap, 
au di e bat ; 

P. au di e ba mus, 
au di e ba tis, 
au di e bant. 

I shall or icill hear. 
S. aw di am, 

au di es, 

au di et ; 
P| au di e mus, 

au di e tis, 

au di eat. 

/ am heard. 
S. .au di or, 

au eft ris or re, 

au a7 tur ; 
P* au di mur, 

au dim i ni, 

au di un tur. 


/ teas heard, 

S. au di e bar, 

au di e ba ris or re, 
au di e ba tur ; , 

P. au di e ba mur, 
au di e bam i ni, 
&u di e ban tur. 


1 shall or «?iW oc heard* 

J3. aw di ar, 

au di e ris or re, 

au di e tur ; 
P. au di e mur, 

au di em i ni, 

au di en tur. 





Present- Perfect. 


I heard or have heard. 

au di vi, 

au di vis ti, 

au di vit ; 

au div i mus, 

au di vis tis, 

au di vc runt or re. 

/ had heard. 

S. au div e ram, 
au div e ras, 
au div e rat ; 

P. au div e ra mus, 
au div e ra tis, 
au div c rant. 

7 have been or was 7eeara\ 

S. au di tus sum or fu i, 
au eft tus es or fii i> ti, 
au di tus est or fu it ; 

P. au di ti s?( mus or fu i mus, 
au o7 ti es tis or fu is tis, 
au eft ti snnt, fti c runt or re. 

Past- Perfect. 

/ had been heard. 

au di tus e ram or f u e ram, 

au di tus e ras or fu e ras, 

au di tus c rat or fu e rat ; 

au di ti e m mus or fu e ra mus, 

au di ti e ra tis or fu e ra tis, 

au di ti c rant or fu e rant. 


/ shall have heard. 
S. au div e ro, 

au div e ris, 

au div erit ; 
P. au di ver i mus, 
' au di ver i tis, 

au div e rint. 

/ shall have been heard. . 

S. au di tus e ro or fu e ro, 
au, <# tus e ris or fu e ris, 
au rfi tus c rit or /w e rit ; 

P. au di ti er i mus or fu er i mus, 
au di ti er i Us or fu er i tis, 
au di ti e runtfor fu e rint, 



/ may or can hear. 

S. a« di am, 
au di as, 
aw di at ; 

P. au di a mus, 
a.u di a tis, 
au di ant. 

I may or can 6* heard. 

S. an di ar, 

au di a ris or re, 
au di a tur ; 

P. au di a mur, 
au di am i ni, 
au di an tur. 







might, could, would, or should 
S. au di rem, 
au di res, 
au di ret ; 
P. au di re mus, 
au di re tis, 
au di rent. 

I might, could, would, or should 
be heard". 
S. au di rer, 

au di re ris or re, . 
. au di re tur ; 
P. au di re mur, 
au di rem i ni, 
au di ren tur. 


I may have heard. 

S.- au div e rim, 
au div e ris, 
au dw e rit ; 

P. au di ver i mus, 
au di ver i tis, 
au dw e rint. 

/ may have been heard. 

S. au di tus sim or fu e rim, 
au di tus sis or /« e ris, 
au di tus sit or fu e rit ; 

P. au di ti si mus or fa er i mus, 
au d% ti si tis or fu fir i tis, 
au di ti sint or fu e rint. 


I might, could ,would, or 
•should have heard. 
S. au <Ji via sem, 
au di vis ses, 
au di v/s set ; 
P. au di vis se mus, 
au di tis se tis? 
au di vis sent. 

I might, could, would, or should 
have been heard. 
S. au di tus es sem or fu is sem, 
au di tus cs ses cr fu is ses, 
au di tus cs set or fu is set ; 
P. au di ti es se mus or fu is se mus, 
au oJi ti es se tis or fu is se tis, 
au e?i ti es sent or fu is sent, 


Pres. S. au di, /tear f hou ; 

Pres. S, au di re, 6c £Aow heard; 

P. au tfi te, ^€or ye. 
Fut. S. au di to,**^ow shalt 7icar,Fut. 
au di to, he shall hear ; 
P. au di to te, ye shall hear, • , 
au di mm to, f/i«y shall 

P.' au efon i ni, be ye heard. 
S. au di tor, *Ao« s/iaZi be 
au e?i tor, he shall be 
heard ; 
P. (au di em i ni, ye shall be 
heard, ) 
au di un tor, they shall be 





Pres. au di re, to hear. Pres. au di ri, to be heard. 

Perf. au di vis se, to have heard. Perf. au di tus es se or fu is se, /o 
Fat. au di ftt rus es se, to 6c /mve been heard. 

about to hear. Fut. au di turn a ri, to be about to 

Fut-P. au di tn rus fu is se, to have be heard, 

been about lo hfiar. 

Pres. au di ens, hearing. Perf. au di tus, heard. 

Fut- au di tu rus, aiow* to Aear. Fut. au di en dus, to be heard. 


G. au di en di, of hearing. ■ 
D. au di en do, etc. 
Ac. au di en dum, 
Ab. au di en do. 

au di turn, to hear. 


. au di tu, to be heard, to hear. 





Some verbs of the third conjugation insert i before the 
ending in some of the tenses, as shown in the following 
paradigm of cap-e-re, to take. 







cap i ch- 
eap i- 










, i-unt. 



eap i- 

1 am. 

as. | at. 

I amus. 


I ant. 



1 Fut. 

cap i ch- 
eap i- 

1 i-or. 

1 #r. 

eris. f itur. 
aris. . atur. 
eris. 1 r.tur- 

am ur. 




i untnr. 







cap i. 

1 ar. 

aris. 1 atur? 



1 oritur. 


3d Plur. 

Active, cap i unto. 

3d Phi 

r. Pass., 

cap i untor. 


Pres. Ac 

tive, cap i 



t. Pass., 

cap i endue. 


nd, cap i end i, 

x &c. 

(Some verbs which insert i.') 

Cap-ere, (cep-capt-) to take, (with its compounds). 
Re-cip-ere, (re-ccp-,recept-) to take back. 
Rccipere se, to take oneself hack, to retreat. ■ 
. Ac-cip-ere, (ac-cep-,ac-cept-) to receive, take to oneself. 
Cup-ere, (cu-ptVcup-i't-) to desire. 
Fac-ere, (tec-fact-) to do, to make. 
Con-fic-ere, (con-fec-,confect-) to finish . 
Rap-ere, (rap-u,-rapt-) to seize, carry off. 
Di-rip-ere, (di-rip-u-,di-rept-) to plunder. , 

Rem. 1. The imperative present active 2d singular of 
facio is fac, and the passive is supplied by the irregular 
verb Jio 9 (§111, 7). The compounds which change a into 
i have the regular passive ; as, coiificior, conjici, confecttis : 


but thoso which retain the a have the irregular passive, as, 
patefacio, pass, patcfw i patefieri, patefactus. 

Translate into- English and analyze. 

G-ermani animalia (§ 39) qua) bello ceperant diis mac- 
t«bant. Nostri in hostes impetum fecerunt, atque eos 
(§ S2, 1,) in fugam dederunt. Helvetii per Sequanorum 
fines iter faciebant. Hostes, qui per provinciam iter ten- 
taverant, in fines suos se recep^runt. Caisar ab Helvetiis 
obsides et arma acceperat. Impertttor aurum quod a rege 
acceperat, militibus dedifc. Milites prcelium facere cupiv- 
erunt. Caisar decern dicbus pontem confecit. Romani 
virgines Sabinorum rapuerunt. Hostes atroces totam urbem 

Translate into Latin. 

The enemy will retreat from the mountain to the river. 
The king will lay-waste the country (cigros) which he has 
conquered, with fire and sword. Our horsemen had made 
an attack upon the enemy's footmen. The forces of the 
enemy, that were making a journey through our province, 
plundered many villages.. The lieutenant, with five legions 
which he had received from Ca3sar, hastened into the boun- ' 
daries of the iEduans. The consul will not finish the bridge 
in six^days. The general desires to make an ,end of the 
war. » 

For peculiarities of tense, formation and conjugation, and composition of verb:-!, 
see Appendix. 


I. The same idea may be expressed both in the active 
an^. passive form ; as, Relvetiilegatos mittunt, the Hel- 

( 134 passive construction. • §108 

vetians send ambassadors ; or, Legati ab Helvetiis mit- 
.tuntur, Ambassadors are sent by the Helvetians. 

2. The object in the active becomes the subject in the 
passive ; and the subject in the active is expressed by 
the ablative with the preposition a or ab. (Ablative 



Rem. 1." If the ablative expresses, not the .agent, or doer of the 
action, but only the cause, means, instrument, the preposition ^?ill not 
be used. As, stimulus bove in concitat, the goad urges on the ox ; 
passive, bos stimulo concitatur, the ox is urged on with the goad. 

Rem. 2. As intransitive verbs have no object in the active, they 
are not used personally in the passive. 

3. Rule of Syntax. Verbs which in the active take an- 
other case in addition to the object-accusative, in the pass- 
ive retain that other case ; as, magister .puero] librum dat; 
passive, liber puero a magistro datur. 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Regina ab ancillis amatur. Magister bonus ab omnibus 
pueris amabitur. Tuae salwtis causa (§29,1) mon-cris. 
Pater a filio suo amatus est. Templum de marmore (§ 40) 
ab imperatore osdificatuin est. , Leo qui in silva a servis 
visus est, multos homines laniaverat. Gallia est ornnis di- 
visa in partes tres, Helvetii una ex parte flumine Rheno, 
altissimo atque latissimoy continentur. Legiones quoc in 
provincia conscripts sunt, a Csesare ex hibernis educentur. 
Quidam ex militibus magnitudine periculi perterriti sunt. 
Castra tribus diefeus (§ 66, 2) a consule movebitur. Im- 
probi omnes a deo punientur. Hrec a nobis audita sunt. 
Translate into Latin. 

(Change any of the foregoing exercises from active to 
passive construction.) 





§109. 1. Deponent verbs are such as have a passive 

form with an active meaning. 

They are called deponent, (laying aside,) because they 
lay aside their active form and passive meaning. 

2. They are inflected throughout like passive verbs, and 
have also the gerund, participles, and supine of the active 
voice. The perfect and future passive participles, the infini- 
tive-future passive, and the latter supine, have also a pas- 
sive meaning. 


M?r-or, nur-ari', nitr-at-us, to admire. 



mir ror, 
I admire. 



Fut. Terf. 

iner at H8 cro or 

I shall hate admired. 


Imperf. 1 mirabar, 1 -aver. 1 1 
j / was admmng. 1 1 1 


mir abor, 1 ator. 
I shall admire. ' 1 

mirat|-" ru6 . e . S6e ' 

Pres. Teef. 

uiir at us sum or 

I have admired. 

-us sim or 

-us esse or fuisse. 

Past Perf. 

• mer at tus eraiu or 
I had admired- 

-us esecm or 

rnirateuus fuisse. 

f mir-ang, admiriiu/. Gerund, mir-andi, admiring. 

Participles \ "^'-Qt-xi-i, having admired. g,- PIN v 8 /mir-af-um, to admire. 

' i miraturus, about to admire. t * ' (mir-s^-u, to be admired. 
imir-andus, to be admired. 


§ 1±0. EXERCISE 45. - 

Mor-ari, to delay. Congredi, (congrcd-i-or, congress-) to meet; 

Con-ari, to attempt. in a hostile sense, to contend. 

Popul-ari, to pillage, plunder. • Ment-iri, to^lie. 

Hort-ari, to exhort. Met-iri, (mens-) to measure. 

Imit-flri, to imitate. Publicus, -a, -uin, public. 

Tu-eri, (tu.-it or tut-) to protect. Privatus, -a, -um, private. 

Confit-eri, (confess-) to confess. Mors, mort-is, death. ' 

Sequ-i, (seeut-) to follow. Supplicium, i, punishment. 

Ulcisc-i, (ult-) to avenge. Peccatum, i, fault, sin. 

Pat-i, (pat-i-or, pass-) to endure, to suffer, Amor, amor-is, love. , 

permit. Scelus, sceler-is, crime. 

Frumentarius, a, um, of corn. Causa, (abl.) for the sake of. 

Pes frumeptaria, provisions. . . Pauci, re, a, few. 

Translate into English and analyze, 

Cresar in hoc oppido paucos dies (§ 66, 2,) rei frumenta- 
riae causa niorabatur. Flumina, quae recentibus imbribus 
aucta sunt (see auger e), multos dies consuleni morabuntur. 
Helvetii in iEduoruni fines pervenerant, eorumque agros 
populabantur., Hostes per pvovinciani nostram iter facere 
conati erant. Inrperator fortis milites liortatus est. Liberi 
non semper virtwteni parentium imitantur. Qui suos Jiberos 
non tufctur (§ 87, 7) homo est turpiseimus. Turpe est men- 
tiri. Nonne scelera tua confessus es 1 Equites nostri hos- 
tes ad fiumen secwti sunt. Hie latro gravissimum suppli- 
cium patietur. Ciim Cicerone sajpe in urbe congressus 

sum. Hac in re Caesar publicas ac privatas injurias ultus 
• est. 

Translate into Latin. 
A wise man always confesses his faults. DavUs confessed 
his love for (use gen'.) the maid-servant. The brave son 
will avenge his father's death. Our skirmishers delayed 
the journey of the enemy many hours. The prudent con- 
sul will not suffer the enemy to lead their forces .through 
the most fertile part of Gaul. To lie is the basest of all 
things. The thief had confessed all his crimes. The gen- 
eral on the sixth day measured (out) corn to the soldiers. 



o t 

It is easier to imitate vice than virtue. The iEduans, hav- 
ing contended with Ariovistus, king of the Germans, were 
conquered. Our men will attempt to follow the enemj* 
through the forest. 


§ 111. 1. Irregular verbs do not vise, in some of their 
parts formed from the present-stem, tliQ endings of either 
of the four conjugations. 

2. They are, esse, to be ; velle, to be willing ; ferre, 
to bear ; edere or esse, to eat ; fieri, to be made, to be- 
come ; ire, to go ; qm're, to be able ; and their com- 

8. Vol-o, vel-le, vol-u-i, to tvish, to be willing. t 




volo, vis, vult ; 

vel-im. vol-is, vel-it. ; 

vol-umus, vultis, vol-unt. 

veWmuS, vel-itis, vol-int. 


vol-cbarn, vol-ebas, &c. 

vel-lem, vel-les. r el-let; 
vel-Zt'iuus, veWctis, vel-lont 


vol-am, vol-es, &c. 

Pres. Perf. 

vol-u-i, isti, it, itc. 

vol-u-orim, oris, erit, &c. 

Past Perf. 

vol-u-eram, eras, ftc. 

Tol-u-iBsem, isses. &c. 

Put. Perf. 

vol-u-ero, eris, &c, 



f Pres. vel-le, 
' \ Perf. vol-u-isse. 

Participle Pres. vol-ena. 

4. Nolo is compounded of ne or non, and volo. 
Nol-o, nol-le, nol-u-i, to be unwilling. 

Indicative, f . Subjunctive. 

Nol-O, non-vi*. nou-vult; nol-im, nol-is, aol-it, 

nol-amus, non-vultis, aol-utrt. nol-unus, nol-i'tis, nol-int. 

nol-ebam, ebas, &c. 



Fut. nol-am, es. et, Arc. 

Pres. Perf nol-u-i, isti, it, &o. 
I't. Perf. nol-u-eram, eras, &c. 
Fur. Perf. nol-u-ero, oris, &c. 
Sing, Plur. 

Pres. 2. nol-i, 2. uol-t'te, 

Fut. 2. nolrt'to, :'.. nol-ito, 2. nol-ltote, 
3. nol-unto. 

nol-leiu, nol-les, nol-let, 
noWr.mus, noWetis, nol-lent. 

nn]-u-erim, eris, &c. 
Dolu-isaem, isses, ic. 

Pres. nol-le, 
Perf. nbl-u-isse. 

Pres. i 




5. 31alo is compounded of magis, more, and veto. 
malo, mal-le, rnal-u-i, to prefer, to be more ivilling. 


Pees. mal o, ma vis, ma vult. 

mal unius, ma vultis, mal unt. 
Impekf. mal ebam, -ebas, Ac. 

Fut. mal am, -eg. -et, Ac. 

Pres. Pei-f. mal u i, -isti, -it, Ac. 

Past Pekf. mal u cram, -eras, Ac. 

Fut. Peef. malu ero. -eris, Ac, 


mal im, mal is, mal it. 
ma! tmus, mal t'tis, mal int. 
mal leni, mal les, mal let. 
mal Icmus, mal ktis, mal lent. 

mal ii crim, -oris, -erit, Ac. 
mal u iseem, -isses, Ac. 


Pres. malle. 

Perf. mal-u-isse. 

6. Fer-o is originally a verb of the third conjugation, 
which became irregular by syncopation ; as, fers for 
fer-is; fer-re for fer-e-re, &c. The perfect and supine- 
stems are taken from the obsolete tul-o 7 (whence tollo,) 
and tla-o.. 


Fer-o, fer-re, tul-i, lat-um, to carry. 




Pres. Ptrf. 
Past Perf. 

Put. Perf. 


fcr o, fers, fert, 
fer imns, -tis, -nnt. 
fer ebam, -ebas, Ac. 

for am, -es, &c. 
tul i. -isti, Ac. 
tul eram, -eras, Ac. 
tul ero, -eris, Ac. 

fer am, -as, Ac. 

for rem, -res, -ret. 
fer rcmus, -retis, -reat 

tul-erim, -eris, Ac. 
tul isseni, -isses, Ac. 


2. Jer. 
2. fer te. 

2. fer to, 3. to, f. -tote, 
3. -unto. 

/'/ es, 




fer re, 

lat urus esse. 

tul isse. . 


fer ens, 
lat urus. 

Ger. fer endi. 

c flat urn, 

Supine. -{ , , ' 
< lat u. 



13 ( J 


Fer-or, fsr-rz, lat-us, to be carried. 





i'cT or. ris or re, 
fer"imur, Ae. 


for ar, -aria, Ac. 

-. fer re. 
2. fer imini. 


fer ebar, -obaris, 


for rer. -rcrisor rere 
fcrreimir,-reffiini, • 

i, retur. 


for ar, -eris, Ac. 

2. fer tor. 3. fej tor. 
2. (feremini) 3. fer 

Pres. Perf. 

Iat US 6UUJ, Ac. 

Iat us eim, Ac. 


Past Perf. 

Iat us efam, Ac. 

Iat us eesem, Ac. 

Fut. Perf. 

Iat \is ero, Ac. 




.fer ri. 

% FiU. 

Iat um iri. 

fer cndus. ■ 


Iat us esse or fui6se. 


7. Fi-o is used as the passive of facio. It is origin- 
ally an intransitive verb of the '4th conjugation, using 
only those parts formed from the present-stem. It dif- 
fers from other verbs of the 4th conjugation only in not 
absorbing e in the infinitive pres. and subj. imperf. 

Fi-o, fi-eri, fact-us, to be done, to be made, to become. 





fio, fig, fit. 
fmius, ft'tis, ftunt. 

ft am, as, Ac. 

ft. fitc. 


fi cbaai, -cbas, Ac. 

fi erem, -cres, Ac. 


fi am, -es. Ac. 


Pres. Perf. 

fact us sum, Ac. 

fact us sim, Ac. 

Past Perf. 

fact us cram, Ac. 

♦fact us e*sem, &c 

Fut. Perf. 

fact us ero, Ac. 



;v«s. • 

fi eri. 


'Fut. ' 

tact am iri. 

fac i endue. 


fact us esse or fuiesc. 

fact us. 

8. Ed-ere, to eat, is a regular verb of the third con- 
jugation ; but in addition to the regular tense forms, it 
has some forms similar to the corresponding tense forms 
of esse, to be, viz. : 





S. ed o, ed is, ed it, 

or es, or est. 
P. ed imus, ed itis, ed unt, 

or estis. 


ed crem, ed eres, ed eret 
or essenij or esses, or esset. 
ed ercnius, ed eretis, ed prent, 
or essemus, or essetis, or essent. 


Pres. S. ed e, P. ed ite, ed ere. or esse. 

or es. or este. PASSIVE. 

Fat. S: ed ito, P. ed-itote, or Indie. Prcs. ed ttur, or estur. 

or esto. estate, edunto. Subf. Imp. ed eretur, or essetur . 

9. Ire, to go, in most of its parts has the endings of 
the fourth conjugation. 

Eo, ire, ivi, itum, to go. 





eo, is, it, 

e am, -as, -at, 


linns, itis, cunt. 

e amus, <fcc. 

it v. 


ibam, ibas, t'bat, 

irem, ires, z'rot, 

ifiamus, &c. 

iranus, &c. 


ibo, ibis, tbit, 

ito, ito. 

i&imus, &c. 

itote, eunto. 

Tics. Perf. 

zv i, -isti, -it, 

iv erim, -eris, -erit, 

■iv imus, &c. 

iv erimus, &c. 

Past Perf. 

iv eram, -eras, -erat, 

iv i'ssem, -isses, -isset, 

iv eramus, &c. 

iv issemus, &c. 

Fut. Perf. 

iv eroris. &c. 






iens (gen. euntis.) 

c uudi, 


it «rus esse. 

it urus. 

e undo, &c. 


iv isse. 

Supine. . itum, itul 

10. Quire, to .be able, and nequire, to be unable, are 
inflected likorire, but they have no imperative or gerund, 
and their participles are rarely used.' They have some 
passive forms. 

11. For the conjugation of esse, see § 100. 

Like esse are conjugated its compounds, except pro- 
sum and possum. 


12. Prosum, inserts a d, to relieve the pronunciation, 
wherever the simple verb begins with e ; as, 

hid. Pres. j;w-sum, pro^-es, |?rocZ-est, &c. 
" Imp. prod- erara, prod-evas, j^W-erat, &c. 

13. Possum is compounded of pot, (stem of potis) 
able, and sum, t before s passing into s. The potis is 
sometimes written separately, and is then usually inde- 

Possum, posse, potu i, I can I am able. 





pos snm, pot c»,pol est, 

pos Him, pos niS, pos sit, 

pot sumns, pot eetife, pos sunt. 

pos .nnnis. pos ii%ie,pot sint. 


pot 8tbm,pot eras, pot crat, 

t pos sem, pos ses, jws set, 

pot craiims, &o. 

pes senilis, pos sells, p<M sent. 


^>o£ ero, pot eris. 7><;c c lit. 
pot erinius, -mtis, -erunt. 


poiu i, -isti, -it, 
potu imus, &c. 

potw erim, -oris, -orit, &c. 

Past Perf. 

potu cram, eras, crat. 

putu isscin, -issee, isset, &c. 

potu eramuB. «fec. 


Fut. Terf. 

potu ero, -eris, -erit, 
potu enmus, <fcc. 

Pres. posse. Perf. potu isse. 

The participial form potens, is used only as an adjec- 

§ 112. exercise 46. 

Pueri per silvam densam ibant. Imperatores clari cap- 
twos vectno necare nolunt. JEdui crudelitatem Ariovisti, 
Germanorum regis, ferre non potuerunt. Consul . urbem 
defendere non poterit. Caesar hieme opus conficere cona- 
bitur. Princeps per ann'cos potens fiebat. Caesar, cum iis 
legionibus quas exhibernis eduxerat, in Galliam ire con- 
tendit (hastened.) In hac civitate sunt tria millia (§ 64, 6) 
hominum (§ 58, 3) qui arma ferre possunt.,„. Imperator a 
militibus rex (§ 67, 3) fact-us est. Nerao uno die sapiens 
fieri potest. Non quivis orator prsestantissimus fieri potest. 


Poeta nascitur, non fit. Superbia nobilittttis a plebe fern 
uon potest. 

Translate into 'Latin. 

Who can bear the cruelty of such a king ? Can any one 
{numquis) bear the insolence (insolentia) of this slave ? 
Who is willing to be slain by a robber ? We are unwill- 
ing to hold the farmer's bull by the horns. The citizens 
are unwilling to give their gold to that fellow (§ 83, 2.). 
Who is unwilling to become rich and powerful 1 Some of 
the citizens will be unwilling to bear arms. The prudent 
leader will not go into the enemy's country (fines'). Cicero 
was made consul by the best of the citizens. This boy will 
become a distinguished poet in a few years. Who can suf- 
fer so great a punishment ? 


§ 113. 1. Itofeccive verbs are such as want -some of 
their parts. 

2. There are many verbs which are not used in all 
the tenses. The following list contains such as are 
most defective : 

Odi, / hate. Fari, to speak. Cedo, tell, or give me. 

Coepi, I have begun. Quseso, I beseech. Confit, it is done. 

Memini, I remember. Ave, J, ., Defit, it is wanting. 

Aio, " J j Salve, \ m? * Infit, he begins, 

Inquam, ( sa ^' Apage, begone. Ovat, he rejoices. 

Rem. 1 . Odi, coepi, and memini are used for the most 
part, in the perfect tenses, and hence are sometimes called 
preteritive verbs. 

(The pupil jrill make paradigms by adding the endings 
of the perfect tenses to the stems od-, .ccep-, and memin-.) 




Rem. 2. Odi has also the participles os-us, and os-urus, (both ac- 
tive in sense,) and the deponont form os-us sum. 

Rem. 3. Cocpi has also cceptus and c&pturus. 

Rem. 4. Memini has the imperative forms memento, mementotc. 

Rem. 5. The tenses of odi and memini; though perfect in form, ex- 
press incomplete action ; thus, odcram, I hated ; odero. I shall hate; 
memini, I have kept in mind, therefore I remember ; memineram, I 
remembered. The perfects novi and consuevi have a similar meaning; 
thus, nosco, I find out, novi, I have found out, I know; consucsco, I 
accustom myself; consuevi, I am accustomed. 

3. Ind. Prcs. ai-o*, ais, ait, , , ai-unt.* 

Ind. Impcrf. ai-ebam, ai-ebas, &c. 

Subj. Pres. ai-as, ai-at, , , ai-ant. 

Imper. Pres. at Part, ai-ens. 

4. Ind. Pres. inquam, inquis, inquit, inquimus, &c. 
Ind. Imperf. — . — , — , inquiebat or inquibat, — . — , inqui-ebaut. 

Ind. Futnre. inqui-es, inqui-et. 
Ind. Pres. Per/. — , inqu-is-ti, inquit, 
Sub. Pres. — , inqui-as, inqui-at, — 
Imper. — , inque, inquito. 


-, inqui-atis. inqui-nnt. 

5. Pres. — , — , fatur. 
Fut. fabor, — , fabitur. 
Pres-Perf. fatus sum, Ac. 
Pasi-Perf. fatus eram, <£c. 

fatus sim, &c. 
fatus essoin, &c. 


fantis, &c. without no:n. 
fatus, fandus; 
Gerund, fandi, &e. 
Supink, latu. 

Some ether forms are used in the compounds, though all of them 
are defective. 

C. Ind. Pres. Quseso, — , qua!3-it, quoes-umus, — , — . 
« Inf. Pres. Quaes -ere. 

7. Imper. av-e, av-eto, av-ete. Inf. av-cre. 

8. fynper. salv-e, salv-ete , salv- eto. 
Inf. salv-ere. Ind. Fut. salv-ebis. 

9. Imper. apage; an old form, used as an interjection. 

10. Imper.' 2d. sing, cedo; pi. cette, contracted for cedite. 

11. Ind. Pres. confit. Fut. eonfiet. 

Subj. Pres. confi-at. Imperf. confi-eret. Inf. Pres. con-fieri. 

12. Ind. Pres.. defit, de-ft'unt. Fut. de-fret. 

Subj. Pres. de-ftat. Inf. Pres. de-fi-eri. • 

13. Ind. Pres. in-fit, in-fmnt. 

14. Ind. Pres. ov-at. Subj. Prcs. ov-et. Imperf. ov-arct. 

•I between two tow«1b is pronounced like y; a-yc, a-yun', a-yebam. 




15. To these may be added, , 

forem, fores, foret % — , — , forcnt, same as cssem. 
$ [Inf. fore t same as futurus esse. 

§ 114. 1. Verbs used only in the third person, and 
not admitting of a personal subject, are called Imper- 

2. An infinitive, or a sentence used as a noun, is usu- 
ally the subject of an impersonal verb in the active 
voice. In English the pronoun it usually stands before 
the verb, as, Oaium scribere delectat, it delights Caius 
to write. 

2. The various tenses of impersonal verbs are formed 
by adding the endings of the third person singular to 
the proper tense stem. 

1st Conj. 

'Inf. Prds. ore, 



-a bat. 

4 abit. 



2d Conj. 3d Conj. 4th Conj. 

Inf. Pres. ere.!!/??/. Pres. erc.Tv.f. Pres. /re. | 












lad. Pres. Perf. -it ; Past Pdrf. -erat ; Fut. Pcrf. -erit 

Subj. " " -erit; " " -isset. Inf. Perf -\sse. 

(The pupil will add these endings to the stems : 

1st. conj. juv-, [perf jwv-] o/juv-at, it pleases, delights. - 

2nd. " dec-, [perf. dec-u-] o/dec-et, it becomes. 

3rd. " conting-, [perf. contig~] of con ting-it, it happens. 

•1th. " even-, [perf. evm-] o/evenit, it turns oil/, happens.) 

4. Many verbs, not strictly impersonal, are used im- 
personally ; as, delectat, it delights. 


5. Most intransitive, and many transitive verbs arc 
used impersonally in the passive voice, tlie agent being 
either omitted, or put in the ablative with the preposi- 
tion a or ab ; as, Uelvetii fortiter pugnaverunt : pass., 
ah Helvetiis fortiter pugnatum est, the Helvetians fought 
bravely, or it was fought bravely by the Helvetians. 

§ 115. exercise 47. 

Pugn-are, to fight. Acriter, (mix.) actively, fiercely. 

Consul-ere, (consulu-, consult-,) to consult. Ab atrisque, by both parties. 
Vert-ire, (ven-, v«nt-,) to come. TJtrimque, (adv.) on both sides. 

Ire, (g 111, 9.) to go. Din, (adv.) a long time. 

per, -er-i, <vcning. In-ferre, (ihtul, illat-,) to bring vpon, in- 

C;il;imitas, -afc-ls, disaster. flict. See gill, 6. 

Rem. Impersonal verbs ^hich arc transitive in meaning, have a 

direct objact in the accusative. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Liberos decet parentes suos amare. Regem non decet 
lqges civitfltis violare. Bella magna gerere Romanos de- 
lectflbat. Diu et acriter ab utrisque pugnotuni* est. Ab 
hora septima ad vesperum pugnatum* erat. Eodeni die 
quo (§ 167) in fines Sequanorum ventum est,* principes 
Gallia) ad cum convenerunt. A consulibus de republica 
consultum est.* Cantum avium .audire poctam juvat. Te 
non decet nobis bellum inferre. Delectat-ne te maximas 
(§ 72, 5,) calamitates reipublicse intulisse ? 

Translate into Latin, 

It becomes masters to give food to their servants. It 
becomes no one {nemo) to do an injury. It delights this 
wicked chief to burn prisoners with fire. It was fought 
fiercely by both parties from the fourth hour till {to) sun- 
set. The noble chief will consult {express it impersonally) 

*114. 5. 





concerning the safety of the commonwealth. It does not 
bcecome a judge to receive a bribe (jpecuniam). This 
wicked centurion has brought a great disaster upon the 


§ 116. Those parts of speech which are not inflected, 
are called particles. They are adverbs, prepositions, 
conjunctions, and interjections. 


§117. 1. An adverb is a word used to limit the mean- 
ing of a v erb, adjective, or another adverb. Some ad- 
verbs also limit nouns. 

2. In respect to form adverbs are primitive or deriva- 

3. In respect to meaning adverbs may be divided inta 
several classes ; as, 

Temporal, denoting time ; as, hodie, to-day; eras, 'to-morrow. 
Local, denoting place; as, ibi, there; inde, thence. 
Modal, denoting manner ; as, bene, well ; male, badly. 
Negative ; as, non, not ; ne-quidem, not even. . 

4. Some adverbs are also correlative, and such are 
derived from pronouns. 


f ibi, there. 
1 ibidem, just there. 
]' inde, thence. 
1 iiidec.em. 

f co, to this place. 
\ eodem. 

turn, then. 


f ubi, where. 
\ ubic\mque,wJierever. 
/ unde, whence. 
I undecumque. 

f quo, whither. 

< quoquo. 

cum or quum, when, 
fquando, when. 

< quandoque. 



ubi, where ?\ falicubi, somewhere. 
< ubtque, everywhere. 
{ ubiyia,%vherever youpleast 
-I undique, 
( aliquo, 

nude ? 



< quo vis, 

J" aliquando, 
I quandolibet. 

^llS ADVERBS. . 147 

5. Derivative adverbs are formed for the most- part 
from adjectives and participles by adding ~e to the stem 
if the primitive be of the second declension ; and -iter, 
(sometimes -ter) if the primitive be of the third declen- 
sion ; as, liber, free ; — adv. liber-e, freely ; brevis, short ; 
breviter, shortly. 

6. . Some adverbs are derived from nouns by adding 
-tus or -tim to the stem with a connecting vowel ; as, 
ccel-i-tus (ccel-um) from heaven ; greg-a-tim, (grex) in 

7.. Cases of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns Tare* used 
as adverbs ; as, noctu, by night ; mvbltum, much ; mul- 
to, by much ; eo, (old accusative, for eon,) to that 


§ 118. 1. Rule of Syntax. Intransitive verbs, though 
they do not admit of a direct object, may have a remote 
object in the dative. 

2. Ride of Syntax. The dative expresses the person or 
thing for whose advantage or disadvantage anything is, or 
is done. (Dative of advantage or disadvantage.) 

3. Rah of Position. The adverb usually precedes the 
word it limits ; but fere usually stands between the adjec-. 
tive and noun ; as, omnes fere homines, almost all men. 

Note. Many verbs whicTiaro transitive in English arb intransitive In l ( itiu. 

14S ADVJER] §118 


Port-lter, (fort-fB,) bravely. to corhe'vep. 

Celer-ittr, (cdler,) sviifOy. Yiv-ere, [vix- vict-] tn h 

e, i ■• it ns.] happuy. Constitu-i - . [constitu- censtitwt-] fo 
T5en-e. [bon-us.] VOett. link, to post. 

Fere, almost, rurr-ore, fcururr- enrs-] to run. 

Greg-atim, [grox,] in flocks. V< r-finUB-ere, [freg- I'raot-J to break through. 

PauWtim. [paul-up.) 0.7 (/-v. Phalanx, phalang-is, j^halanx. 

^■"acil-e. [facil-is,] easily. Par-ere, [paru- parit-] into., to pi 

Biepe, frequently. - Indnlg-ere, [induls-indult-]intr..'<> indulge 

Xe — quidem, [the word which it limits Noc-ere, [nocn- nocit-] intr., tn hurl. 

always placed between,] not even. Pra-cipuc [pracipurus,] especially. 

Andac-ter. [andax,] boldly. Cred-ere, [crcdid- credit.] intr., to belt 

Gener-atim, [genus,] by tribes. Procurr ere, [-cucurr- & -cur r-, curs-] to 
Kepente, [repent.] suddenly. run forward. 

Translate into English and analyze, 
Nostri totum diem fortiter pugnaverant. Hostes repen- 
te celeriterque procurre'runt. 'Qui bene vivit (§87.7,) be- 
atc vivit. Omnia fere animalia gregatim currunt. Im- 
perator paulatini exercitum in unum locum conduc^bat. 
•Nostri facile hostium phalangem perfregerunt. Filium 
decet patri suo parere. Galli cum jGrerm«nis sscpe contcn- 
debant. Ne Csesar quidem hanc civitatem vincere .potest. 
Milites ad muros oppidi audacter accesserunt. * Turn Ger- 
mani copias suae generatim constitucrunt. Caesar huic 
legioni precipue indulserat. Quis nostrum (§58.3,) isti 
(§83.2,) credit? Num (§80.3,) bonum delectat aliis no- 
cere 1 

Translate into Latin. 

To live well is to live happily. Wicked men always in- 
jure (yiocerc) themselves. Our men ran forward suddenly 
and swiftly, and easily routed the enemy's footmen. The 
cavalry of tjie Thracians came up boldly to the very (ipse) 
gates of the city. I will not believe even the consul nim- 
self. The prudent general was unwilling to lead his army 
through the by-paths of the forest. This boy can easily 
. swim across a very deep river. The enemy will not attempt 
to break through our line-of-battle. 



§ 119. Adverbs derived from adjectives are generally 
compared like their primitives. The comparative is like 
the neuter comparative of the adjective ; the superlative 
is formed from the superlative of the adjective by chang- 
ing us into e ; as, facile, faiilius. faciUime ; celcritcr. 
lerius, cclerrimr. 

Rem. 1. The superlative of the adverb sometimes ends 
in <? or um ; as, meritissimo, primum. 

Rem. 2. If the comparison of the adjective is irregular 
or defective, that of the adverb is so likewise; as, bene, 
melius, optime ; male, pejus, pessime ; parum, minus, min- 
imc ; "nullum, plus, phirimum ; ,prius, primo or prhnum ; 
Ocius, ocissimz; cleterius, deterrime ; pofius, potissime or 
potissimum ; merito, meritissimo ; satis, satius. Mtigis, 
ma. rime, has no positive ; and nuper, mtpcrrime, has no 

Bern. 3. Notice also the following : prone, propius, 
proxime ; cliu, diutius, diutissime ; snipe, s$pius, sxpissi- 
me : sccu3. secius. 


§ 120. Prepositions express the relation between a noun 
or pronoun and some other word. 

1. Twenty-six prepositions are followed by the accu- 
sative : hnd. 

nst, in) th. 

■Us. Inter, betw t% among. prope, near, 

apud, intra, 

juxl ■. 
ob, .i 




2. TweWe prepositions are followed by th% ablative. 

• ~) cotbjd, fn presence of . palam, t'n pre. 

from, after, I >y. cum. with. pra . before, in cnmpar, 

lbs, J de, down from, after, con- with. 

■ . hut for. cerning. pro, before, for, instead <• 

clam, without the l.ncuil- e, ) / / cine, v:\tliout. 

edge of <x. J' ^ ri/ - team, t/?> to. 

• 3. Four prepositions are followed by tbe accusative, 
when motion to a place is implied ; -the ablative, when 
rest in a place is implied : 

in, in, on ; into, upon. super, over, above. 

sub, under, near. subter, under, beneath. 

Rem. 1. Clani is sometimes followed by the accusative. 

Be/n. 2. Tenus is placed after its case ; and cum is annexed to the 
ablative of the substantive personal and relative pronouns. 

Rem. 3. -4 and e are used only before consonants; ab and ex, be- 
fore vowels and consonants. 

The pupil will learn the various other meanings of the prepositions from obsceva- 

• tion. 

§ : 21. EXERCISE 49/ 

*Bone. [adv.l, tcrjt. Neque, (conj.) and — not, neither. - 

♦Male, [adv.], badly, unfortunately. Fug-ere, (-io, fwg-, fugit-,) to fee. 

•Partun, [ah. I. little. Comme-are, to go back and forth. 

*Magifl^ [adv.], more. - Dasistere, (destit-, destlt-,) to ceape, 

*Longe, I 'adv.j, far. Ab-esse, '(gill, 11,) to be away, t; ■ 
*Prope, [adv.j, near. tant. 

Plac-ere Cpl i n> placftO to please. Cnltni. -us, civilization. 

Displicere, [plicu-, plicit-.j to displease) Uumanitan, -tat-iu, -is, refinement. 

Dnbitatio. -ori-is, doubt. Oonjlc-ere, [-io, conjee-. contact-,] to hurl. 

UUus, a. urn. [g 66,] any. * Telum, i, a dart. 

Consilium, i, wisdom, prudence. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Omnium qui iu Gallia habitant, fortissimi sunt Belgre. 
A cultu atque humanitate provincial longissime absunt. 
Ad eos mercatores minime «cpe commeant. Non minus 

.fortes fucrunt Galli quaui lionumi. Horas (§ 153) sex 
acriter utrimque pugnrrtura erat (§ 114, 5), neque hostes 

* Bee-fill 


nostrorum impetum diutius sustinere potummt. Equites 
Ariovisti- propius accesserunt, ac lapides tela-que in nostro's 
conjeccrunt. Ariovistus magis consilio quam virtwte Eduos 

Translate into Latin. 

Without any doubt virtue is a more excellent *thing 
(jpraestantiljs) than gold. This song displeases me (dative, 
§ 118, 1) more than that (one) pleases me. The Belgians 
were farther away than the JEduans from the civilization 
and refinement of the Roman province. Through the whole 
night the enemy did not cease to flee. The boys came up 
nearer, and boldly hurled stones and darts upon the fierce 
wild boar. Which of us can fight without arms ? Orge- 
torix was far the noblest and richest (man) among (apud) 
the Helvetians. « 


§ 122. Most prepositions are used as prefixes, in com- 
position with other words. The following are called in- 
separable prepositions, because they are never found a 
lone : 

anili. or aiab, (ambo) around, abc re, 

di, or dis, asunder. se, apart, aside. 

con,* together. _ ve, not. 


Hand, [miv,], not. Qeperally used with Jub-ere, [jue8-,Jus8->] to order, 

«!▼< •...■n-)'r<'. i f-vrii-. -yent-J too i 

mong themselves, without on-dux-, -<hict-.] i 

another. usr. 

-. inn, Gallic. . [,ii*-tul-. di-lat-J to 4ef( r. * 

iphus, i. philosopher. nt-i'rc [din 

quuB, a. um, remaining. ■ di) non. 

' ■ rHi.|ui, .' - Con-jung-ere. [coiijnnx-, conjunct 

•*' i ■ air. Con-jur-ai 
('•••luiii. i. \pl. i i, r a. J hear* n. 

Alwayi wrlU 



Translate into English and analyze, 
Magister hunc puerum hand minus quam filiuin suum 
amat. Caesar omnes Galliae principes ad se convenire 
(§ 85, 2) jussit. Gerniani non multum (§ 66, 2) a Gallica 
consuetudine differ unt. Exercitus unum in locum a legato 
paulcdinjk conducebatur. Omnes Belga) in armis suntj Ger- 
mam'-que, qui cis Rhenuin incolunt, sese cum his codjuhx- 
mint. Remi contra po^uinm Romanum cum Belgis reli- 
qiiis non cpnjuraverant. Aci; eu?lum a'terrissecernit. Phi- 
losophi de nat?/ra deorum inter se semper dissenserunt. 

Translate into Latin. 

The general ordered the first line (acies) to retreat to 
(in) the mountain. The common people frequently seceded 
from the nobility. The shepherds had separated the sheep 
from the kids. The # Rcmiui;s differed in opinion from 
the rest of the Belgians. These wicked citizens are con- 
spiring against the republic. The Germans will not easily 
break through our line. The enemy's forces are not far 
from the town. 

§ 123. Conjunctions connect words and sentences. They 

are commonly divided into the following classes : 

1. Copulative, which connect things that are to be con- 
sidered together— (and) ; they are, et, ac, atoiie, ntc 9 
neqite, etiam, quoqae, item i and itidem. 
Ji'jm. 1. Et connects things which are independent of each other, 

and of equal importance ; as, 31. Plsone et 31. 3Iesala consulibus. 

Et — et is to be translated both — and ; as, et rex et regina, both the 

king and the queen. It sometimes means also. 

Rem. 2. Que (enclitic) introduces a mere appendage, the two con- 


siituting but one idea, and is rather Adjunctive than copulative ; as, 
gladiis pilisque — offensive armor. 

Rem. 3. Atque, (used before vowels or* consonants,) contracted 
into ac (used before consonants only,) is compounded of ar/and qiie, 
and means and in addition: it usually introduces something' of 

greater importance: a-?, in hoste&impilum fecit atque cos fugavit, 

and routed them too. Cognostinc hos versus? Ac memoritcr. *• 

and that too by heart." This peculiar force is often lost in ac. 
it is used alternately with et ; it is preferred in subdivisions, the 
main propositions being connected by et.> Difficile est. tantam. causaM 
el ddigentia consequi, et memoria complc6ti, etoratione cxpromere et voce 
etc virions sustin^ . 

Rem. 4. Nerque or nrc, and not, compounded of ne ai*(\-que, when 
repeated, is translated neither — nor. Et non is used instead when 
only one word, and not a whole sentence, is to be negatived ; as 
potior et non molestc fcro. Et, non is frequently used also when et 
^precedes. Nee non, neque non, the two negatives destroying each 
other, is equivalent to et ; but is used, in classical prose, only to 
connect sentences, and the two words are separated. 

Rem. '). Etiam (ct-jam), also, even, has a wider meaning than 
quoque, and adds a new circumstance, while qvoqiie is used when a 
thing of a similar kind is added. 

Rem. 6. The copulative conjunctions are frequently omitted in 
animated discourse. Copias suas in proximum collem subducit, etciem 
instruit. This omission is called asyndeton (not-tied-together.) 


2. Disjunctive, which connect things that are to be con- 
sidered separately, {cither, or) ; they are aut, ve/, ve, si«w, 
seu, and the interrogative particle an, 
Rem. 7. Avt, either, or, extt Q essential difference in thii 

and ordinarily implies that one thing excludes another ;• as, aut i 
aut mortuus est, he is cither living or dead. Aut and ve serve to con- 
tiuuu a negation, where in ihiglisu we use nor ; a*, Vcrrcs. non 
l X ailt ]'ir:. i( : hat. 

i. 8. Vel, on the ether hand. (nl;in to vdic,) indicates a di 
ence of expression merely, and ia used where either cf two or 'more 


things may be taken indifferently. Conjunctio tectorum oppidum vel 
urbs appellator* — a town,or city (whichever you please.) Vol im- 
perative, vel milite me utimini, When one of the alternatives is omit- • 
ted, vel often has the sense of even. Volo ut oppcriare sex dies mode. 
Vel sex menses opperibor, "I wish you to wait six days only." — " T 
will wait even six months," i. e. six days or six months, if you 
choose. Ve is merely vel apocopated. 

Rem. 9. Sive, sen, or if \ whether, or, is strictly either conditional 
|0r interrogative, and when used as a simple disjunctive always im- 
plies a doubt, at least in the earlier writers. Thus. Cassar, B. G. 
Sive casu, sive deorum immortalium providentia. Sive timore perterrit'i, 
sive spe saluiis inducti ; ("perhaps by one, perhaps by the other, — 
I do not know by which.") 

3. Adversative, which express opposition of thought, 

{but) ; they are sed, autem, verum 9 vero, at and its com-^ 

pounds, tamen and its compounds, and ceterum. 

Rem. 10. Sed denotes strong and direct opposition. Vera dice, 
sed nequidquam, quoniam non vis credere. Non bestia, sed homo. 

Rem. 11. Autem adds something that is different, without setting 
aside what precedes ; (on the contrary, however, on the other hand, 
but.) Gyges a nullc videbatur ; ipse autem omnia videbat. Fre- 
quently it simply marks a transition, or adds a more important cir- 
cumstance, (moreover, furthermore). 

Rem. i'2. V crura, {as to the truth, in fact, but,) is nearly the same 
in meaning as sed. It is strengthened by cnim, vero, enimvero ; (but 
indeed, but in fact, but assuredly.) 

Rem. 13. Vero, (in truth, assuredly, but, however,) does not express 
as strong oppo^ion as verum, just as autem is weaker than sed. 
Ubi per exploratores Cccsar certior f actus est tres jam copiarum partes 
HelvcUus idflumtn transduxissc, qua-lain xnxo partem ciira Jlumen jlr* 
arim reliquam esse. — - ; That the fourth part, however, &c." 

Rem. 14. At does not, like sed, alter or set aside what 'precedes, 
li t expresses a contrast, often a strong one. Brcvis a natura nobis 
vita data est, at memoria bine rcdditce vita' scmpilerna. It frequently 
follows si'm the sense of at least: etsi non sapientissimm at amScis- 


simus. It frequently introduces fin objection, and enim is then 

often added to assign a reason for the objection; "at sumus," in- 

quiunt, " civitatis principes." 

Rem. 15. Atqui admits what precedes, but opposes something else 

to it. Magnum narras, viz crcdibile : atqui sic habet ,-r-" yet such is 

the fact." It is used in hypothetical syllogysms, when a thing is 

assumed which had before been left undecided. Quodsi virlutes sunt 

pares inter se,pari etiam vitia esse necesse est : atqui pares esse virtue** 

facile potest perspici. 

Rem. 16. Ceterum, literally, " ap to the rest," is frequently used 

in the sense of sed . 

4. Causal, which express a cause or reason (for, because); 

they are, nam, namque, enim, etent'm, quia, quod, quo- 

niam, qirippe, qua in, quando, quando-quidem, siquidem. 

Rem. 17. Nam, namque, enim, and ctenim, "for." are rather cor- 
roborative or confirmatory than causal conjunctions ; i. e. they ad- 
duce a proof rather than state a cause. 

' Nam sho^s the grounds of a preceding . assertion : so also cnim, 
except that the assertion must frequently be supplied by the mind. 
Enim is eriginally only a corroborative adverb, truly, certainly, to- 
be-sure, indeed. In namque aud etcnim, que and et repeat the pre- 
ceding assertion, while nam and enim introduce the proof. 

Rem. 18. Quod (ace. sing. neut. of qui) means originally with re- 
flect to what, in what respect, in that ; ana hence its causal ineaniug, 
in as much as, because. Quod omnis Gallia ad scptentrionem vcrgit, 
matures kunt hicmes. It is very often preceded by propterea, hoc, oh 
hanc causam, and similar causal expressions. 

Rem. 19. Quod is very often used merely . to connect a sentence 

with that which precedes, and may be translated " and" or 4i I 
especially with si,%isi, &c ' In such is a relative pronoun, 
accusative of limitation, ($ 15"). ) Quod si ceteris contumelies obliritci 
Quod si furore et amentia impulsus helium intulisset. 
Rem. 20. Qttia (ace. pi. neut. of qui) has the same origin as quod, 
but i-^ purely causal (because,) and never has the sense of that, or in 
thuC. like quod. When contrasted with quod, it expresses a real mo- 

15G -• • CONJUNCTIONS. 5123 

tive of reason, while quod expresses merely on alleged or pretended 
reason : (non quod K scd quia.) 

Rem. 21. Quoniam, (quum — jam,) inlroduqes a well-known, rea- 
son, since then, since as everybody knoics. 

Rem. 22. Quippe is originally a corroborative adverb, (indeed,) 
and hence derives its causal meaning. It is frequently united with 
relative words to express a subjective reason. 

Rem. 23. In quum, quando, quandoquidem, the causal idea is de- 
rived from that of timo ; (compare the English since) Siquidcm is 
conditional originally, (though the antepenult has become short.) 

Antiquissimum e doctis genus est. poet 'arum, siquidcm (if indeed, as 
every one admits, — since,) Ilomerus full et Hesiodus ante Rotuam 

5. Conclusive, which express a conclusion or inference, 
(therefore) ; they are, ergo, eo, ideo, idcirco, igitur, ita- 
que, proinde, propter ea, and the relative words quaproj)- 
ter, quart, quamobrem, quoeirca, iinde. 

Ron. 24. Ergo and igkur express a logical consequence, (there- 
fore.) while iiaquc expresses a natural consequence, (and so.) Ergo 
andfp are causal ablatives,and all the other conclusives may be con- 
sidered adverbial expressions of cause or result, limiting the predi- * 

6. Final, which express purpose or result, — end, (that, 'in 
order that) ; they are, at, ne, quo, quin, quominus, neve, 

7. Conditional, which express a condition {if, unless) ; 
they are, si, sin, nisL or ni, dum, modo,' dummodo. 

8. Concessive, which express something granted (al- 
though) ; the y are, &tsi, <^?anquam, tametsi, tar.ienstsi, 
etiamsi, licet, quamvis, quantumvU, quamJibet ; ut and 
quum, in the sense of although. 


9. Temporal, expressing time, (when, as soon as, after, be- 
fore) ; they are, quum, ut, uhi, pbstqiiam, postcaquam, 
anieqiiam, pHusquam, quando, Simula c, simiil, dum, 
donee, quoad. 

10. Comparative, expressing comparison {than, as) ; they 
arc,*/?m?w, sicut, velut, prout, tanquam, quasi, utsi, acsi, 
with ac and atquc, in the sense of as or than. 

Rem 25. The following conjunctions stand always at the begin- 
ning of a sentence, viz.: ct, etenim. ac, at, atquc, atqui, ncquc, nee, 
aut, vel, sivc, shi, scd, nam, verum, and the relatives quart, quocirca, 
quamoorcm. * 

Rem. 26. E?iim, autcm, and vcro arc placed after the first word, , 
or the second, if the first two belong together; rarely after three 
or more words. 

Rem. 27. other conjunctions usually stand at the beginning, 
unless some word or expression is especially emphatic, and is there- 
fore placed first in the sentence. 


§ 124. Interjections are used to express strong or sudden 
emotion ; as, Vx nobis J W«e to us! 


§ 125. 1. Syntax treats of the construction of sen- 

'.. A sentence is a thought expressed in words ; as, snow 

3. Every sentence consists of 

(a.) A predicate ; i. e. that which is declared; 
(b.) A subject ; i. e. that of which the declaration is 

4. The predicate is a verb alone, (as melts, in the above 

158 SYNTAX — AGREMENT. §126 

,— *. '■ 1 , , — ! :, 

example,) or the verb esse, to be, with a noun, adjective, or 
participle ; as, nix gclida cst y snow is cold. 

5. The subject is a noun, or some word or phrase used as 
a noun, and may'be known by asking the question who ? or 
what ? with the predicate ; as, John runs. ( Who runs ? 
John.) To play is pleasant. ( Wh,at is pleasant? To play.) 

6. The subject and predicate may stand alone, or r each 
may have words or sentences limiting its meaning. , Thus, 
Prima luce, qaum mons a Tito Labieno teneretur, idem 
Considius qui cum exploratoribus prsemissus erat, equo ad- 
misso, ad Csesaren\ accurrit. At daylight, when the moun- 
tain was held by Titus Labienus, the same Considius who 
had been sent foricard with the scouts, runs to Cxsar with 
his horse at full speed. 

Here the leading thought is Co7isidtus accurrit, Considius 
runs. The subject is limited by the adjective idem, and 
the adjective sentence, qvi — prsemissus erat. The predicate 
is limited by prima luce, designating the point of time 
when Considius ran ; by quum mons teneretur, farther spec- 
ifying the time or circumstances of the running ; by equo 
admisso, participial sentence, expressing the manner of 
the running,: — an adverbial limitation ; and by ad Csesa- 
re'm, the point to which the running was directed. 

7. A sentence consisting of a single subject, and a single 
predicate, is commonly called a simple sentence ; and one 
which consists of two or more simple sentences combined* 
is commonly called a compound sentence. 


§ 126. RULE I. The verb agrees witn its subject in 
number and person. 
Rem. 1. (1.) If the subject consists, of more than one, the verb is 

§126 AGREEMENT. 159 

plural; fis m Furor iraque mentem praecipitant., Fury and rage hurry 
ou my mind. Hence, 
• (a.) A collective noun may have a plural verb. 

(b.) A noun connected to an ablative with cum often has a plural 
verb; as, Socchus cum peditibus postremam aciem invadunt, Bocchus 
aud the footmen attack the rear. 

(c. A plural verb is sometimes used with utcrque and quisque. 

(2.) But the verb often agrees with the nearest nominative, espe- 
cially when the nouns denote things without life ; as, Mens, enim. 
ct ratio, et consilium in senibus est, For mind, and skill, and wisdom 
are in old men.. 

(3.) If the nominatives are of different persons, the verb takes 
the first person rather than the secend, and the second rather than 
the third ; as, Si tu ct Tullia valelis, ego ct Ci^ro valcmus, If you and 
Tullia are well, Cicero and I are well. 


§■ 127. A noun limiting another, and denoting the same 
person or thing, is said to be in apposition with it. 

RULE II. !Nouns in apposition agree in case ; as, 
Jugurtlia refy Jugurtha the king. 

Rem, I. A noun in apposition often expresses character, purpose, 
time, cause, &c. ; as, Cicero praetor legem Maniliajm suasit, consul , 
conjurationem, Catalince oppressit ; Cicero, when praitor (or, as prce- 
tor) advocated the Manilian law, when consul, &c 

Rem. 2. The personal pronoun is often omitted before a noua in 
apposition with it; as, Consul dixi, I, the consul, have said. 

Rem. 3. A noun in apposition with two or more nouns is put in 
the plural; as, Jugurtha et Rocchus, rcges, Jugurtha and Bocchus, 
kings. " 

Rem. -L The ablative is used in apposition with the name of a- 
town iu the genitive; (see Rule XXXI. Exc.) as, Corinthi, Acham 
urbe, at Corinth, city of Achaia. 

Rem. 5. A noun n5ay be in apposition with a sentence ; as, Cogi- 
let orator em institui, — rem arduam ; Let him reflect that an orator is 
training, — a difficult thing. 

160 AGREEMENT. £128 

Rem. 6. Expressions denoting the parts are often placid in ap- 
position vrith a nonn denoting the whole, — Partitive apposition, — as, 
OnerdHfB, pars maxima ad A-lgimurum, — alioe adversus urbcm ipsam* 
dclatce sunt. ; the transports -were carried, the greatest part to JEgim- 
urum, — others, opposite the city itself. Quisque in partitive apposi- 
tion with a noun is in the nominative ; as. Ofultis sibi quisque ;',</- 
pcriumpclentibus, While many were seeking power, each for himself. 

Rem. 7. A proper name with nornen or cbanomen may be, (a.) in 
the same case : as, Nomen Arcturus mihi est, I have the name 
Arcturus ; — (b.) in the genitive ; as, Nomen Arcturi, &c. • — (c.) by 
attraction, in the dative, if the verb is followed by a dative ; as, 
Nomen Arcturo mihi est, I have the name Arcturus. 


§ 128. An adjective may limit the subject ; as, pueUa 
pulclira salt at, the beautiful girl dances ; — or it may form , 
part .pf iihp, predicate t % as, vuella %ulchra est, the girl is 
beautiful. In either case' 

RULE III. Adjective words agree with the nouns to 
which they refer, in gender, number, and case. 

Rem. 1. An adjective belonging to two or three nouns is put in 
the plural. If the nouns are of the same gender, the adjective is of 
that ge # nder ; as. Lupus et agnus siti comjnilu. A wolf and a lamb 
compelled by thirst. When the nouns are of different genders. If 

(a.) they denote living things, the adjective is masculine rather 
than feminine ; as, Pater mihi et mater mortui sunt, My father and 
mother are dead. 

(b.) If they denote things without life, the adjective is generally 
neuter; Ira ct avaritia impcrio potentiora erant, Rage and avarice 
were stronger than government. 

(c.) If names of living things and things without life are com- 
bined, the adjective is sometimes neuter, and sometimes takes the 
gender of the living being. Nmnidce atcjvc sujna militaria obscurati 
sunt, The Numidians and their military standards were concealed. 
(Here the idea of persons is uppermost.) iDimica sunt libera civitas 
ct rex, A free state and a king are hostile things. 


Rem. 2. The adjective, however, often agrees with the nearest 

Rem. 3. An adjective word, (especially in the predicate,) often 
agrees with the sense of the noun ruther than its form, (constructio 
ad synesin.) As, Pars infiumen acti sunt, Part were driven into '.he 

Rem. 4. An adjective word in the predicate, instead of agreeing 
with the subject, often agrees 

(a.) With a noun in apposition with the subject, (especially the 
words urbs, oppidum) ; as. Corinthus, lumen Grecian, extinctum est, 
Corinth, the light of Greece, was destroyed, [put out.] 

(b.) With a predicate noun; as, Gens universa Vencti appellati, 
The whole race were called Veneti. 

Rem. 6. An adjective without a noun is often used as a noun or 

Rem. 6. In general expressions an adjective in the predicate is 
often neuter ; as, Lupus triste est stabulis, The wolf is a sad thing to . 
the folds. 

Rem. 7. A possessive pronoun, being equivalent to the genitive of 
the substantive pronoun, may have an adjective word in the genitive 
agreeing with it ; as, mea ipsius causa, for my own sake ; — or a noun 
in the genitive in apposition with it ; as, tuns, viri fortis, gladius. 

Rem. 8. The adjectives primus, medius, ullimus, eztrcmus, intimus, 
ijijimus, imus, sumntus, supremus, reliquus, and cetera, express the 
first part, middle part, &c. ; as, summus mons, the top of the moun- 

Rem. 9. An adjective often agrees with the subject, but limits the 
predicate; as, Pronus cecidit, he fell headlong. 


§ 129. RULE IV. The relative pronoun agrees with 
its antecedent in gender, number, and person ; but its 
case depends upon the construction of the relative sen- 
tence. As, 



Ego qui scribo, I who write. 

Xos qui scribitis, You who write. 

Puella quam vidi, The girl -whom 1 sato. 

Rem. 1. The antecedent is so called because it usually goes before 
the relative sentence. But it also stands, 

(a) In the relative sentence especially when this latter is emphat- 
ic ; In quern primum egressi sunt locum, Troj'a vocatur, The place 
upon which they first disembarked is called Troy*. 

(b) Both in the principal and relative sentence : as Erant omnino 
itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo ezire possent. 

Rem. 2. The antecedent, especially when indefinite, is often 

omitted; as, Qii bene ate viv it. 

Rem. 3. attraction. The relative i% sometimes attracted into 
%he case of the antecedent j as. raptim quibus quisque poterat 
clatis. The antecedent is sometimes attracted into the case of the 
relative ; as, urbem 'quam statux) vestra est. 

- Rem. 4. The relative often agrees with a noun in apposition with 
the antecedent ; as, fiumen Rhenus, qui agrum Helve tium a Germanis 


Rem. B. A relative or demonstrative usually agrees with a predi- 
cate noun after the verb eese or a verb of naming, esteeming, &c, 
instead of agreeing with the antecedent ; as, Thcbce, quod Bceotur 

caput est . Animal quern vocamus hominem. 

But if the predicate noun is a foreign word, the relative agrees 

with the antecedent ; as, genus hominum quod Helotes vacatur . 

Rem. 6. A numeral, comparative, or superlative, which in English 
limits the antecedent, is usually placed in the relative sentence; as, 
node quam in terris ultimam egit, en the last night which he spent on 
earth. Other adjectives have sometimes a similar position. 

Rem. 7. The relative often agrees with the sense of the autecedent, 
instead of its form, [Construct™ ad synesin] ; as, Ccesar equitatum 
proznittit qui videant. 

Rwn. 8. An explanatory noun is often introduced into the relative 
sentence ; as, ante comitia, quod tempus haud longe aberat. 

Rem. 9. Qui at the beginning of a sentence is often translated like 
a demonstrative ; as, Quibus rebus cognitis, these things being found 
out. Here also observe the idiomatic expression, quce ett temper antia, 
er qua es Umperantia [ablative of quality], ineteajl of pro tua temper' 


antia ; as, iu, quae est teniperantia, jam vales, you, such is your 
temperance, are already u-cll. 

Rem. 10. The adverbial is often used for the adjectival relative: 
as, locus undo venit," the place from which he came. 


§ 130. 1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nomi- 
native,, and is called the subject nominative. 

• 2. A noun in the predicate denoting the same thing 
as the. subject, after a verb expressing an incomplete 
idea, is in the nominative, and is called the predicate 
nominative ; as, Oaius et Lucius fr&tres fuerunt. 

3. A predicate nominative is used with verbs denot- 
ing, to be, to become, to appear, to be named, to be call- 
ed, to be esteemed, &c. 

Rem. 1. The verb sometimes agrees with the predicate nomina- 
tive ; as, Amaniium irce amoris integratio est, The quarrels of lovers 
are a renewal of love. * 

Rem. 2. If the subject is in the accusative, the predicate noun 
must he in the accusative also ; as, elicit Ccesarem «s.«cregem, he says 
that Cjpsar is a king. 

Rem. 3. When the subject of the infinitive is omitted, a predicate 
noun or adjective is often put in the dative, if a dative precedes ; as 
nemini medio esse licet, no man may be neutral. 


§ 131. The genitive case expresses the precise limit with- 
in which the meaning of a word is to be taken. 

Thus, in the expression amor glorise, the genitive, glo- 
rise, expresses the limit within which the meaning of amor 
is restricted. 

RULE V. The genitive is used to limit the meaning 
of nouns, and also of some adjectives, verbs, and ad- 

164 THE CASES. GEVJTIVE 182,133 

- . 1 The genitive is said to be suln'-five when it expresses that 
which does something, or to which something pertains or« belongs ; 
as, Ciceronis orafioncs, Cicero's orations. It 13 objective when it ex- 
presses the object to wfcich an action or feeling is directed ; as, amor 
sl(irio:j the iove of glory. 

• '"Ren.. ■'-. A. noun may >be limited both by a subjective and objectire 
genitive; 83, ?C<B8&rl jloricr, Caesar's love of- giory. 

Rem.-2. Instead nf&a objective genitive A preposition wi^th its 
case is often used 10 avoid ambiguity ; as, am©* in rempublicam. or^ 
<.rga rcmpublicam, love towards the state. 

Rem. 4. The genitivcof a substantive pronoun is usually objective ; 
as, citra met, care for me ; — while possessive adjectives and pronouns 
usually express subjective relations ; as, cura mca, my care ; causa 
rcgia, the king's cause. But the latter are sometimes objective ; as, 
mca injuria, injury done to me ; met us liostilis, fear ef the enemy. 

§ 132. BU<L£ VI. Genitive of Quality. The geni- 
tive, limited by an adjective agreeing with it, is used to 
express the quality of a thing ; as, 

Vir magna! virtutis, A man of great valor. 

The ablative is used in the same way. 

Rem. I. This genitive may limit a noun, or form part of the pred- 
icate, like an adjective; a3, Mazimianimifuit, He was very brave. 

§ 133. RUL1 VII. Genitive of Property. The geni- 
tive, the limited noun being omitted, is used with the 
verb esse to denote that to which something belongs, or 
to which something is peculiar ; as, 

Heec domus Marci est, This house is Mark's [Aowse.] 

f It is ckaracteristio of a poor man to 
Pauperis est numerate pecus, j ^^ his fiock 

Rem. 1. Instead of the genitives mci, tui, sui, &c, the neuter pos- 
sessives meum, tuum, suum, &c., are used ; as, tuum est vidcjre quid- 
agttui; it is your business to see what is going on. A possessive ad- 

§134,135 THE OASES. GENITIVE. 165 

, jective may be used in the same way ; «ts, lvupiawum est errarc, it is 
human to err, i. e. characteristic of man. 

§ 134. RULE VIII. Partitive Genitive. With words 
expressing a part, the genitive is used to denote the 
whole ; as, 

Unus militum, fhte of th* soldiers. 

This- genitive isused with nouns' expressing a part ; with 
adjectives, especially comparatives, superlatives and numer- 
als ; with many pronouns, and with adverbs of time, place, 
and quantity. 

Rem. 1. The partitive word, if an adjective, usually agrees in 
gender with the genitive ; but adjectives of quantity are used as 
nouns in the neuter ; as, quid novi? what news? Tantum auri, so 
much gold. 

Rem. 2. Instead of a genitive, the prepositions ex, de, and some- 
times in, inter, arc used ; as, quidam ex muvtiou&, inter omnct forti,-- 

§ 135. RULE IX. Objective Genitive with Adjec- 
tives and Verbs. The genitive is used to express the 
object to which an action or feeling is directed with 

(a.) Adjectives expressing desire, experience, hnowU 
edge, capacity, participation, fulness, memory, » arc. 
certainty, fear, gidlt, and their contraries ; as> 

Avidus laudis, Desirous of praise. 
Here alsq belong participial adjectives in ns ; arrums pccir,> 

(b.) Verbs of remembering, reminding and forgetting : 
recorder, memini, reminiscor* obliviscor, moneo, and its 
compounds ; as, » 

Memini /■ neficii tui [=*=menipr sum, &c] In int npber y ur kindn- 
Te o^ci'j moneo [=me.a.>rjr.i fao'.o,] / remind you of yo irdaty. 

g remembered or forgottcu is ateo put in the accusative. 

166 the cases, genitive; §136 

(c.) Verbs expressing pity, &c. — miser eor, miser* 
and the impersonals miser et, pmnitet, pudet, pi-get, tcedet. 

Miseresco inf dictum, I pity the unfortunate. 
Pocnitet me pe.cca.ii, I repent of my sin-. 

Rem. 1. With these impersonals the person feeling is expressed by 
the accusative. 

Rem. 2. The cause or object of the feeling may be expressed by 
an infinitive or a sentence ; ns. pocnitet me peccaviste or quod pec 
I repent of having sinned. 

(d.) Verbs of plenty or want (sometimes); as, 

Eget [=egens est] argenti, He is in need of silver. 

(e.) The impersonals refert and interest ; as, 

Reipublicce interest, R is of importance to the state. 

Rem.. 3. Instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns, the 
forms mca, iua, sua, nostra, vestra, [abl. sing, fern.] are used with 
refert and interest ; as, 

Non taa interest, It is not your business. 

Rem. 4. The thing with reference to which anything is important 
may be expressed by the ace. with ad; the degree of importanot, 
by the genitives magni,parvi, &c, [see Rule XI,] or by an adverb . 
while the subject may be an infinitive, a neuter pronoun, or a noun- 
clause. As, 
Hoc ad laudem civitatis magni interest, This is of gred important* 

to the glory of the state. 

Rem. 5. Smilis and its compounds, especially with the names of 
living beings, take a genitive, [see $ 142, Rem. 3 ] As, 
Smilis patrii, Like his father. 

§ 136. RULE X. Genitive of Crime. With verbs of 
accusing, condemning, acquitting, &c.,.thc genitive ex- 
presses the crime or offence charged. As, 

Servum furti accusal, He aocuses the slave of theft. 




Rem. 1. With some of these verbs the ablative with or without 
de. is used to express the crime; as, aliquam de ri ncrusare^ to accuse 
o*e of violence. 

Rem. 2. With damno and condemno the penalty is expressed bj 
flhc genitive, but oftener by the ablative, especially when it con- 
sists of money or land ; as, damnatur capitis, or capite, he i9 con- 
demned to death. Tertia parte agri damnaiur, lie is fined a third 
of his land. 

§ 137. RULE XI. Genitive of Price. The genitive 
is used to express the price or value of a thing indefin- 
itely; as, 

Magni ocstimabat pecuniam, He esteemed money highly. 

In this naftnnej arc us °d the genitive of .adjectives, and 
tke genitives as$is,jiocci } &c. ; also -pensi and hujus. 

Rem. X To this rule may be referred the expression czqui or 
Loni facio or consulo, I take in good part, I am satisfied with. 

Rem. '2. With astimo, and verbs of buying and selling, the abla- 
tives maffno, perrrmgno, plurimo, parvo, mmimo, and nihilo, are often 

For the genitive of place, see \ 166. Exc. . 

For the genitive with opus and usus, nee $ 160. Rem. 1. 

§ 138. EXERCISE 51. 


. a. urn, (£5(5), only, alovf. 
"turn, i, sin, fault. 
Phil tsophus, i. philosopher. 
Ultimns, a, nm, ^,74, 1), last. 
Imj erium, i. potOt r. command. 
Casus, us. ah 
Ar.v, arc-is, citadel. 

. o. sweet. 
Decorus. a. uin.o hnorable. 
Patrfa, ;>', c>unh\ . 
Turbidus, a, um, muddy, troubled. 
Amicitia, m, friendship. 
Oxoa, i, Oxus. (river.) 

Prudentia, ae, prudence. 
Hannibal, -bal-is, Hannil i 

i ilium, i. /. ih-i-il . 

toritaa, -tat-)*, auih»r\ 
Arlole^cn", -cent-is, young num.. 

Corrij-ere, (rex-, rect-) to correct. 

A-raitt-ere, (mi's-, mis*) to lose. 

Agcr«, (rtg-, act-) to lead, to drite^oi time, 

Mor,iri, mortuug, (£109), to die. {Inf. 

i 'ri, part. Jut. act. naoriturus. ' 
Sin-ore. (st'v-, sit-) to place.. 
Viv-ero, (vix--, Tict-) to live. » 
Appell-aro, to call. 
Perauc-ere, (-dnx-, <luct-) (<> eJpfl i 
Influ-ere, (-flux-, -flux-) to A •■> int . 
Carcur, carciT-i*. prison. 
Tulliifiium. i. Tulli '■in, Oi dungeon b 
Kir W) 

Re-ver-ere, rever-it«*. I 
Spectob-us, a, nm. (spect-aro), appro. 
Fort it ado, -in-i j . courage. 
Ki.ii' . ri. faith, pro 




Stulti est, * It is characteristic of a fool. 

Adolescentis est, . It is the duty of a young man. 

Meuin est, It is my duty. 

Tua ipsms [R. Ill, rem. 7] causa, For your own sake. 

Cujusvis honiiois est, It is every man's duty. 

Nocte quam ultimam (£129), egit, On the last night which he spent. 

Translate into English and analyze. 

Solms (R. Ill, rem. 7), raeum peccatum corrigi non pot- 
est. Philosophus, nocfc ^tiiiiri ultimam (§129, rem. 6), in 
terris egit, ann'cos onines convocavit. Helvetii oppidum 
quod optimum habeoant amiserant. Catonis pater et ma- 
ter mortui §128, rem. 1, (1), ) sunt. Regna, im- 
peria ; honores, divitise, in Dei manibus sita sunt. Filius 
Alexandri cum matre in arcem missi (§126, rem. 1; (1) b*) 
erant. Dulc'e et decorum est pro patria mori. Amicitia 
Uonum (§128, rem. 6,) est. Ad flumen Oxum perventum 
eet (§11'4, 5,) qui (§129, rem. 4) turbidus semper est. Ad 
locum in carcere quod (§129, rem. 5)' Tullianum vocatur 
perventum est. Animal qui (§129, rem. 5) homo vocatur, 
sine legibus beatus esse non potest. Cingetorix, qui a sen- 
atu rex atque amicus appellatus erat, sunnase auctoritatis 

§132. rem. 1,) apud # Gallos fuit. Hannibalis odium er- 
ga Remanos $131, rem. 3) atrocissimum fuit. Caesar a 
lacu Lemanno ad flumen Rhenum, fossam quindecim pedum 
(§182, R. VI) perduxit. Adolescentis est parentes suos 
amare ac revereri. Cujusvis bominis est virum spectata 
fortitudinis reve'reri. Stulti est ^le se ipso predicare. Kon 
meum est nuncios ad consulem mittere. Domini est pigros 
servos castig^fe. 

Translate into Latin. 

Your father corrects your faults for your own .sake. On 




the last day which the consul spent in the winter-quarters, 
he called together the centurions of the seventh legion. It 
is the general's duty to. conquer the enemies of the repub- 
lic. On the next (poster 6) day they reached (it was conie 
to) the river Rhone, which flows into our sea. Rome, 
which is the capital (head) of Italy, was taken by the 
Gauls. Is not a friend a good thing ? Fabius was a man 
of the greatest prudence. A general of the greatest valor 
does not always lead his array to victory. It is the duty 
of children to respect their parents, and of parents, to 
love their own children and correct their (corurri) faults. 



Arams, a, nm, covetous. 

Avidus, a, uin. eager, desirous. 

Ferax, (ferac-is,") productive. 

Amsms, (amant-is,)/wtf. 

Bxpers, (expert-is,) destitute. 

Tmparitus, a. um, ignorant. 

Meinor. (inoinor-is,) mindful. 

Inimemor. (or-is.) unmindful. 

lnsnctu.s. a, am, unaccustomed. 

Impotens. (-etrfr-is;) inlaid? to control. 

Proposition}, i, jnerjfOM.^ 

Cofascitis, a. um. conscious. 

Veritas, [4at-is,J trut,).. 

Tantus-aefn, a-dem, un-dwni,,^. ,' soiliucJi. 

Proditio, [-oii-is,J ireccherj. 

igestas, ftai -is,J poverty. 

Cupid itas, [-tatis.J desire, lust. 

OmYium. i. duty. 

Kloccus, i. lock of wool, [something of 

small valtn ■•] 
Miser-set, [miseru-] it piles. 

Poenit-et, [poenitu-] it repent*. 

l'ud-et, [pud a]- it s/tumes. 

Pig-et, [pigu-it, i>r j)i;-itniu est,} it lr6u- 
bles. disgusts. 

Tsed-et. [teeduit, teeswrn est, and pertte- 
sinn est,] it wearies. 

Vend-ere, [vnidid- vondit,] to sell. , 

Em-ero. [rv.\- eftapt-] to 1>U>J. 

Mon-cre. [monu- inouit-] to warn. 

Ad-inon-ri c. to rnnintt. 

Menrini [%11?>. R&pi.,l, 1, 3,1 I remember. 

ItrfiTt. [vo-tniit.j it conci rns, ' is the bu- 
siness of. • , 

tnter-est, [fuit.] it. U of importance.^ 

AcctMMtre, to Accuse 

Ab-so/v-ero, [-solr-'-solttM to aa 

Condom n-are, to condemn. 

iBstiirt-are, to esteem, value. 

r ac-ero, [fto- fact-J to viake, to value. 

Obiiviec-i, [obhtns,] to forget. 

Oppriofcere, [-press- -pro.-*-] to suppress. 


| a.] Patieus luburem, luring labor. — Participle. 

[b-] PfttieftS labori.', Capable of enduring labor. — Participial, 

[a.] Tlit participle eppro$te$ a single action at the time, spoken of. 
[!>.] The' participial expr§sse$ capability at ang time. 

J 70 THE CASES. GENITIVE. §187,188 

Jliseret me tui, Ipify you. . [It pities mc of y 

Me \ egis misf ruit, / pitied the king. 

Pcenitet puerum stultitice. The boy repeats of his folly. 

Pudet me sccleris, / am ashamed of my wickedness. 

Piget te vitce, You. are disgusted with life. 
Capitis or rei capitalis &C- 

ensare, To accuse of a capital crime. 
Capitis, orcapite, condemnare. To condemn to death. 

Flocci non facit, He cares not a straw — « rush, &c. 

Mea refert, It. is my business. 

Quanti hoc faci6? How much dp you value this? 

Translate into English and analyze. 

In hoc oratore plus eloquentise (§ 134, Rem. 1) est quam 
fortitudinis. Regis frater avidus est gloriae,* patiens la- 
borisy*. sed impotGns irse,* yeri'tatis* expers, reruni* ini- 
pen'tus, atque multorum sceleruni* conscius. QuantiTI 
quisque se ipse (§ 84', [b.] ) facit, tantiTT fit ab amicis. 
Mercatores con tanti-deniTT vendunt, quanti.1T emerunt. 
Fures veritateru non flocciH faciunt. Boniomnes virtutem 
magniTT sestiniant. QuantilT istos equos eniisti ? Hu»« 
latronem sceleris| sui neque pudet, neque poenitet. Me 
ciTitatis morunit tasdet pigetque. Civis qui rei capitali* 
(§136) accusatus est, tertia parte (§ 136, Rem. 2) agri 
condemnatus est. Pu'eros stultitise pcenitcbit. Catik'na 
alium {one man) egestatisff, alium [another) cifpidita- 
tis'i"| admonebat. Tua ipsius caus« te officii nioneo. Ci- 
ceronis (§135, Rule IX. [c] ) magoi (§ 135, Rem. 3) in- 
terest conjurationem Catihnac opprimere. Non mea seel 
regis refert fures latronesque -pumre. 

Translate into Latin. 

The general is desirous of money, but more desirous of 
ise. The farmer's fields are very productive of corn 

*$I35, Rule IX. [a.] Tf S 137, Rule XT. f ? 135, Rule IX, 

[a] ft 3 135, Rule IX, [b.] 

§140,141 • t TFIE DATIVE. 17i 

The consul is fond of war and tenacious (tenax) of hjs pur- 
pose, but ignorant of business (rerum) and destitute of 
truth. Lucius remembers a kindness and (neque) &oes%w, r 
forget an injury. The soldiers who were accused of treach- 
ery, have been condemned to death. Those who (§ 129, 
Rem. 4 2) are unaccustomed to navigation* fear the sea. 
The king cares not a straw for the laws of the state. It is of 
great importance to us to lead the army into the enemy^s 
country (fines.) For how m-uch did you sell your horse? 
For the same {tantideni) for which (for hoiv much) I bought 
(him.) Do you remember the speech of the excellent ora- 
tor 1 The scouts had not warned the general of the dan- 
ger. The tribune has been acquitted of treachery. Do 
you pity me ? 


§ 240. The dative expresses that to or for which', or 
with reference to tvhich, anything is, or is done. ' 

§ 141. RULE XII. Dative of Remote Object. The 
remote object of a verb is in the dative ; as, 

Serrus domino mtdicinam par at. The slave prepares medicine for his 

The remote object of a verb is the thing towards 
which its action fends, without necessarily reaching it. 

Note. — This dative is used with most verbs, especially 
with verbs compounded with ad, ante, con,, in, inter, eb y 
post, pne, pro, sub, super. 

Rem. 1. Transitive Tcrbs hare ;■!. -llfT-' object in the accusftj 


* Rule Xl.»[a.] 

172 THE DATIVE. 142,143" 

§ l$2i RULE XML Dative of Advantage or Disad- 
vantage. The darive expresses the person or thing for 
whose advantage or disadvantage anything is, or is done. 


. Servus domino fidus, A servant faithful to his master. 
Note. — This dative is used with adjectives expressing 
goodness, usefulness, fitness, &c. ; also with verbs meaning 
to favor, please, trust, obey, threaten,' bd angry, and their 
contraries. -These verbs are equivalent to esse with an ad- 
jective ; as, Irasci inimicis,=iratus esse inimicis, to be an- 
gry ivith oiie's enemies. 

Rem. 1. The verbs /wvo, delect o, Icedo, off 'endo, are transitive, and 
have a direct object in the accusative. Fido and confidp are often 
followed by the ablative. 

Rem. 2. Many adjectives take a» accusative with a preposition, 
instead of a dative ; as, servvs in domianm. fidelis ; locus ad iusidias 

Rem; 3. The dative expresses the person or thing to, or 
with reference to which, anything is clear, equal, like, un- 
like, near. Dative of Reference. 

'Rem. 4. Propior and proximus, like prope,- are sometimes followed 
by the accusative. 

§143. RULE XIV. Dative of Possession. The da- 
tive is used with esse to express the person who has, or 
possesses something, the thing possessed being the sub- 
ject. As, 

Est raihi liber, [a book is to me.] I have a book. 
Rem. 1. The possessor is expressed by the dative when the idea of 
possession is chiefly roff^rtj to ; as, Caisari domus est, Caesar has a 
house; — by the genitive, when the possessor, or thing possessed, is ref- 
erred to, r&ther than the fact of possession ; as, Usee domus Cozsark 
est, ilia Giceronis, This house is Cccsar's, that one is Cicero's. 

144,146 THE DATIVE. 173 

§ 144. RULE XV. Dative of Purpose or End. The 
dative is used with esse, and verbs of giving, coming, 
sending, imputing, and some others, to express the pur- 
pose of the action ; as, 

TT ., . . f These tilings arc for a care to me, 

liar, frith i cur a; sunt, ■{ T , ?. l7 . - 

(or 7 have these things for- a care. 

JS^f" These verbs may have a personal object in the da- 
tive, and, if transitive, a direct object in the accusative* 
As, College venit auxilio, Ha came for an aid to his col- 
league, (i. e. to his colleague's assistance.) Mihi librum 
dono dedit, He gave me the book for a gift. 

• Rem. 1. The verbs most commonly using a double da- 
tive are, esse, fieri, dare, ducire, habere, mtycrc, relinqucrc, 
tribuere, vei\ire, vertere. 

Hem. 2. The purpose may be expressed by a predicate nominative, 
•r an apposition, [see 127, Rem. l] ; as, Mihi come* Lucius est, £ 
have Lucius for a companion. Coronam Jovi donum mittunt, They 
send a crou-n to Jupiter, as a present. ® 

§ 145. RULE XVI. Dative to the Agent. With the 
gerundine in dus the dative expresses the agent or doer ; 

Adhibcnda est nobis diligentia, Diligence mum be used by us. 

Rem. 1. The poets sometimes use this dative with any «f the 
passive forms ; as, nequc ccrnitur alii, nor is he seen by any ene. 

Raw. 2. Instead of the dative, the ablative with a or ab is some- 
times, though rarely, used with the gerundine. 

§ 146. Dativus Ethicus. The dative of the personal 
pronouns is used sometimes to express strong feeling, 
and can scarcely be rendered into English ; as, An ille 
mihi liber cui mulier imperat ? Is he free whom a wo- 
man rules ? 




Rem. 1. Here may be noticed the use of the participles volens, 
cupuns. &c, -with a dative, in imitation of the Greek: a?, Ncque plcbi 
militia volenti {esse'] putabatur, Neither was the war thought to b« 
agreeable to the common people ; [literally, to the common peopl* 
wishing it.] a. 

§ 147. The dative is sometimes used almost like a geni- 
t& r e, but always with the idea of advantage, disadvantage, 
or reference. As, Cui corpus porrigitur, (compare the 
English) His body is stretched out for him. 




1 1.) Similis, c, like. 
Proxiinus, a, um, neared, fiectf. 
■ Aptus, a, tan, Jit, suitable. 
ASqutis, a, um, just. 
Blandus, a, um, flattering. 
Vtilis, e, tise.ful: 
Cams, a, um, dear. 
Ingratus, a, um, disagreeable. 
Facilis, e, easy. 
Per-faeilis, e, very easy. 
Noxius, a, um, hurtful. 
Iguotua, a, um, unknown. 
Inipedimentum. i, hindrance. 
Dedecus -or-is, disgrace. 
Usus, us, use, advantage. 
Impietas, tat-is, undutifulncss'. 
Nuniantmus, i, Numantian. 


Vehcraenter, [adv.] extremely. 
Commodum, i, convenience. 
Fav-ere, [fav-, faut-,] to favor. 
Stare, [etet-, 6tat-,] to stand. 
Parcere, [pepere- and pars-, parcit- 

para-,] io spare. 
Inquam, [§ 113, 4] I say. [Used only a£# 

ter one or mere words of a quotation. 
Prod-ess e, fprofu-] to do good. 
Prsefieere, [-fee-, -feet-,] to put ovei: 
Circum-dare, [ded-, dat-,] to give around) 

to surround. 
Circum-fundere, [fud-, fas-*] to pour a- 

round. to surround. 
Male-di'cere, [dix-, diet-,] to be abusive. 
Praetor-ire [-iv-or-^-, -it-,] to pass by. 
Jnnocentia, se, innocenee, integrity. 


[2.] Audiens dicto, Obedient, {attentive to the word.] 

Mihi magne est dolori, It is {for] a great grief to me. 

Hibernis Labienum prsefecit, He put Labienus over the winter -quarters. 

Regibus manus sunt longse. Kings have long arms (hands.) 

Dii omnibus colendi sunt, The gods ought to be worshipped by all. 

Urbem inuro abl. «ircumdare, ") „, * y * .. ... „ '„t; 

TT , . T . . , y To surround the city icith a wait. 

U rbi raurum circumdarc, J * f 

Terras mari [abl] circumfandcre, ") m ,_„„ . ,.,, 1r ,„i ' •,* .-.- 
m ./j jN l J . /.j > To surround the lann wun sea. 

Terns (dat.) mare cir«umfundere, j 

Aptus insidiis, or ad insidias, Suitable for ambush. 

Similis pat ris, Like his father, (in character.) 

&imili» patri, Like /us father, (outwardly.) 

§147,148 the dative. 17v> 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Helvetii proximi Germrmis (§ 141, Rem. 3) ineolunt, 
^uibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Loca proxima (§142, 
Rem. 4) Carthaginem Numidia appellator (§ 130, Rem. 1.) 
In loco insidiis (R. XIII.) apto, duas legiones colloer/vit. 
Nonne lupus est cani similis? Ferrum hominibus (11. XIII.) 
utilius est quam aurum. Jugurtha nostris vehem enter 
oarus, Numantmis maximo terrori (ft. XI.) fuit. CiuYis 
facile est anncis suis (R. XIII.)*.favfre. Yentus noxium 
(§ 128, Rem. 6) est arboribus. Jjegatus cohortes duas cas- 
tris (R. XII.) prsesidis (R. XV.) reh'quit, milites impera- 
tori (R. XIII.) audientes dicto non erunt. Milites non 
niulieribus, non infantibus (R. XIII.) pepercerunt. Neinini 
licet sui commodi causa alteri (R. XIII.) no cere. Caesar 
legionibus, quas in nrovincia conscripserat, Labienum prae- 
f<?cit. Deus toti orbi tern/rum mare circumf?/dit. Cscsar 
oppidum valio fossaque circumdedit. Gravia onera equiti- 
bus (R. XIV. or R. XIII.) magno sunt inipedimento.' In- 
nocentiae (R. XIV.) saepe plus periculi est quam honorig. 
Ha>c mihi (R. XIV.) praetcreunda non sunt. Hasdus in 
domus tecto stans, lupo practcreunti maleaixit. Cui lupus, 
"Non til," inquit, il sed locus mihi (§ 142) maledicit." 
Translate into Latin. 

The number of the enemy was unknown to the general. 
The undutifulness of children is a great grief to (their) 
parents. The thick woods were a very great advantage 
(XVI.) to our skirmishers. It is sweet and honorable to 
do good to the" commonwealth. Children are not always 
like their parents. It was very easy for our men to cross 

* Tho letters refer to the rule of Syntax ; the Arabic figures, to 
die remark*'. 

176 THE. ACCUSATIVE. • §lt9,15U 

the river. The consul's speech was very disagreeable to 
the Gauls. The snares of the enemy have been (for) a very 
great hindrance to our cavalry. God ought to be -worship- 
ped by all men. The causes of this rebellion ought not to 
be passed over by me. It is the greatest disgrace (XV.) to 
a soldier to leave his place in battle. The Roman people 
gave to the king for a gift the fields which he had conquered. 
Nature had surrounded the town with a broad and deep 
river. It is lawful for no man to lead an army Against his 
country. Be kind and just to all, but flattering to none. 


§ 149. The accusative case marks the direct object ,of 
an action, i. e. the thing actually reached by the action ; 
also the limit of space or time which an action or motion 

§ 150. RULE XVII. The direct object of a transi- 
tive verb is in the accusative. 

Rem. 1. An intransitive verb, though it does not require 
an object to complete its meaning, may be limited by 
accusative of similar, or kindred signification. (&Qg.iate 
•Accusative.) As, currere cursum, to run a race; riverei'.: 
am, to live a life. 

, Rem. 2. When the cognate noun is obsolete, a noun, or 
noun-sentence, equivalent to it in meaning, may be used. 
{Equivalent Accusative.) As, proficissi magnum iter, to go 
a great journey. 

Rem. 3. The cognate or equivalent noun is often omit- 
ted, and in its stead a neuter adjective is used, limiting the 
cogaate notion understood. {Elliptical Accusative.) As, 

§151,152 • THE ACCUSATIVE. 177 

multum<wihulat, be walks mucn ; he does much leaking. 
This accusative is used as an adverb. 

Rem. 4. A cognate, equivalent, or elliptical accusative may be used 
with a passive verb ; as, doctor doctrinam, I am taught teaching, 
science; doceor grammaticam, I am taught grammar ; nimiumdoctus, 
taught too much, too learned. 

Rem. 5. Many verbs which are transitive in English, iv. Latin re- 
present an action only as done with reference to the object, and hence 
have a dative : (see $142, Rem. 3.) 

§ 151. RULE XVIII. {a.) Verbs meaning to ask 
and teach, with celare, to conceal, take two accusatives — 
one of the person, the other of the thing ; as, 

Rogo te nummos, < / ask y*u for money. 
Docuit me musicam, lie taught me music. 
(The thing asked or taught is an equivalent accusative.) 

(£.) Second Accusative. Verbs meaning to- name or 
call, choose', appoint, make, esteem or reckon, take be- 
sides the direct object, a second accusative ; as, 

Urbem vocavit Romam, He called tlie city Rome. 
Me consulem fecistis, You have made me consul. 

Rem. 1. With verbs of asking, the person is often put in the abla- 
tive with a or ab, de, ex, instead of the accusative, as, Ilcec a te posco, 
I demand these things of you. Exigo, peto, postulo qucero, scitor, 
sciscitor, never have an accusative of the person ; as, Pacem a Caesare 

§ 152. RULE XIX. Twenty-six prepositions are 
followed by the accusative. See §120, 1. 

fi^T As a general rule, prepositions expressing motion to 
a place, take the accusative. 

Rem. 1. Many intransitive verbs, when compounded with a pre- 
position, become transitive ; as, transire flumen; succedere tecta. 
Rem. 2. A preposition in composition ofton has an object iu the 

12 • 

178 THE ACCUSATIVE. '§153,154,155 

__ ^ __ 

accusative ; as, Equitatum pontem transducit, He leads the cavalry 

over the bridge.. Equitatus pontem iransrfvritur, The cavalry are 
ted-over the bridge. ,» 

Bern. 3. The preposition is often repeated ; as, Equitatum trans 
pontem transducit. * 

§ 153. RULE XX. Accusative of time and space. 
Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by 
the accusative, sometimes by the ablative ; as, 

Tres boras mdnsit, He remained three hours. 

Fossa duos pedes lata, A ditch two feet wide. 

Note. The limit of time within which anything occurs 
is expressed by the ablative; uno anno, within one year. * 

§ 154. RULE XXI. Accusative of place Whither. 
The names of towns and small islands are put in the 
accusative to express the point which a motion reaches ; 

Romam venit, Fie came to Rome. 

Rem. 1. Domus and tub are construed in the same way. As, do- 
mum rediit, He returned home. 

Rem. 2. A preposition is generally used when the name of a town 
is limited by an adjective or an apposition— urbs, oppidum, $c. As, 
Demaratus se contulit Tarquinios ad urbem Etrurice,—to Tarquinvi, a 
town of Etruria. Ad doctas Athenas. proficisci. 

Rem. 3. The preposition is sometimes omitted in prose, often in 
poetry, before the name of any place to which motion is directed. 
Deveniunt speluncam. 

§ 155. As the accusative expresses the limit actually 
reached by an action or motion, so also it expresses the 
limit to which the truth of a proposition extends. Thus, 
membra nudus est, He is naked— not entirely, but only 
«s to his limbs. Hence, • 

§150,157 THE ACCUSATIVE. 179 

RULE XXII. The accusative is sometimes used to 
express a special limitation. (Ace. of limitation.). As, 

Nudus membra, Naked as to his limbs. 

Rem. 1. This is a Greek construction, and is rarely used in prose. 

Rem. 2. The poets often use an accusative with a*passive verb in 
the sense of the Greek middle ; as, Priamus inutile ferrum cingitiiT. 
Priam girds himself with (puts on,) the useless sword. 

§ 156. R1JLE XXIII. The accusative expresses 
the object of a feeling, with or without an interjection, 

As, * 

Hcu me miserum! Ah wretched me!. 

{propror and proximus, see §142, Rem. 4. 
miseret, t <$fc, see §185, Rem. 1. 
the infinitive, see §1S8. 

§157. EXERCISE 54/ 


Antiochus, i, Antiochus. Hab-ere, to have, to consider. 

Antiqchia se, Antioch. Cel-are, to conceal. 

Ancas Martiu8,-i, Ancus Martins, fourth Flagit-are, to ask for, to demand earnest! >j . 

kino '>/ Rome. Serv-ire, to be a slave, to serve. 

Mercurius. i, Mrcury. Trans-duc-ere, [dux-, duct-) to lead over. 

Inventor, -or-is, inventor. Trans-jic-ere, (jec-, ject-]fo throw over, to 
Antigonus, i, Antic/onus. ship over. 

lluotidie, daily. ' Red-ire, (gill, 9,) (redi-, redit-)fo return, 

Jucundus, a, um, delightful. Dis-ced-ere, (cepy-, cess-) to depart. 

Servitus, -tut-is, slavery. Pon-ere, (posu-, posit-) to place. 

Regulus. i. Sequ-i, (secut-us,) to folloio. 

.Juventus, -tut-i-<, ycuth. Per-gequ-i, to follow persevcringly, to pur- 
Musica, re, r,xu I sue. # 

Gramuiatica, «e, grammar. Doc-ere, (docu-, doct-) to teach. 

Pid08, ium. (frm.) strings, a lute. E-doc-erc, to teach thoroughly. 

Socrates, i8, Socr Nasc-i, natus, to be. born. 

Timid us, a, um, cowardly. Illic-ere, (illex-, illert-) to allure, to, decfiy. 

QertQS, a, um, certain. Rodd-oje, (reddid-,reddit-) to rtndcr. 

Stadium, i, zeal, desire, pi. study. Sol.ere, eolitus. to be accustomed. 

Vastitas. tat-in, devastation. Proficisci, profectuB, to set out, to go. 

Arl>itr-ari, to think, deem. - Posc-ere, (poposc- — .) to ask for, demand. 

1 S0 



Iter omnn celat, He conceals his journey from all. 

Regern patent po?cunt, They ask the Icing for peace. 
Unius diei iter, One day's journey. 

Annos (§152) quindecim natus, Fifteen years old. {Born fifteen years.) 
A. vita discedere, To depart from Life, to die. 

A millibus passuurn du- -1 rr .. , , , . .. „ 

obus caetra posuit, } He P liched h" ™™P two miles of. 
>Iillia pasuum duo (ace.) ] 

or, rnillibuE passuum j-ab urbe, tico miles from the city. 
duobus (abl.)„ ' J 

."Me fidibus docuit, He taught me to play on the lyre, (with the 

strings. Abl. of instrument,) 
Cresarem eertiorem (§151, b) faciunt, They infomn Caisar, {make more 


Translate into English and analyze, 
Urbeni, ex Antiochi patris (§127, Rule,) nomine Antio- 
chtam (R. XVIII, b) vocavit. Ancum Martium populus 
regeni (R. XVIII, b) creavit. Veteres Romani Mercuri- 
um omnium invenUrem (R. XVIII, b) artium habebant. 
Antigonus iter exercitus omnes celat. Quotidie Caesar 
JEduos frumentum flagitabat. Num timidus vitam jucun- 
dam (§150, Rem. 1) vivere potest] Qui (§129, Rem. 2) 
auri servus est, turpissimam servitutem (§150, Rem. 1) 
servit. Ariovistus maxima's Germanorum copias Rhenum 
. (§152, Rem. 2) transjecerat, neque multorum dierum 
(§132, Rule) iter (R. XX) a Caesaris castris abfuit. Quis 
regeni fidibus docuit 1 Alexander mensem (R. XX) unum, 
annos (R. XX) tres et triginta (§63) natus, a vita disces- 
sit. Jam vicessimum (§63) annum (R. XX) Italias vas- 
titatem paVimur. Regulus Carthaginem (R. XXI) rediit. 
Consul in Africam profectus, Carthaginem venit. Consul 
ab oppido, millia (R. XX). passuum (§134) duo castra 
posuerat. Catilma -juventwtem quam illexerat mala faei- 
nora (XVIII, a) edoccbat. Socrates totius mundi se in- 

§158,159 VOCATIVE — ABLATIVE. 18 1 

colam (XVIII)' et civem arbitrabatur. Exploratores de 
hostium adveutu consulem certiorem faciunt. Juvenes 
(§33, Rem. 8, Exc ) Romcmi Athenas [(XXI) studiorum 
causa proficisci solebant. 

Translate into Latin. 

Labienus followed Caesar into Gaul ; Marius returned 
Home. Our cavalry pursued the enemy ten miles. Caesar 
set out from the winter-quarters to Rome. The place and 
time often render cowards brave. Lust makes (renders) 
in en bl^nd. Which of the teachers (masters'} taught the 
boys grammar and music? My brother taught me to play 
on the lute. The general led all his forces across the 
bridge in one night. My brother is twenty years old. 
Caesar asked the senate for an army. The robbers demand- 
ed money from Caius. Are you going to Rome 1 for-the- 
sake-of Study 1 Ciesar was distant ten days' journey from 
the camp of Ariovistus. It-is-characteristic of a good gen- 
eral to throw his forces over a river quickly. A boy twelve 
years old used to inform the enemy of the approach of our 
forces. The Germans will pitch their camp ten niiles off. 


158.' The name of the person addressed is put in the 

§ 159. RULE XXIV. Ablative of Cause, Manner, 
-leans, Instrument. The ablative expresses the cause, 
manner, means, and, instrument ; as. 

Coccus avaritia, Blinded by avarice. 

Hoc modd fecit, He did it in this manner. 

Aquila alis volat, The eagle flies witli his Tfij 
Captivum gladio occidit. He kills the captive witli a sword. 

182 ABLATIVE. §160 

Rein. 1. The causal ablative is used mostly with intransitive and 
passive verbs, and with adjectives. 

Rem. %. The cauBe, especially with transitive verbs, is often ex- 
pressed by ob or propter, with the accusative. 

Kern. 3. Akin to the causal ablative is the ablative of source with 
participles expressing origin ; as, uatus dea, bottx of a goddess. 

Rem. i. The manner is expressed by the ablative of words mean- 
ing manner, — modus, mos, ratio, ritus : — or by the ablative of other 
words with cum; as, cum voluptate te audio. When an adjective is 
added to the noun, cum is usually omitted ; as, requo animo calami- 
tales ferre, to bear calamities with patience. 

Rem. 5. When the means or instrument is a person, £><?/• with the ac- 
cusative must be used ;.as. Per te liberates sum, I was freed tnrouyh 

Rem. 6. To this rule may be referred the ablative with 
the deponents utor, I employ myself with, I use; frubr, I 
delight myself with, I enjoy ; fungor, I busy myself with, 
I perform -^potior, {potis,) I nmke myself powerful with, I 
take possession of ; vescor, I feed myself with, I eat. 

Note. Potior sometimes takes a genitive, (/ make my- 
self master of. 

§ 160. RULE XXV. The ablative expresses the ma- 
. terial or supply. As, 

Germania fluminibus abundat, Germany abounds in rivers. 

j^P This ablative is used with verbs and adjectives of 
plenty or want, filling or' emptying, depriving, fyc ; also 
with opus est, there is need. 

Rem. 1. With opus and usus the genitive is sometimes used, and 
rarely the accusative. Opus is either subject of eU, or an indeclinable 
adjective in the predicate. Ducc nohis opus est, or Dux nobis opus 
est. _The latter construction is used with neuter pronouns and ad-, 
jectives ; as, Quid nobis opus est '. 

Rehi. 2. The genitive is also used with expressions of plenty or 
wants. See \ 135, Rule IX, d. 

§161,164 ablitjve: 183 

§161. RULE XXVI. Ablative of Limitation.— 
Nouns, adjectives, and verbs are limited by the ablative 
showing in ivliat respect their meaning is taken ; as, 

Oppidwn nomine Bibrax, A town, Bibrax by name. 

jEger pedibus, Lame in his feet. 

§162. RULE XXVII. Ablative of Price. The price 
or value of a thing, if stated definitely, is expressed by 
the ablative ; as, . 

Pdtriam auro vendidit, lie sold his country for gold. 

A>«. 1. The price or value, if indefinitely stated, is expressed by 
the genitive. See § 137. 

Rein. 2. To this rule may be referred the ablative with digitus, 
indignus, &c. 

§ 163. RULE XXVIII. Ablative of Separation.— 
That from which anything is freed, removed or separated, 
is expressed by the ablative ; as, 

Patriam hostibus liberavit, lie freed his country from enemies. 

Rem. 1. A preposition, (ab, de, ex,) is often used with this ablative. 

Rem 2. The preposition is rarely used with names of towns de- 
noting the place from which motion proceeds, or with the ablatives 
domo, humOy rurc and ruri. Roma discessit. Domo ezire, to go out 
from home. 

Rem; 8. Verbs of taking aicay have sometimes, instead of an ab- 
lative, a dative of advantage or disadvantage ; as, Nee mihi te eri- 
picnt, Nor &.hall they take you from me. 

§ 164. RULE XXIX. 'Ablative of Quality. The 
ablative limited by an adjective, is used to express the 
quality of a thing ; as, 

Serpens ingenli magnitudine, A serpent of huge size. 

m. 1. This ablative may form part of the predicate, like an ad- 
: as, Agcsilaus statura/e/eV humili, Jgcsilaus was of low stature. 
Rem. 2. A genitive may supply the place of the adjective ; as. 

184 ABLATIVE. §165,166 

: . • : , i. ■ 

Est bos cervi figura, There. is uti ox of the shape of a stag; (a stag- 
shaped ox.) 

§ 165. RULE XXX. Ablative of Comparison. The 
ablative is used with the comparative degree when quam 
is omitted, to express that "with which something is com- 
pared ; as, 

Mom est arbore altior, A mountain is higher than a tree. 

Bern. 1. The complement nf n comparative may be connected by 
the conjunction quam, eitbci ; .i rite Mime case, or in the nominative, 
subject of est, fuit, &c, understood. As, Fortiorem vidi tiffininem 
quam, Marium or quam, Marius (est.) 

Rem. 2. When the thing compared is the subject* the ablative is 
generally used ; as, saxum auro durius est ; also when the thing com- 
pared is the object, the ablative, especially of pronouns, is used ; as, 
Hoc nihil gratius facere poies. • 

But with a comparative in an;' other case than the nominative or 
accusative, the ablative is very mrely used. Quam is used with all 

Rem. 3. The complement of a comparative is often, omitted alto- 
gether, and the eomparative is then translated by too > or rather with 
the positive. Equites paulo longius processeranl, The hor$erne?i> had 
advanced a little too far. * 

Rem. 4. Plus, minus, and amplius are often prefixed to expressions 
of number, magnitude, &c, without effect upon the construction » 
as, J\ r on amplius horas sex mansit, He staid not more than six hour?. 
These words may be considered adverbs, pr indeclinable nouns. 

Longius, and the adjectives major and minor are sometimes used 
in the same way ; thus, puer annorum decern, a boy of ten years ; puer 
minor annorum decern, a boy o/less than ten years. 

§1-66. HULE^XXL Ablative of Place Where. The 
ablative, usually with the preposition in, expresses the 
place where ; as, . 

Castris, or in castris manrit t He remained in the camp. 

Alexander Babylone mortuus est, Alexander dieti at Babylon. 




He lives at Rome. 
He died at Miletus. 

fl^The preposition is rarely used with names of towns. 

Exc. The name of a town denoting the place where, if 

of the first "br second declension and singular number, is in 

the genitive ; a«, 

Habitat Romas, 
Miltfti mo'rtuus est, 

Rem. 1. The genitives domi, humi, militia:, and belli, also ex 
press the place where ; as, domi militiccque. at home and in service 
The genitive of names of islands and countries is sometimes use 
tbe same way. 

\ 1(57. RULE XXXII. Mlaive of Time When. Tfce 
point of time at which anything occurs is expressed by the 
ablative ; as, 

Tertia.hora, At the third hour. 

Rem. 1. The limit of time within which anything is done, is ex- 
pressed by the ablative. . See $ 153, note. 

Rem. 2 The time before or after an event is expressed, (a.) by 
ante or post with a numeral ; (b.) by antequam or postquam ; (c.) tHc 
time after an event, by tke relative or quum. 

After ton years, 

Ton roar* after. 

'post ifecem annos, 
decern post annos, 
post decCmum annum, 
decimuvi post an 
decern annis pod, 
decern post annis. 

Tvn years after 

post decern a 
d. pttt annos, 
d. post annum 1 

.Oil UiUB.IIM'l !■. fJVfl li il II a III. 

he lind come. ) decern annis post, ) venerai annis, 


'/. pOSt anna. 



When ante or post stands last an accusative specifying the event 
is often added, 

imo anno ante conjurationem. 

(c.) Octo diebus quikua occisus est, Eight days after he was kille '. 
Quatridiio quo <rc , In four days after he was Ml 

§ 168. RULE XXXIII. Ablative of Excess or De- 

Thc ablative is used to show how much one thing 

exceeds or falls short of another ; i 

Multis partibus major, Many times tar'ger. 
Diruidio minor, Less by half. 

186 ABLATIVE. ' §169,170 

> 169. RULE XXXIV. Ablative with prepositions. 
Twelve prepositions are followed by the ablative. See 

For the ablative of duration of time and extent of space, 6ee §163. 

For the ablative absolute, see §186. 

& 170. EXERCISE 55. 


FretuB, a, am, trusting. CoufYd-ere, [confrsus,] to trust. 

Concordia, ae, agreement. Cresc-ere, [crev-, cret-] to grow. 

Discordia, a^, disagreement. Dilab-i, [dilapsus,] to fall to pieces. 

Pterumque, (adv.) for the most part. Iuter-ire, [gill, 9]interi-, intorit-, to perish. 

^raror, or-is, griif. Loqu-i, [loewtus,] to speak. 

Incredibilifi, e, incredible. »Ut-i, [usus,] to use. 

Morsus, v.g, biting. Fru-i, [fructus,] to enjoy. 

Anxius, a, nm, anxious. Vesc-i,[ ,] to feed upon, to 

Xatus. bb, birth. Confic-ere, [-io, fee-, feet-,] to finish. 

Secundus, a, urn, favorable. Tut-ari, to protect. 

Tumultus, us, tumult. In-dw-cre, [dux-, duct-,] to lead on. 

Cadaver, -er-is, ($38, Ex. 2.) corps-*. lmpl-ere, [-plev , -plet-,) lo fill. 

Sensus, us, feeling, sense. spoli-are, to rob, deprive. 

Talentum, i, talent. Nad-ore, to strip.- 

A*, a.Tsis, [u^.] a farthing, a small coin Prokib-ere, to keep off, to anevent. 

Religio, -on-is, religion. Expell-ere. (expul-, expuls-,) to drive out. 

Invudere, [-vas-, vas-] to attack. Inter-dic-ere, (dix-, diet-,") to forbid. 

Nept«n\iB, i, Neptune, [God of the sea.] "Mut-are, io change, to exchattge. 


?*o ruocrore, On account of grief. A preventing cause. 

Major natu, Greater by birth, oidcr x elder. 

lie, (abl. of res.) In fact. 

Diax nobis (XIII) opus est, A leader is ?iecc$sary for us. 

Duce nobis (XIV) opus est, We have need of a leader. 

Maturato (part. ptrf. pass.) 

opus est, There is need of haste. 

Cives agris (§16(3) spoliare, fo deprive the citizens of their land. 
Equus mihi (§.142, Rem. 3) The horse cost me a talent. (Stood to me at 

talento stetit, a talent. 

Denis in diem assibus (§i62).For or at ten farthings a day. 
Asse (§16*2) carurn, Dear at an as. 

Aqua ($163) aliquem inter- 

dicere, To cut one off from water. 

Al eui(§14l or §142) aquam 

iaterdicere^ To forbid water to one. 

Aiicui (§142) aqua et igni 

1 63) interdicere. To cut one off from fire and water, io banish. 

§170 ABLATIVE. 187 

Translate into English and analyze. 
Hostes numero (R. XXIV, Rem..\) freti in nostros im- 
petum fecere. Dux hostium natznra (xxiv, Rem. 1) loci 
eonfidebat. Decima: legion i Caisar maxime eonfidebat. 
Con.cordia (xxiv) res parvne crescunt ; discordia maxima) 
dilabuntur. Multi oppidanorum fame et siti intericrunt. 
Numidse pleruraque lacte et carne (§159, Rem. 6) vescun- 
tur. Hannibal victoria (§159, Rem. 6) frui quam 
uti maluit. Catilina, cupiditatc regni inductus, conjura- 
tionein fecit. Sapientis (§138) est aequo animo dolorem 
ferre. Cornibus (xxiv). tauri, apri dentibus, mors,u leones 
se tutantur. Pater tuus nomine (§16 J) magis quam im- 
peyio (§161) rex fuit. jb'ratrum maximus natu fuit Orge- 
torix. Milites urbem tumultu (xxv) implebunt. Nept-u- 
nus ventis (xxv) secundis^vela implevit. Auctoritate tua 
(xxv) nobis (xiv) opus est. QuAitum argenti tibi (xiii) 
opus est ? Quanti (xi) iste equus tibi stetit ? Talento, 
(xxvii). Ha3c victoria nobis multo sanguine stetit. Denis 
(§63) in diem assibus anima et corpus militis eestimantur. 
Quod (§129, Rem. 2) non opus est asse carum est. Invi- 
tes cives Eomani uxores liberosque militum agris (§163) 
expellebant. Regulus Carthagine (§163, profectus, Ro- 
mam (xxi) pervenit. Sacerdotes Balbo (xiii)' aqua (xxviii) 
et igni interdixerant. Consul Roma (xxviii) discessit. 

Translate into Latin. •• 
The Britons live mostly on milk and flesh. The gene- 
ral, trusting in the nature of the place, kept his forces in 
camp. Very many poor- (men) have died of hunger and 
-thirst. I cann'ot speak for {on account of) grief. The 
townsmen besought Cgpsar with many tears. Orgetorix. 
richest and most noMe of the Helvetians, led 6n by the- 

]§S ABLATIVE. ^171 

desire of reigning (rcgiti). made a conspiracy of the no- 
bility. The soldiers finished the journey with incredible 
swiftness. Cicero wrote all his speeches with the greatest 
care- and diligence. . The Belgians attacked the camp with 
great shouting. It is the duty (vii.) of a young man to 
respeet his elders. Bocchus was king in name, but not in 
fact. The sailors had loaded the ships with gold. Thou 
hast deprived the citizens of (their) land ; thou hast stripped 
the temples of (their) silver and gold; thou hast filled the 
city with blood and corpses ; for these things (ob has res) I 
cut thee off fretn water and fire. We have need of haste. 
How much gold have we need of? This base fellow will 
exchange faith and religion for money. Lycurgus forbade 
the use of gold to his people. The iEduans were not able 
to keep off the Helvetians from their country. 

§ 171. EXERCISE 56. 


StatMJ'a, SB, stature, height. (Of a mail.) Dic-ere, [dix-, diet-.] to say, to call. 

Iljirailis. e, (g72, 2.) low. ■ Duc-ere, [dux-, duct-,] to lead, to diem. 

Kxiguua, a, urn, small, short. Cu'p-ere, -io, [cupi'v-, cwpt't-,] to i 

Poteatas, (tat-is,) power. Doctus, a, uni, learned. 

Perpetuus, a, uni, continual. Amplus, a, uni, large, much. 

Tyrannus, I, king, desjiot. Dimidium, i, half. 

QatiUBi (gen&V'ifi,) rac&f, family . Iufim'tua, a, um, b&undkss. 

Spelunca, re, cave. Altltwdo, -in-is, depth, height. 

Pravus. a, um, depraved, Ex.-^t-ere, [-stit-, -stit-.] to stand old. 

, shape, figure. • ■ Paulus, a, um, little. [Usually in neut.] 

Inferior, (£72, 4.) lower, of less value, i7i- Detlagr : cire, to bum down, to be &nfru 

ferior. Diana, ec, Diana. 
Posterior, (§72, 4.) later, of less account. Epheslua. a, um, JEphesian. 

Pracipuus, a, am, tspeciul. Punicus, a, um, Carthagenian. 

Varro, on-is, Varro. Scipio, -ou-ia, Scipio. 

llibernia, ;". // Africanns. a', um, African. [J surname. 

Antequam, jconjj before. • of Scipio. 

f'ost'juniii. [bonj.j after. Britannia, a u , Britain. 


Prcelium atroeius quam pro nu- ") A battle more fierce than in pro- 
mero puguantium, ' >■ portion to the numbers of com'ba- 

) tants ; or than foould have been ex - 

Qao ($1158^, longior dies, eo $168) peeled from (yc. 

nox brerior, The longer the day, the ehorlerthc night. 


Translate into English. 
•Agcsilaus statwra (§164, Rem. 1) fuit humili, corpora 
exiguo. Qui (§130, Rem. 2) potestate (§164, Bern. 1) est 
perpetua, tyrannus (§130, 2) habetur et dicitur. Lucius 
Oatih'na, nobili genere (§159, Rem. 3) uatus, fuit magna 
vi (§164, Rem. 1) et (both) animi et corporis, sod ingenio 
malo pravoque. .. Est bos cervi (§104, Rem. 2) fig^ra,cujus 
a media (§128, Hem. 8) f rente ununi cornu exsistit. Sa- 
pientis (§133) est liumana omnia virtute (XXX) inferiora 
ducere. Bello Punico (XXXII) quo (XXX) nullum ma- 
jus Rom<»i gessfre, Scipio Africanus praocipuam gloriam 
tulit. Hccc verba sunt varronis, quam fuit Claudius doc- 
tioris (§127). Eo die non amplius (§165, Rem. 4) tria 
millia hominu mocci'si sunt (§128, Rem. 3). Gallorum copioo 
non longius millia (§158) passuum octo abcastris aberant. 
Tribus annis (§167, Rem. 2, (a), ) post bellum civile pop- 
ulus SypUacem regem creavit. Homines quo' (XXXIII) 
plura habent, eo (XXXIII) cupiunt ampliora. Varro An- 
tioch?a3 (XXXI, Exc.) vixit. Cicero studiorum causa 
multos annos Athenis habitavit. Qua nocte natus est Alex- 
ander, eadem templum Dianse Ephesiae deflagravit. • 
Translate into Latin. 

It is the duty of a general to deem his own safety of less 
account than the common safety. Near the city is a cave 
of boundless depth. This soldier is of low stature and 
lame in his feet. I have seen no more beautiful (woman) 
than Tullia. On that day Cfesar advanced (proecdere) not 
more than six miles. The burden was too heavy for his 
strength. More men were killed than would have hren ex-- 
pected from the number of combatants. Three days after 
Caesar reached the camp, ambassadors were sent by the 


Germans The consul was blind for many, years before 
(antcquam) you were born. The king of the Thracians 
dwelt many years at Rome. Ireland is less by half than 
Britain. Cicero was much more eloquent than Crassus. 
The farther the enemy retreated, the more swiftly did our 
men pursue. Our horsemen pursued the enemy ti little 
too far. 


For change from active to pas#ive construction see \ 108. 

§ 172. RULE XXXV. Verbs which in the ^ctive take 
another case in addition to the object-accusative, iu the pas- 
sive retain that other case ; as, » 

Liber puero datMr, A book is given to the b,oy. 

Arbores foliis nudantur, The trees are stripped of leaves. 

Rem. 1. A second accusative in the active, (except with verbs of 
teaching and some verbs of asking,) becomes a predicate nominative 
in the passive. Urbem vocavit Romam ; Urbs Roma vomtur. 

Bern. 2. As intransitive verbs have no direct object in the active, 
they are not used personally in the passive, except with a cognate 
nominative. (Cursus curritur.) When they are used impersonally, 
the remote object is of course retained.' Mihi a teperst^adetur, I am 
persuaded by you. 


The finite verb consists of the indicative,subjunctive, and 
imperative moods ; the indefinite verb, of the infinitive, 
participles, gerund, and supine. 

§ 17.3. RULE XXXVI. The infinitive is often used as a 
. neuter noun in the nominative or accusative, and may be 
the subject ef a verb ; as, 

Gratum est tecum ambolare, It is pleasant to walk with you. 


§ 174. RULE XXXVII. Complementary Infinitive. — 
The infinitive is used as a complement {filling vp) with cer- 
tain verbs and adjectives expressing an incomplete idea; as, 
Parat helium gerere, lie is preparing to wage war. 

Rem. 1. The infinitive with adjectives is rare in prose, the gerund 
being generally used. Cupidus moriendi, rather than cupidus rrn 

Rem. ->. A purpose is not expressed in Latin prose by the infini- 
tive Thus, '/ came to see, must be translated ve?ii ui vidercm, not 
vc^ii vidcfe, though this construction is sometimes used by the poets. 
Rem. 3. An infinitive expressing an incomplete idea ($130, 3) has 
the same case after it as before it, if both nouns refer to the same 
thing ; as, volo esse rex. Nemini medio esse licet. Mihi esse poette 
dii non concesscre, The gods have not permitted me to be a poet. Pu- 
del vie victum discedere, I am ashamed to comet)fF conquered. 

Rem. 4. The accusative with the infinitive (§188) is sometime - 
used with licet, and the predicate noun must then be in the accusas 
tive ; as, nimini (se) medium esse licet. 

§ 175. RULE XXXYIII. Historical Infinitive. In 
animated narration the infinitive is often used like a past 
indicative ; as, 

Consul in Africam festinare, The cohsul hastened to Africa. 
For the accusative witn the infinitive, see $188. , 

For the construction of participles, see $185. 


§ 176. RULE XXXIX. The gerund is a verbal noun 

in the oblique cases, (the nominative being supplied by 

the infinitive,). and is construed with the same cases as the 

verb from which it is derived. 

Studium patrem videndi, The desire of seeing my father. 
Parcendo victis, By sparing tlic conquered. 

§ 177. RULE XL. Instead of a transitive gerund the 
gerundive is frequently used ; the object-noun being put 

192 'GERUND & GERUNDIVE. $178 

into the case of the gerund, and the gerundive agreeing 
with it in gender, number, and case ; as, 

Consilium ecribendi epistolam, 1 mi 7 . ., ... , . 

Ctnnlium epistola scribend*, \ The dm S n 0l wrifcm S a 1 . etler ' 

Rem. 1. A transitive gerund with an object accusative is not used 
iu the dative or accusative, but the gerundive is used instead ; as, 
Charta uiilis fat scribendis epistolis, or ad scribendas epistolas ; (not 
scribendo epistolas). So also when the gerund would be the object 
of a preposition the gerundive is used instead ; as, In victore laud- 
ando, (not victorem), In praising the conqueror. 

Rem. 2. The gerund is preferred when the object is a neuter ad- 
jective or pronoun; as, Studium aliquid faeiendi, The desire of do- 
ing something. 

Rem. 3. The genitive singular of the gerund is sometimes used 
instead of the genitiv"e plural of the gerundive, with a noun in the 
genitive plural ; Facultas agrorum latronibus suis condonandi, The 
opportunity of presenting our fields to his ruffians. So also in the 
expression, sui purpandi causa, for the purpose of excusing them- 
selves ; though sui may better be regarded the gen sing, neuter of 
the possessive, like nostri and vesiri. 

Rem. 4. The verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and sometimes rne- 
' deor, use the gerundive like transitive verbs. • 

§ 178. RULE XLL. The neuter gerundive is used im- 
personally with the tenses of esse, to express the necessity 
or duty of doing an action ; as, 

Scribendum est mihi, I must write, (/i must be written by me.) 


Rem. 1. The object of the action is sometimes expressed ; as, nobis 
ratione uteudum est, We must use reason. 

But with transitive verbs the personal constrution is almost always 
used ; as, Epistota mthi scribenda est, I must write a letter. 

(This use of the gerundive is sometimes e-alled the second Peri- 
phrastic Oonjugation.) 

Rem. 2. The agent is expressed by the dative (§ 145), rarely by 
the ablative with a or ab. 

5 J 79,180 



SUPINE. , . 

§ 179. RULE XLII. (a.) The supine in um (ace.) is 
used with verbs of motion' to express, the purpose of the 
motion, and is construed with the same cases as its verb ; as, 

Veuio te rogatum, / come to ask you. 

(b.) The supine in u is used with adjectives as an abla- 
tive of limitation (§ 161). As, 

Facile factu, Easy to be done, (with respect to the doing.) 

§180 EXERCISE 57. 


Spatium, i,-opportunity, time. 
Defessus, a, um, wearied. 
Negligcns, (-#nt-is.) cardies. 
Cur-are, to attend to. 
Arar, or Araris, is. (§33, licm. 1.) The 
. Saone, a river of Gaul. 
I'noil-ari, to plunder, 
Frumont-ari, to forage. 
Uoncste, (adv.) honorably. 
Ilcrminius. i. Uerminius. 
fertttam, i, javelin. 
Kloquentia, x, cloquenec.- 
MagQaoimll, a, um, magnanimous. 
Hi as, -tat-ia, age, life. 
.^atis, (noun, adj., or adv.,) enough. 
Conserv-are, to save, preserve. 
Purg-are, to cleanse, excuse. 
Siinul, (adv.) at the sa-nie time. 
Propon-ere, (posti-, po°it-,) to set up. 

Cupidus, a, um, desirous. 
Vexillum, i, flag, standard. 
Ag-ere, (eg-, act-,) to do. 
Ex-ccd-ere, (cess-, cess-,) to go out, retire, 
De-lig-ere, (leg-, lect-,) to choose. 
Di-rip-ere, (ripu-, rept-,) to pillage. 
Adhib-ere, to apply, to use. 
lle-scind-ere. (scid-, sciss-,) to ad down. 

Disc-ere, (didic-, ,) tolearn. 

Quer-r, questus, to complain of. 
Ke-pct-ere, (petiv-, petit-,) to ask bade. 
Per-cut-ere, (-io, cuss-, cuss-,) to strike, kill. 
Hort-ari, to exhort. 
Pro-fug-erc, [-io, fwg-, fugit-,] lo flee. 
Pro-puls-are, to repel. 
Collig-cre, [leg-, lect-,] to collect. 
Oogit-are, to think. 
Dc-sil-ire, [silu-, suit ,] to leap down. 
Arcess-ere, [-iv-, -it-.] to send for. 


Ncque,^-aeque, Neither, — nor. 

Spatiutn excedendi, Time for retiring. 

Consilium capere, To form a design. 

1'ontem in flumine faciendum > To have a bridge built over a river, (,« 
curare, J attend to the building a bridge, &c.) 

.»*«*£) f**"**M \ I must set out, J have io set out . 
est (§ 1/8,) / 

Mihi proficiscendum erat, / had to set out. 

Oir?ari (g 145) omnia agenda, Ccesar had to do all things. . 

Sui (| 177, Mem. 3) purgandi \ For the purpose of excusing himself, 

causa, j herself, themselves. 



A purpose may be expressed, 

[a.] After verbs of giving, &c, dy, a predicate gerundive ; 

fb.] By ad with the accusative of a gerund or gerundive ; 

[a] After a noun, by the dative of a gerundive ; 

[d.] By causa, gratia, with the genitive ; 

[e.] By the supine after verbs of motion ; as, 

[a.] Urbs militibus difipienda \ The city teas given to the soldiers to 

data est, j be plundered. 

[b.] Ad eas res conficiendas, For 'finishing, to finish, these things. 

Tel Me regein hello gerendo creavisti, I „ ., _ ' & 

rj t -«i x „. j- • t- r for the purpose of car- 

la. I ivle regem belli gerendi causa creavisti, ( r ,/ J 

L J ° * * ) vying on the war. 

[e.] Legati res repditum veniunt, Ambassadors come to seek redress. 

Translate into Englisli. 

Gerinanis neque consilii habendi (§177) neque arma ca- 
piendi (§177) spatium datum est. Magna pars equitatus 
praedandi frumentandique (§176) causa trans Rhenum mis- 
sa erat. Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur. Om- 
nes homines plura habendi (§135, a) cupidi sunt. Multi 
in equis parandis (§177) adhibent? curam, sed in amicis de- 
ligendis (§177) negligentes sunt. Caesar in Arari pontem 
faciendum (§177) curavit. Caesar pontem quern in Rheno 
faciendum euraverat, rescidit. Hominis mens discendo 
alitur et cogitando. Breve tempus aet«tis satis longum est 
ad bene honesteque vivendum. Herminius inter spoliandum 
corpus (§177) hostis verwto percussus est. . Loquendi elo- 
quentia augetur legendis (§177) oratoribus et poetis. Prin- 
cipes civitatis, sui conservandi causa, Roma (§163) profu- 
gerunt. Fortes et magnanimi* sunt habendi non qui 
(§129, 2) faciunt, sed qui propulsant injuriam. Illo ipso 
die mihi (§145) proficiscendum erat. * Militibus de navibus 
erat desilienduin. Mendaci a nullo creditur (§172, Rem. 2). 
Mihi a te noceri non potest (§172, Rem. 2). 

* Predicate nominative after sunt habcntli. 


Translate into Latin. 

The verb esse is often omitted with participles. 

The Gauls had formed the design of attacking the town. 
Time for retiring from (out of) the fight was not given to 
the wearied. The hope of plundering had recalled the far- 
mers from their fields. The general gave the city to his 
{soldiers to be plundered. Tho chiefs of the. State came to 
Caesar for the purpose of excusing themselves. The king's 
daughters had fled from home (XXVIII) for the purpose 
of saving themselves. The Gauls send ambassadors to Koine 
to complain-of (supine) injuries, and to seek redress. A 
short life is long enough to accomplish all these things. 
Cassar had to do all things at one time ; the flag had. to be 
set up, the soldiers recalled from the work; (those) who had 
advanced a little too far, sent for ; the line had to be drawn 
up ; the soldiers exhorted ; the signal given. The soldiers- 
had at the same time Both to leap-down from the ships, and 
to fight with the enemy. We learn by teaching. We live 
by eating. The Helvetians were "desirous of carrying on 
war. We must lead the army over the river. We must 
respect our elders, favor our friends, obey the laws. We 
mutt love (§178, Bern. 2) our parents and icorship God. 
The enemy's ships cannot be hurt (§172, Rem. 2) by our 


§ 181. 1. Sentences are either principal or dependent. 
A principal sentence makes complete sense when, stand- 
ing alone ; a dependent sentence does not make com- 
plete sense when alone, but must be connected with an- 
other sentence. 


_ 2. Dependent or subordinate sentences are of ten 
kinds, viz. :' 

[1] Participial sentences, ,'1. e. those whose predicate Is a participle. 
[2] Infinitive sentences, i. e. those whose predicate is an infinitive. 
[3] Causal sentences, intfoduced by the causal conjunctions quod. 

quia, &c. 
[4] Final sentences, introduced by a final conjunction. 
[5] Conditional sentences, introduced by a conditional conjunction. 
[6] Concessive sentences, introduced by a concessive conjunction. 
[7] Comparative sentences, introduced by a comparative conjunction. 
[8] Temporal sentences, introduced by a temporal conjunction. 
[9] Relative sentences, introduced by a relative pronoun. 
[10] Interrogative sentences, introduced by an interrogative word. 

3. Every dependent sentence is either a noun, adjec- 
tive, or adverb, limiting either the subject or predicate 

of the principal sentence on which it depends (hangs 


4. Sentences of the same rank, whether principal or 
dependent, may be connected by conjunctions, and are 
then said to be coordinate with each other. Coordina- 
tion is of five kinds, viz. : 

[1] Copulative, e. g. His father has abandoned him, and his friends 

have deserted him. 
[2] Disjunctive ; e. g. Either his father has abandoned him, or his 

friends have deserted him. 
[3] Adversative; e. g. His father has abandoned him. but his 

friends will not. 
[4] Causal; [introduced by nam, namque, enim, etenim,'] e. g. His 

friends will desert him, for his father has abandoned him. 
[5] Conclusive ; e. g. His father has abandoned him, therefore his 

friends will desert him. 




§182. RULE XLIII. The indicative is used botli 
in principal and dependent sentences when a fact is 
stated. • , 

§183. RULE XLIV. The subjunctive is used when 
a thing is stated, not as a fact, but simply as conceived 
in the mind ; 

[a] In a softened assertion.; as, Hoc confirmavcrim. I think I can 
assert this. 
' [b] * In a question implying doubt, or expecting a negative an- 
swer; as, Quid faciamus ! What shall we do ! 

(c) To express a supposed case ; as, Forsitan aliquis dixerit, Per- 

haps some one will say. 

(d) To express a command or prohibition ; as, Ne hoc feceris, Do 

not do this. 

Rein. The subjunctive is always used to express a command or 

exhortation in the first person, the imperative having no first person: 

as, eamus, let us go. % 


§184. The tenses are either primary or historical. 

Primary, ' 


He loves. 


■I Aniabafc, 


He will love. 



(. He was loving. He had loved 


Amovit, t * | 
He has loved. 


He loved. 

RULE XLV. /Succession of Tenses. If there be a 
primary tense in the principal sentence, there must be 
a primary in the dependent sentence? if there be an his- 


torical tense in the principal, there must be an histori- 
cal in the dependent. 


Venio ut videam, / come, that I may see. ut videam, / will come, that I may see. 

Veni ut videam, I have come that I may see. 

Venicbani ut vidcrem, / was coming that I might see, 

Vciii ut viderem, / came that I might see. , 


§185. 1. The participle is used to abridge discourse, 
and may stand in the place of a causal, final, condition- 
al, concessive, relative, or temporal sentence, or a prin- 
cipal sentence connected by et with what follows. 

2. (a) The participle may agree with the subject or 
object of the principal sentence, {participial conjunctive 
construction); as, Aristides patria pulsus Labedcemo- 
nem ficgit, Aristides when driven from Ids country fled 
to Sparta: — (b) Or, it may stand with a noun 01* pro- 
noun in the ablative, without grammatical connection 
with any word in the principal sentence ; as, His rebus 
constitwtis consul discessit, These things being deter- 
mined upon, the consul departed. [Ablative Absolute.) 

3. Here may be noted some peculiarities in .the use of the partici- 

(a.) The participle in rus is used with the verb esse to represent 
the agent as about to perform, or intending to perform an action. 
Locuturus.fuit, He was on the poi^t of speaking. (This is sometime- 
called tLe First Periphrastic Conjugation. 

(b.) The participle in rijs, especially with verbs of motion, is some- 
times used to express a purpose. Ad Jovem Ammoncm pergit consul- 
turus de origine sua, lie goes to Jupiter Ammdn to consult about his 


(c.) The perfect passive participle is often used like a verbal noun 
in -ioor -us ; as, Ab urbe condita, From the building of the city.. Post 
prcelium factum, After the fighting of the battle. 

§ 186. RULE XLVL (Ablative Absolute). A noun 
and participle whose case depends upon no other word, 
are put in the ablative called absolute, to express the 
time, cause, Condition, or circumstances of an action. 

Pythagoras, Tarquinio reg- ) Pythagoras came to Italy in the reign of 
nante, in Ttaliam venit. j Tarquin, (Tarquin reigning). 

Rem. 1. Two nouns, or a noun and adjective, arc often used in 
the Ablative absolute without a participle. 

Nat.vra duce, Under the guidance of nature, (nature being guide.) 

Manlio cousule, In the consulship of Manlius, (Manlius being consul.) 

Rem. 2. This construction is used only when the subject of the 
participial sentence is different from that of the principal sentence. 
(A few instances of this construction with a personal pronoun are 
exceptions, j 

§ 187. EXEHCISE 58. 

Vocabulary. , 

Rejjentinugj a, am, sudden. Arrip-erc, [-io, ri'im-. rert-,] to snatch up. 

Tsmpestas, -trn-is. /.' Nancisc-i,, [nactus,| to obtain. 

Ulterior, [£74, 1} farther. Progred-i, [lor, progressus,] to go forward. 

Dyonysiu8, i. Dyohjj&ius, Cohort-ari, to encourage, exhort. 
STracM883, ortvm, Syracuse , a city of- Sicily. Cond-ere, [condid-, condit-]£o build, found. 

l'ullitit.Uio, on-is, promise. Coni-mitt-ere, [mis-, miss-,] to commence. 

Krr-are, to err, to wander. Del-ere, [iletav-, clelet-,] Jto destroy. 

De-sper-dro, to <• d-i, [-tor, aggressus,] to go to, attack. 

Atheniensis, is, an Athenian. Ver-eri, [veritug}] to fear. 

Messala, a«, Messala. A<l-d«c-ere, [dux-, duct-.] t-o lead on. 

. on-io, Piso. . Ex sentcntla, according to one's notion, 

i. se, a Persian. • satisfactorily. 


CoBgar, having eallcd a council ordered, Coesar, consilio convoczto, 
» j'nssit. 

Translate into English. 
Nostri, rcpentina re perturbati (§ 185, 2, a) arma arripi- 
uut. Barbari,.multitudine navium perterriti (§ 185, 2, a) 


i litore diseesseranfc. Nactus idoneam ad. navigandum 

(§142, Rem. 2) tempestatem, tertia. fere vigilia (§1&7) 

equites in ulteriorem portum progredi jussit. His rebus 

ex sententia confectis (§186), imperator, niilites cohortatus, 

proeliuin commisit. Viginti annis (§167. Rem. 2) ante 

Oatonem natum (§185, 3, c) pater meus vita (§163) dis- 

cessit. Anno (§167) quadragesimo (§63) primo ab urbe 

condita (§185, 3, c) Numa rex (§130, 2) creatus est. 

Haud multis annis post Carthaginein deletam (§185, 3, c), 

Jugurtha natus est. Dyuuvdius tyrannus, Syracwsis (§163) 

expulsus, Corinthi (§ 166, Exc.) pueros docebat. Legatus 

signum militibus non dedit cupientibus. Natz^ra duce 

(§186, Rem. 1) nunquam errabimus. His rebus constitwtis 

(§186) legati regem de rebus suis desperantem, multis pol- 

licitationibus aggrediuntur (595, Rem. 2). Hac re statim 

per speculates (§159, Rfafi. 5) cognita, Caesar, insidias 

veritus, exercitum castris (§166) continuit. Alexander in 

Asiam contendit regnum Persaruin occupatwrus (§185, 3,b): 

Caesar in Italiam profectwrus (§185, 3, a) principes civita- 

tum ad se convocat. Consul collem occupatwrus est. Ath- 

enienses legatos miserunt oraculum consult uros (§185, 3,b), 

Marco Messala et Marco Pisone consulibus (§186, Rem. 1) 

Orgetorix, cupidine regni adductus, conjurationem nobilit- 

atis fecit. , 

- 'Jranslate into Latin'. 

Who will err under the guidance of nature ? Who, pray, 
will not err under your guidance 1 In the consulship of 
Manlius the Gauls sent ambassadors to Rome. These 
things having been determined uppn, the line of battle hav- 
ing been drawn up, the signal having been given, our men 
commenced battle. Both parties fought (§114, 5) bravely. 
The consul, fearing the enemy's cavalry, kept his forces in.. 


camp ( for) three days. Two years before the destruction 
of Carthage the Numidians sent ambassadors to Rome to 
the senate. The general is going to attack the enemy at 
sunset. In the reign of Tarquin jthe proud, many noble 
citizens were murdered at Home. The general having call- 
ed together his lieutenants, ordered them to cocnmence the 
battle. The Athenians, having consulted the oracle, re- 
turned home. Adherbal, (when) expelled from Numidia, 
fled to Rome. These things. having been satisfactorily ar- 
ranged, Caesar set out to (jn) Britain. 


§188. RULE XLVII. After expressions of saying, 
thinking, fic. 9 (verba sentiendi et dicendi,) and certain 
impersonal expressions, dependent sentences introduced 
in English by that, are expressed in Latin by the accu- 
sative with the infinitive ; as, 

Dicit me scn'bere, He says that I write. 

Rem. 1. The infinitive expresses an action as present, 
past or future, with reference, not to the present time, but 
to the time of the leading verbT 

Dicit, lie says \ mo scribere, "V me scripaisse, "J me scriptnrum esse, 
Dicet, he will say -tlmtj wi^ie. or -Unit I have written, -that I will write. 
Dixit, hehas said) am writing. ) J 

[b] Dicebm, he was saying] rue scribere, "i me fecripaiaao,'} me afcripturum 

Dixit, he said - that ! ibrote, or >- that '/ had -that I would ivrite. 

Dixenat, lie had said y was writing. J written. ) 

^ epiato] mi Borlbi, ") op. iwiptam eMe, | ep. acriptum i"ri, 
:. &c., Vthat the letter is be- ythat .the Mter ha 

I ing written.* ) been written. J be written, 
\ epiatolam soribi, ~) cp. scriptami esae, ~) ep. acriptum iri, 
[b] Dixit, he said, <fc. >that the letter was >that the letter had > thai the lettei 
j being written. \ been written. ) would be written. 

Hones, after a primary tense (a) the iufirritive is translated like 
Jhe indicative of the same tense, i. e. an inf. present, like an indica- 

A ' iubtful . which, b< ■ tfted u] on (he language 


tive present, kc. ; after an historical tense (b) the inf. prefect, is 
translated like the indicative imperfect ; the inf. perfect, like the in 
dlcative past perfect ; the inf. future like the suojunctive imperfect. 
(should or would) ; and the inf. future-perfect (fuisse scripturum), 
like the subjunctive past perfect (shouldhave, would have). 

Rem. 2 The accusative with the inf. fut. passive is properly the 
object of Ihe lupine, the inf. pres. passive iri being used imperson- 
ally ; dicit epistolam scriptinn iri, he says that it is gone to write the 
letter ; i. e. that some one is going to write it, and hence, that it will 
be written.' . ' 

Rem. 3. An infinitive sentence is always a nouit- 
sentence, the object of a verb of saying . or thinking, the 
subject of an impersonal verl), or in apposition with another 

§189. EXERCISE 59. 



Negare, to deny. Constat, con-sfitit, it is evident). 

Jugum, i, yoke. Aiiiinad-Yert-ere, [vert-, vers-,] to perceive. 

Bi&nnium, i, two years. . Nosc-ex-e, [nov-, not-] to find out, to know 

Victor, or-is, conqueror. Conjic-ere, [-io, jeo, ject-,] to hurl. 

Prod-itor. or-is, traitor. Poliic-eri, pollicitus, to promise. 

Cog-ere, fcoeg-, coact-,] to compel. Sper-are, to hope. 

Res farniliaris, property. Renunti-are, to bring back word. 

Farniliaris, e, pertaining to the family. JPell-ere, [pepul-, puis-,] tobcat, di 

Compar-are, to acquire. Min «ri, to threaten. . 

Facultas. tc'.t-is, means, ojyportunity. Cor. firm-are, to declare, assert, 

Larg-iri, to bribe. . Kedd-ere. [reddid-, reddit-,] to give ua< 
Neglig-ere, [neglex-, neglect-,] to neglect. return. 

> ConBid-ere, [secU, sees-,] to encamp. " Opprim-ere, (oppress-, oppress-,) to, oppress. 


Sub montc, Jit the foot of the mountain. 

(a.) Ceesari nunciatur, Word is brought, it is announced, to Caesar. 

(b.) Rex se negotium confeeturum polli- ") The king promises to finish 

cctur, - j the business 

(c.) Latrones se regem occisuros esse \ The robbers threatened to slay 

minabantur, j the king. 

fd.) Imperator se regem futurum ) -,, , . . , . . 7 . 

' K . B J > The general hoped to be king. 

sperabat, . J . 

-.; Memoria ($ 16G) tenere, To remember. 

... x n , ) Citsar says that he cannot, (denies that M6 

(r.) (,sesar nesat se posse, y v 

v ' c i can. J 


f x m . . • . } Ii is base for a king to lie, (that a 

(g.) Turpe est regem menttn, } ^ ^ } 

(h.) Constat inter ©nines,' All are aware, {it is evident among all.) 

,. ., ,.4 .■ " i ,, } It is said that Juvuriha is king. 

(i.) Dicitur Jugurthani regem esse, y JZ , 6 , k .. v* 7 

v ; ° ° 'j (Impersonal construction.) 

T • ., ,. ., ).Juqurtha is said to be king. (Personal 

Jugurt >.a dicitur rex esse. > l ' . I .. * ^ \ 

ft ' 3 construction.) 

Translate into English. 

Exploratores dicunt oppidum ab hostibus tencri. Cams 
/rat rem suuni magno in pcriculo esse auimadvertit. Gcesari 
(§ 141) notum est Dumnorigem Helvetiis (§142) /avere. 
Keginae nuDciabo te cenisse. Galba ab exploratoribus cer- 
tior factus est Gallon omnes discessisse. Caesarr nuntiatum 
est Gallos propius accedere ac lapides ^claque in nostros 
conjicere. Nuncius pellicetur sc ncgotium ex sententia con- 
fecturum esse. Principes seperabant sc totius Galliao (§159, 
note) -potin posse. Equites renuntiaverunt oppidum ex- 
pugnatum esse. Cassar memoria tenebat Luciiim Cassjum 
consulem occisum (esse), exercitumque ejus ab Helvetiis pid- 
sum et-sub jugum missum esse. Caesar negvmt se Helvetiis 
iter per ^rovinciam dare posse. Ad eas res coniiciendas 
(§ 177) Helvetii bierinium sibi (§ 142) satis esse duxerunt. 
iEqurn est victor cm parcere victia (§ 142). Non sine causa 
dictum est divitlas alas habere. Constat, inter omnes nem- 
i'nem sine virtwtej beatum (§ 174, Rem. 3) esse posse. 
Translate into Latin. 

The cruel chief threatened to slay (§ 189, Exc.) the wo- 
men and children. Ariovistus declared that he would not 
return the hostages. Caesar said that he was not leading 
the army against his country. This base traitor will say 
that he has ??e>£ announced our plans to the enemy. Who 
can aBsert that he has never violated the laws* of God ? 
Punmenx asserted that he was about to seize the kingdom. 

204 CAUSAL SENTENCES. §13'9-'9Q 

All were award that the robbers had slain the merchant. It 
is not just for a rich man to oppress the poor. It is said 
that in Africa men eat human flesh. The Belgians are said 
to be the bravest of all the Gauls. Word had been brought 
to Caesar that the enemy had moved his camp, and had en- , 
camped at the foot of the mountain. Ctesar had said (dicere) 
that he would not neglect the injuries of the ^Eduans. The 
chief thought that he would compel the 'nobility by force. 
The consul hopes by these things to increase (§ 189, Ex. d) 
his property, and to acquire means for (aaV) bribing. 


§ 190. Dependent causal sentences are introduced by 
all the causal conjunctions except nam, namque, enim, 
denim, which introduce principal sentences. 

RULE XL VIII. The subjunctive is used in. causal 
sentences when a statement is made, not as a fact, but 
as the assertion or opinion of some one else ; as, 

Socrates .accusatus est quod ") Socrates xvas brought to trial, because (as 
corrumperet juventutem. / men said) he corrupted the youth. 

Rem. 1. A verb of saying or thinkiyg is sometimes ex- 
pressed, and the subjunctive still' retained by a species of 
attraction. What would have been the predicate of the 
causal sentence becomes the accusative with the infinitive. 
Jraf/us est Caius quod diceret leges esse violatas, instead of 
iratus est Gains quod leges essent violatse, Caius was angry, 
hecawe (as he alleged) the laws had been violated. 

Rem. 2. Dependent causal sentences are nouns, usually 
limiting 1%e predicate like a causal ablative. The causal 
conjunctions quod, quia, &c, are relative words. 


CAJJBMi Sentences. 





Liacus, i, Liscus. 
Graviter, securely. 

Ai-.-us-iU'o, to censure, accuse, td cult to 

Quod, (conj.) because. 
Tam, (adv.) so. 

NecesBavina, a, nm, tuoestwy, critical. 
Propinquns, a, am, near,. 
Suldrv-are, to rclicrc. 
Karudos, am, f/> Hdradians. 
Quia, bei-ause. (expressing a motive.) 
Quooiam, (quum — jam,) ttnee. because, 

(ax every body knotn.) 
Unde, (rel. adv.) whence^ from which. 
Presens, ont-is, present. 

Tnrus-mr. to blame, find fault with. 
Popukari, to fcy waste, 
tmped-ftre, to hinder. 
Iteligio, on-in, religion, a oomj. 
Baperstitio, 90-is, superstition. 
Introdwc-vro. [dux-, duct-.] to introduce. 
Concilium, i, council. 
Comimp-erc, [rup-, rupt-.] to corrupt. 
Kr-pn-liond-ore, [prebend-, prohens-,] ^o 

Vac-are, to &e unoccupied. 
Partim, [adv. g31, jRem. 2] partly. 
('\>nsul-c;v. [suln-, suit-,] to Consult. 
l'nctcr niodiuu, unduly, beyond measurt . 
Jact-are, to discuss, to tow abotlt. 
Ratio, on-is, fifan, rrason. 


Res ita se liabet, This is the case, (the thing thus has itself.) 

Multis presentibus (| ISO,) In the presence of many. 
Ciritati consalcrc, To consult for, look to, the stale. 

Translate into Englkli. 

Cresar, principibus convoc«tis, Divitiacum et Liscum 
graviter accusat quod tam necessario tempore (§167), tam 
propinquis hostibus (§186, Rem. 1), ab iis non sublevctur ; 
multo (§168) etiam gravius, quod ab iis sit destitutes 
queritur. JEdui legatos miserunt questum (XLII, [a] ) 
quod Har?tdes agros eorum popularcntur. Socrates nccatus 
est, non quod juventritem corrumperct et novas supersti- 
tioHes i?itroduceret, sed quia Athenienses de sceleribus rcprc- 
hendebat. Id ea ratione Caesar fecit ; quod nolebat enm 
locum \mde (§ 129, Rem. 10) Helvctii discesserant. vacare 
(§ 188). Dumnorix se in Gallia relinqui (§ 188) volebat, 
partim quod insuetus navigandi (IX, [a] ) mare timerct, 
partim quod religionibus impedirctur. Caesar, concilio con- 
vocato, centuriones omnium ordinum [§ 132] vehementer 
incusavit quod de rebus minime ad cos pertincntibus sen- 

206 FINAL SENTENCES. s 192- 93 

tentiam dixlssent. Quoniam civitati [§ 142] consulere non 
possum, niihi consulam. Quoniam res ita se habet, in urbem 
redeamus [§ 134, Rem~]. 

Translate into Latin. ' 

Cresar cut down the bridge which he had had built [see 
§180, examples] over the Rhine, because he was unwilling for 
the Germans to follow him into Gaul. Was not. Aristides 
banished from his country, because [as men thought] he was 
unduly just 2 The .ZEduans complained that [because'] Ari- 
ovistus had [as he alleged] led a great army of Germans a- 
cross the Rhine. Csesar, because he was unwilling [a fact] 
for these things to be discussed in the presence of the am- 
bassadors, quickly dismissed the council. The consul said 
that since he could not consult for the state, he would look 
to his own safety. You desire to slay me, not because [as 
you allege] I have violated the laws of the commonwealth, 
but because I hav/e rebuked you severely for your crimes. 
The shepherd blamed his son strongly, because he had neg- 
lected to shear the sheep. Since this is the case, let us set 
-out. Liscus said that since such' was the case, he would 
speak a few things. 


§192. Final sentences express a purpose or result, 
(the end to which an action tends,) and are introduced 
by the final conjunctions ut, ne, quo, quin, quominus. 

§193. RULE XLIX. The predicate of a* final sen- 
tence is in the subjunctive ; as, 

Vcni ut videam, / have come to see. 
Note. — As a purpose has reference to the future, and is n«t a 
fact, but something conceived in the mind, it ehould obvi-usly be ex- 

§192— '93 FINAL SENTENCES. 20' 

pressed by the subjunctive. A result is a purpose accomplished, and 
was regarded by the Latins, not so much iu the character of a fact, 
as of what was intended to follow, or would naturally be expected 
to follow, in the circumstances, and is therefore indeterminate ; 
hence the use of the subjunctive. 

Rem. 1. Ut or uti expresses either a purpose or a result. 

Vcni ut -videam, I have come to see, (that I may see.) 
E6 impetu milites icrunt \\t\ The soldiers woitivith such violence that • 
' hostes se fugee mandcrrent, / the enemy took to' flight. 

Rem. 2. [a.] Ne always expresses a purpose, [that — not* 

Te obscero ne hoc facias, '/ beseech you not to do this. 

A negative result must be expressed by ut — non. 

[b.] With verbs of fearing ne is translated that, and ut, 
that — not, the final sentence being constructed with refer- 
ence to the contrary purpose or hope implied in the verb of 
fearing. Timeo ne inoriatur, 1 am afraid that he will die. 
[It is my purpose that he shall not.'] Timeo ut moriatur, 
/ am afraid that he will not die. [It is my purpose that he 
aha 11.]* 
• Ne — noa is sometimes used for emphasis, especially 
after a negative ;' as, Non vereor ne tua virtus opinioni 
hominum non respondeat, I am not afraid that your valor 
will not answer the expectation of men. 

Rem. 3. Quo, that, is generally used in preference to 
i<t, when a comparative enters the sentence. 

Catsar pontem fecit quo fucilius fluraen transiret. 

Rem. 4. Quin, but that, but that — not, [=qui non or 

ut — non,] is used with negative expressions and expressions 

of doubt. 

Nemo est quin putet, There' is one who does not think. 

Nemo tarn imperii* est quin putet, No one is so foolish as not to think. 




Rem. 5. Quominus, that — not, is generally used with ex- 
pressions .of hindering in preference to' nc. 

Nihil Caio obstat quorainus scvlbbt, Nothing hinders Caius from writing 

Quin is sometimes used if a negative precedes. 

Rem. 6. Ut is often omitted after volo and verbs of'jdcr- 
mitting/i asking, advising, commanding, reminding. 

Ne is is often omitted after care. 

Rem. 7. A final sentence is usually a noun, though a re- 
sult may be an adverb limiting sic, ita, tain, tantus, &c. 
Ut in the sense of as is always a relative word. 

§194. exercise 61. (Ut, Ne, Quo.) 


Commutatio, on-ii-'. change. 
Alacritas, tat-is, cheerfulness. 
Morti-fer, a, um. mortal, deadly. - 
Pristinus, a, urn. former. 
Oomnmnicatio, on-is, communication. 
Neu, or neve, [cop. fin. couj.] and that 

not, nor, [after a final sentence.] 
Motns, us, inurement, insurrection. 
Adduc-ere, [flux-, duct-,] to lead to or a- 

gainst, to bring. * 
Colloqui, locutus, to confer, converse. ^ 
Ex. equis or equo, on horseback. 
Pac-arc, to subdue. 
ttcni, [conj.] likewise. 
Subito, (adv.) suddenly. 
Una, (adv.) together. 
(Vmtinens, ent-is, continent. 
Imper-are, (intr.) to order. 

Pia-cip-ero, (io,cep-, o>pt-,)to instruct, en- 
join upon. 

E-dtc-cre, [dix-, diet-.] to issue CM edict. 

In-stitu-ere, (stitu-, stftirt-,) to instrw , 
teach . 

In-cend-ere, (cend-, eens-,) to set onfri. 

Ex-ur-ere, (uss-. ust-,) to burn up. 

Tn-nasc-i, innatus, to be born in, to sjk 

Tirn-ere, (timu-,) to far. [as a cowan/.'} 

Metu-ere, [raetu-,] to fear, to be appn h>y<- 

Veivri, to feel awe of. to fear. [As tin 
*re never, and metuciv rarely has a si- 

( pine-stem, the tenses formed from that 
stem, are supplied by veivri in either sens/ . \ 

Coqu-eiv, [cox-, coct-,] to cook. 


Th&t — no, that. — not dny, 
That no one. 
That no one at all, 
That — never, 
That nothing, 
Tanta vis probitatis est ut earn ") 
vel in hoste diligamus, J 

Negative Purpose. 

Nequis, (£S9, Rem. 2) 


Ne quisquam, 

Nc unquam, 

Ne quid, 

Negative Result. 

Ut nullus. 

Ut nemo. 

Ut nemo omnium. 

Ut nunquam. 

Ut nihil. 

So great js the power of honesty, thtt 
we love it even in an enemy. 


N. B. In final sentences expressing a result, the subjunctive is trans- 
lated like tiie indicative of the same tense. 

Operamdare, To take care. , 

Preeccptum est, Instructions were given. 

Edictum est, An edict was issued. 
Pater filio pra^cepit nc unquam \ The father instructed his son^ever 

mentiretur, j to lie. % 

Dominus servo iiupcravit ut e- ") The master commanded the servant to 

quum infrenaret, j bridle the horse. 

Dominus servo imperuvit nc e- ^ The master ordered the servant not to 

cfuum infrenaret, j bridle the horse. * 

Translate into English. 
Id mifti sic erit gratum ut gratius esse nihil possit. Ea 
non MA te instituerem scripsi. Csesar castella commvnit, quo 
facilius Helvetios prohibere possit. Oppidani multis cum 
lacrymis imperatorem obsecrobant nc oppidum incenderet. 
Praeceptum erat Labieno ne proelium committeret. Esse 
[§ 111, 8] oportet ut vivamus, non vivere at edamus. In 
eo itinere Orgetorix persuasit Castico [§ \4\,note] ut 
num in civitate sua occuparct ; itemque Dumnorigi JEd,uo, 
fratri [§ 127] Divatiaci, ut idem conarctur persurtsit. Rau- 
roeis persuasum erat nti, oppidis suis vicisque exustis 
[§ 186], una cum Helvetiis proficiscereniur. Consul edixit 
ne quisquam in castris coctum eibum venderet. Tantus 
subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit ut omnium animos 
perturbaret. Hac oratione habita [§ 186], tanta commuta- 
tio facta est ut summa alacritas et cupiditas belli gerendi ' 
{§ 177] innata esset. Legem brevem esse oportet quo faci- 
lius ab imperitis teneatur. Consul militibus iinpercnrit nc 
quern civein intcrficerent. Csesar veritus ne quis motus in 
G-allia Jieret, Labimum in continente reh'quit. Milites- me- 
tuunt ne mortiferum sit yulnus Scipionis. Timeo at hostes 
ad urbem perveniant. Caesar milites cohortatus est at suae 
pristinac virtwtis mgmoriam retinerent, neu perturbarentur 


210 • FINAL SENTENCES. - §194-'95 

aiiimo [§ 161.] Opera dabatur ne quod iis [§ 143] collo- 
quium inter se, neve communcatio esset. 
Translate into Latin. 

She enemy ran forward so swiftly that t\m.Q was not given 
to ©ur men for throwing their darts. So great a p*anie took 
possession of the citizens that no man was able to take up 
arms. An edict has been issued that no one leave the town. 
Instructions* had been given to the horsemen not to pursue 
the enemy too far. Wise men eaf to live, but fools and 
gluttons live to eat. I advise you, my son, never 'to believe 
a liar. Balbus is such a liar [so lying'] that he is never be- 
lieved [it is never believed to him.'] 1 fear that some one has 
announced our plans to the enemy. Ariovistus demanded 
that they should, confer on horseback, and not bring more 
[amplius] than ten horsemen apiece to the conference. The 
Belgians fearing [having feared] that if all Gaul were sub- 
dued [abl. abs.] the army of the Romans would be led a- 
gainst [ad] them, collected great forces. The citizens feared 
that the auxiliaries would not reach the city. Caesar com- 
manded [imperare] the soldiers to run forward swiftly, and 
not give the enemy time for collecting themselves. Ari- 
ovistus said that he feared that snares were prepared for 
him. It has been said that brave men do not fear death. 
Tho consul thought that Catiline had formed the design of 
setting the city on fire. An edict was issued that no bread 
[nothing of bread] nor any [quis] other cooked food should 
be introduced into the camp. 

§ 195. exercise 62. — (Quin, quominus.) 

Flere, (flev-, flet-,) to weep. Ob-st-are, (stit-, »tit-,) to stand in the way 

Dubins, a, urn, doubtful, of, to hinder. (Iutr). 

§195 ' FINAL SENTENCES] 211 

Compcll-crre, to call, address. Im-pecWre, to prevent, to tangle the feet . 

Dnbit-are, to doubt. ■ (l'r.) , 

Oircum-ven-i'rc, (ven-, vent-.yto surround. Dc-terr-n-o,, to frighteto off, to deter. 

Conjunctio, on-is, friendship, intimacy. Praeter-mitt-erc, (nit's-, miss-,) toleave un- 

Axoc-are % to call away, separate. done. 

Invostig-are, to investigate. Ad-spic-erc, -io, [spex-, spect-,] to look at. 

Oimon, on-is, Cimon. Im-pon-cre, [posu-, posit-,] to post, to plac 

Custos, custo.d-i8, guard. Fru-i, fructua, lo enjoy. 

Itaque, (conj.) and so, therefore. " Parmenio, on-is, Parmenio. 

Haud mnltum, (§153) not much, not far. Medicus, i, physician. 

Bib-ere, [bib-, bibit-,] to drink. Mcdicamcntuni, i, dose of medicine, 


") It cannot be that he is not going 
Fieri non potest quin venlurus sit, Vto come, {bu~t that he is going to 

) come) ; lie is certainly going tu 

Nunquam adspexit quin fratriczdam compellarct, She never saw him 

vrithout calling him a fratricide. 
Milites retincre non possum quiti currant, I cannot restrain the sol- 
diers from running. 
Facere or mihi 

I non possum quin fleam,- I cannot help weeping. 

Non est dubium ^ quin deus mun- 1 There is no doubt \ that God 
Negari non potest J- dum regat, V If cannot be denied I rules the 
Quis dubitat J • J Who doubts . J world. 

Jfter the above expressions quin must be translated that. * 

Nihil proetenm'si quin ad te veniam, I have left nothing undone to 

comg to you. 
Nihil Caio obstat quominus veniat, \ Notntng hinders Caius from 
Nihil obstat quominus Caius veniat, J coming. 

Per me stat quominus venias, * It is my fault that you do not come. 
Quid te imjiedivit quominus venires ? What prevented you from coming ! 
Minimum (§153) abfuit quin caderet, He was very near falling. 

Translate into English. 

Non dubium est quin virtus sutnmum sit bonum. BaK 
bum nunquam adspexit quin proditoreni compellarct, Fieri 
non potest quin alii a nobis dissentiant. Non dubitavit 
Adherbal quin Jugurtha eum interficere conaretur. Quis 
dubitare potest quin multo (§168) turpius sit fallere quaitj 
falli? (xermani retineri non potuerunt quin in nostros teL*v 
conjicerent." Per Considium stetit quominus Cassar Helve- 


tios circumveniret. Orgetorix non diibitat quin brevi tem- 
pore totius Gallise regnum oceupatwrus sit. Altiti/do.flum- 
inis hostes deterrebat quominus transzre condrentur. Nihil 
prscterimsit Cicero quin Pompeium a Csesaris conjunctione 
avocaret. Nihil tarn difficile est quhi quserendo investigari 
possit. Cimon nunquam in liortis custodem imposuit, lie 
quis impediretur quominus fructibus (§159, Rem, 6) fruere* 
tur. Parmenio audiverat venerium a Philippi medico regi 
(§141) parari ; itaque epistola scripta (§186) euni deter- 
rere voluit quominus medicamentum biberet quod medicus 
dare constituerat. 

Translate into Latin, 
It cannot be denied that Csssar was (a man) of the great- 
est courage. Who can doubt that our men are able to sus- 
tain the attack of the enemy (for) many months X The gen- 
eral icill certainly relieve us in a few days. It cannot be 
denied that your son was born many years (§167, Rem, 2) 
v after the building (§185, 3, c) of the city. I never con- 
verse with you without becoming wiser. What iiinders us 
from persuading Ma^us not to storm the town 1 It was not 
Cicero's fault thatPompey was not separated from intimacy 
with (of) Caesar. The army wasfciot far from being beaten 
and sent under the yoke. The soldiers could not be re- 
strained/rom running forward with a great shout. Orge- 
torix was not far from getting possession of the government 
of all G-aul. There is no man but knows that all things are 
ruled by Grod. The queen could not help weeping. 
§196. Express a condition, and are introduced by the 
conditional conjunctions, si, if ; nisi or ni, unless, if — 
aot ; sin, but if ; dum, modo, dummodo, prodded. 


The principal sentence, -or complement of the condi- 
tion, is called the conclusion. 

§ 197. RULE L. (a.) If the condition is represented 
as a fact, the indicative is used bath in the condition and 

. ,. . '. .• ... ) If you speak the truth, (of which I have 

at vera diois, leges vioiavi, l - J , \, x T , „ , ', v j \., 7 

' r « '4. no doubt,) 1 have broken the laws. 

(b.) If the condition is represented as possible, or like- 
ly to be realized, the subjunctive present or perfect is 
used in the condition,. and the indicative, (generally fut- 
ure,) in the conclusion. {Indeterminate Condition.) 

Si pecuniam kabeat, dabit, If he has the money, he will give it. 

~\ If he will give (shall have given) me 
Si mihi pecuniam dedcrit, ibo, j- the money, I will go. (The money 

J must be given before I go.) 

(c.) If the non-existence of the condition is implied, 
the subjunctive is us^d both in the condition and con- 
clusion, the imperfect for present or future time, the 
past-perfect for past time. 

") If he had money (now,) he would give it. 

Si pecuniam haberet, daret, > If he should h-x\e money, (at any future 

J time) hi would give it. 

, , . . 7 ,. ) If h" had had money, lie would have 
Si pecuniam habuisseL dedisset, \ •* /t> ± J- \ 

r '5 given it. (Past time.) 

Rem. 1. On the same principle the subjunctive-present or present- 
perfect is used to express a possible wish, the imperf. or past-perf. , 
lo express a vain wish. 

Jvivat ! "j may live! 

viveret ! that my son X were living! 
•vixisset ! J had Uv 

■ The condition i.s sometimes (a.) implied in some otker 
expression; as, sine cibo ncino vivere'posset, Xq one ivould be abh 
Jive without food; or (b.) altogether suppressed, in which ca.-rC the 

214 » CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. . §197-j98 

indicative imperfect is frequently used ; as, Satius erat mori quam 
7/ientiri, It would be better (if necessary) to die than to lie. 

Rem. 8. When the non-existence of the condition is implied, .the 
indicative (especially the imperfects decebat, oportebat, debebam, pot- 
cram, and cram with a gerundive or adjective,) are sometimes used in 
the eonclusion; as, JSi victoria dubia esset fa-men omnes bonos reipubli. 
ca subvenire decebat, If the victory were doubtful, yet all good men 
ought to come to the assistance of the State. ™ 

Rem. 4. The use of the imperfect or past-perfect in a conditional 
sentence does not necessarily imply the non-existence of the condi- 
tion, as they are often used simply because the leading verb is : past, 
1 and not because the character of the condition requires their use. 
See §184. 

Rem. 5. In a conditional sentence the subjunctire is usually trans- 
lated like the indicative. " ' 

Rem. 6. Conditional sentences are adverbs. 
§ 198. EXERCISE 63. 


Minu-ere, [niinu-, mhittt-,] lo- make less, Utinam, [interj.] that! I wish that, 

to weaken. Con-ven-ire, [yen-, vent-,] to agree. 

Kxerc-ere, to exercise. ■ Stipendium, i, tribute, tax. 

»ubig-ere, [eg-, act-,] to subjugate. Pend-ere, [pepend-, i>ens-,~]toweigJi,to pay . 

Lacess-ere, [iv-, it-,] to provoke. Quotannis, [adv.] yearly. 

Injuria lacess-ere, to j>rovoke by injury, m In-cit-ore, to arouse. \ 

to injure. Perpetuus, a, um, unending. 

jDol-ere, to grieve. Re-spond-cre, [spond , spons-] to answer. 

Pneceptum, i, precept. Cav-ere, [cav-, caut-,] to avoid. 

Inimicitia, as, enmity. Invit-are, to invite. 

Adhuc, [adv.] still, yet. Vera dicere, to speak truth, [true, things]. 

Mature, [adv.) soon. Subvenire alicu^fo come to one's assistance. 

(a) Si hoc feceris, te amobo, If you do (shall have done) 
this, I will love you. (The doing must be accomplished 
before the loving.') 

(a) If the condition must be fulfilled before the conclu- 
sion can follow, the Latins use a .perfect tense 5 where in 
English we use a present. 


Translate into English. 
Memoria minuitur n isi earn exereeas. Si Helvetii flumen 
transi're conentur, Caesar eos prohibebit. ' Caesar iEduis . 
bellum intulissct nisi obsides misis&ent. Alexander, si diu- 
tius vixissetftotum orbem terraruin subegisset. Utinam pater 
meus vivat! Utinam rex vlveret ! Caesar ab Ariovisto post- 
nlavit ne quam multitudinem honiinum in Galliam trans- 
duccret,neve JEduos injuria (§159) lacesseret, neveh'is sociis- 
<^ue eoruin bellum infenet ; "Si id ita feceris," inquit, 
"mihi (§143) populoque Romano perpetua amicitia te.pum 
crit." Ad base Ariovistus respondit; "iEduis injuria (§159) 
bellum non inferam, si in eo quod coftvenerunt maneant, 
stipendiumque quotannis pendant." Nisi te satis incitatum 
esse confidcrem, plura scriberem. Sine ferro (§197, Rem. 
2, [c] ) fieri non posset (it would be impossible) ut agri col- 
erentur. Imperatore interfecto (§197, Rem. 2) fieri non 
potest quin exercitus pellatur. Si vis me fiere, . primum 
dolendum est (§178) ipsi tibi (§145). 

Translate into Latin. 

If you speak the truth, Cato has done (to) you a great in- 
jury. If this is the case (§191, Ex.), I will set out imme- 
diately to Rome. No man can be happy, unless his life is 
ruled by the precepts of virtue. If Caesar had been able to 
avoid these enmities, he would be still living. If I knew, I 
/could say. If you live well, you will die happily. / wish 
0ou had come a little (§168) sooner. Ariovistus would not, 
have led his army across the Rhine unless he had been in- 
cited by the Sequanians. It would be impossible to believe 
this report i/we did not know that the messenger always 
speaks the truth. If I had knoicn your danger, P would, 
r come to your assistance. If I go to Rome, I will send 



you the money which you demand. If the Helvetians had 
endeavored to cross the river, Cjesar would hove prevented 
them. Ariovistus would not be waging war on ihe iE&uans 
if they had paid the tribute. Without an army it wovld 
be impossible to wage war. 


§ 199. Express something granted or yielded, and are 
introduced by the conceive conjunctions etsi, quan- 
quam, tametsi, licet, quamvis, etiamsi, $c, with the gen- 
eral meaning although. 

§ 200. RULE LI. (a) If the thing granted is rep- 
resented as a fact, the indicative is used, generally with 
quanquam, etsi, or tametsi ; as 

Komani, quanquam fessi erant, 1 The Romans, though they iv ere weary, 

t, J 

tamen in&tructi proccdunt, J* yet march in order of battle. 

(b) A concession merely for argument's sake, or 
where the non-existence of the thing granted is implied, 
(a mere conception)? is expressed by the subjunctive, 
usually with quamvis or licet, sometimes with etiamsi or 
etsi; as, 

Mendacium, quarnvis occuluftur, \A falsehood, though it be conceal- 
iamen turpe est, < j ed, is nevertheless base. 

Rem. 1. The complement of a concessive sentence is a-n adversa- 
tive sentence introduced by tamen. f 

Rem. 2. Quanqit am is properly the ace. sing. fem. of quisquis; 
(rem being understood) ; thus (a) In repect to whatever thing the Ro- 
mans tcere weary, <j - c. 

Rem. 3. Etsi„iametsi, ciiamsi, (even if) and ui in the sense of even' 
if, althoitgli, are properly conditional conjunctions, the mood to be 
used depending upon the character of the condition. (See. §197). 


Rem. 4. Quamvis, quautumlibct, quamlibet, are properly relative 
proni uns, (as much as you please, however mi^cli). Thus, in example 
(b), A falsehood, however much it. ?nay be concealed, let it be concealed 
as much as you please, $c. (See $210, Rem. 3). 

Rem. 5. Licet is an impersonal verb, ut being omitted; as, Fre- 
mont omncs licet, dicam quod seniio, Though all cry out, (it is allowed 
that all cry out, - ) I will say what J think. 

Re?n. 6. The subjunctive is always used'with vt or ywwmconcesive. 

Bern. 7. Concessive sentences are adverbs. 

§ 201. EXERCISE 64. 


Occult-are, to conceal. Ci^ricsc-cre, (nov-, cogniU) to find out. 

tfossu.s, n. am, weary. Accid-ere, (accid-, — -,) to happen. 

Nondum, (adv.) not yet, Suspic-ari, to suspect 

Tamen, (conj.) nevertheless, yet. Coh-sequi, peewtus, to follow, to pursue, 

Emolumcntum, i. advqnti to attain. 

Crebro, (i\dv.) frequently. Nesc-ire, not to know. 

Put-are, to think. Suad-ere, suas-, sues-, to adv% 

Strefluas, a, am, bri^fa active. Potior, us, (potls, potissimus,) better; pre-* 

'(.aliens, i, Italian. ble to. 

Penes, (prep.) with,m'n (he power of. Reri, ratna, tothink, to deem, 

Dedltio, on-i* surrender. ■ Transzre, (transi-. fcr ansi t-,) to / .• over, 

Adversvzri, to resist, object. to pass aivay. (gill, 9.) 

Sic, (adv.) thus. . Tit-are, to shun, to escape. 

b - Translate into English. 

Quod turpe est, id, qmtmvis oceultetur, honestum fieri nullo 
modo potest. Nostri milites quartquarti itinere et proclio 
fessi erant, tamen, consule imperante, ad summnm ($128 
Rem. 8) collem celeviter procurrerunt. .Caesar, eUi nondum 
eorum consilia cogi ..en fye id quod accidit sus- 

picabatur. Viri boni multa ob earn causam faciunt, quod 
decet, etsi nullum consecutwrum emolument-urn vident. Quod 
(§129, Rem. 2) crebro aliquis yidet, non miratur, cliauul 
causam nescit. Licet strenuum metum pules esse, velocior 
tamen spes est. Italici Adherbali suadent uti se et oppidum 
Jugurtluc tradat ; at ille, tametsi omnia potiora (XVIII, b) 
fide (XXX) Jugurthae rebatur, tameo quia penes Italicos, 


si adversaretur (§197, Rem. 4), cogendi potcstas erat, dedi- 
tionem facit. Divitise, quamvis magnse sint, tamen aras 
habent. Quamvis prudens atque sapiens sis, mortem vit- 
are nullo modo potes : sic transit gloria mundi. 


§ 202. Express comparison, and arc introduced by 
comparative conjunctions, (than, as,) quam, sicut, velut, 
prout, tanquam, quasi, utsi, acsi ; with ac and atque 
(as or than). • 

§ 203. RULE LII. In comparative sentences • ';• 

(a) A fact is expressed by the indicative ; as, 

Quam mazimas potest copias cogit, He collects as great forces as he can. 

(b) A mere conception and not a fact, is expressed by 
the subjunctive ; as, • 

Me adspicitis quasi monstrum essern, You gaze at me as if I were a 

Rem. A. The Comparative conjunctions are for the most part either 
relative or conditional words. Thus quam, than, is a relative, rem. 
being understood. Cicero eloquentior fu»t quam (rem) Caesar (elo- 
quent fuit). In-respect-to-what Caesar ivas eloquent, Cicero was more 
eloquent; i. e. 'Cicero was more eloquent thwi Cazsar. So in example 
(a), (Copias cogit (tarn) maxim as quam potest, He collects forces 
very great in that degree in which degree he can,) quam is an adver- 
bial relative, tarn understood being its antecedent. In the example, 
In horto ambulabam sicut mens est mos, ( — as my custom is), sic is 
an adverbial demonstrative limiting ambulabam. and ut an adverbial 
'relative having sic as its antecedent;— (In horto eo modo ambulabam 
quo modo meus est mos amhidarc). In example (b) quam (quasi=quam 
■ : \ is a relative, and si a conditional conjunction. Me aspicitis quam 
:d<piceretis) si §c. You gaze at me as (you wmld gaze) if I .were &c. 
Rem. 2. In comparative sentences the subjunctive is mostly trans- 
lated by the indicative. 

§204-5-6 TEMPORAL SENTENCES. ' 219 

* Rem. 3. Comparative sentences are adverbs. 


§ 204. Point out the time of an action, and are intro- 
duced by the temporal conjunctions ut, ubi, quum, when; 
postquam, posteaquam,' after ; antequam, priusqiv 
before; quando, when, ^whenever ; simulac,^ simul^ 
as soon as; dum 9 donee, quoad, while, as long as, 

Nora 1. In the'narratiou of facts, tho indicative will of course 
be used ir temporal sentences; as, Postquamin urbem venit, After 
he came into the city. 

Note 2, The adverbial relative quum or cum, (at what time, when, 
while), frequently has also a causal or concessive force,-since, although. 
As a pure particle of -time, it takes the indicative ; but it is also fol- 
lowed by the subjunctive imperfect or past-perfect in the narration 
of past facts, especially when the aorist- perfect is used in the prin- 
cipal sentence. When the subjunctive is used, however, the idea of 
cause is usually combined with that of time. Quum, causal or con- 
cessive, always takes the subjunctive. Kcnce, 

§ 205. RULE LIU. The subjunctive is always used 
(a) with QUUM causal or concessive; (b) frequently also 
with quum temporal, especially when the aorist-perfect 
is used in the principal 'sentence. < 

(a) Quae quum ita Bint, Since these things arc so. 

(a) Ceres frumcuta invenit, quum antea homines glandibus vesccren- 
tur, Geres invented grains, whereas men btfore\i\ed on acornn. 

(o) Quum nostri arma cepissent, hostes sc rcceperunt, When our men 
had taken up arms, the enemy retreated. (Here quum ccpi- 
points out both the time and cause of the enemy's retreat.) 

§ 206. RULE-LIV. With antequam nndjiriusqu* 
(a) the indicative is used to express the simple priority 


of one action to another, (both having actually been 

Fiiios convocavit an*equain mortuus est. He called together his sons 
before he died. 

(b) The subjunctive is used, (1), when^the action is fu- 
ture and doubtful; (2), when the non-existence of the 
action is implied ; (8), in indefinite general expressions. 

(1) Cccsar, priusquam quidquam \ Ccesar, before he attempted any- 
conartrtur, Dwitiacum vocavit, j thing, called Divitiacus. 

(The attempting was future to the calling, and. dependent upon tn« 
result of Cajsar's interview with Divitiacus). 

(2) Priiis ad hostium castra jpervenit, ~) He reached the enemy's camp 

quam Oermani quid ageretur y before the Germans could 
sentire possent ; J find out what teas going on. 

(It is here implied that the Germans never could find out.) 

(3) Tempestas minatur antequam ") The tempest threatens before it 

surgat, j rises. (A general truth). 

Rem. 1. After. a future in the principal sentence, the indicative 
present or future-perfect is used with antequam and priusquam ; as, 
Antequam pro Murena die'ere i.nstituo, Before I begin to speak for 
Murcna, 1 will say a little for myself. 

Rem. 2. In historical narrative the subjunctive imperfect and fast 
perfect are sometimes*used with these conjunctions, very much in 
the same way as with quum temporal. Paucis ante diebus quam Sy- ■ 
racusce caperentur, A few days-bet'ore Syracuse was taken. 

§ 207. RULE LV. Bum, donee, and quoad, in the 
sense of until, are followed by the indicative when a fact 
is stated ; by the subjunctive, when the action is doubt- 
ful or future, (not a fact, but a conception). 

Locum rclinquere noluit \ He would not leave his post till Milo should ■ 
dum Milo veiuVet, j come. 

(.These conjunctions in the sense of while, as long as, take 
the indicative.) 


Rem. 1. All temporal sentences aVe adverbs, and in such 
sentences the subjunctive is for the most part translated 
like the indicative. 

§208, EXERCISE 65. 


Ariee, -ctis, ram. Sum-ere, [sumps*, rampt j ,] to fake. 

Itifirmus, a, urn, weak. Rosa, re, T08&. 

Scapha, re, boat. Verress, -is, verret. . 

Commius, i, Commius. Comply re, [pier-, plct-,] to fill. 

Atrebas, [at-is,] Mrcbatian. Dc-f«rrc,'[tul-, lot-.] to carry [from one 

Mandutum. i, order. place or person to another."] 

Vor. [ver-is,] spring, Dif-ferre, [distal-, dilat,] to put off', defer. 

Acerlms, ;>. am, bitter, In-cip-crc, [-io. cp-. cept-V] to begin. 

Phocion, on-is ; Phocion. In-cid-ere, [incid-, incas-.] to fail vpon. 

Perpetao, continually. Con-sperg-ere. [spers-, spurs-.] to sprinkle. 

Epaminondas, re, Epiminorvlas, [App. I.J Pree-st-are, [stit-, stit- and suit-,] to be su~ 

Obsidio. on-is. siege, perior. 

Pavor. or-is, fright. At-ting-ere, [-tig-, tact-,] io touch, reach. 

So focipere, to recover one, self. De-sist-orej [stit-, stit-,] to leave off. 

Exspect-arc duin, to wait for anything Bell-are, to war. 

to happen. Claud-ere, [clans-, clans-,] to shut up. 

Periculum facer c, to make a trial. Ex-pon-ere, [posu-, posit-,] to set forth, cx- 

Fulguratio, on-is, lightning. plain. 

Sonus, i, sound. Prre-mitt-ere, [mis-, miss-,] to send, before. 

Rusticus, a, um, rustic. De-fervesc-ere, [fert .] to subside. 

Sncssionos, nm, Susssians. Inter-c«d-ere, [cess-, cess-,] to come between, 

Boeotii, orum, Boeotians. " » to intervene. 

Dementia, re, madneas. • Deliber-are, to deliberate. «• 

De-flu-ere, [deflux-, deflux-,] ioflmu away. 

Translate into English. 
1. Quum, when, since, although, whereas. 
Caesar quum id nunciatum csset, maturavit ab urbe profi- 
cisci. Quod (§129, Rem. 9) cum animadvertisset Caesar, 
scaphas longarum navium militibus (XXV) qompleri jussit. 
Britanni Commium Atrebo-tcm, quum ad eos Caisaris man- 
data de ferret, comprehenderant, et in vincula conjecerant. 
Quum rosam viderat, turn incipere (§188) ver arbitrab«tur. 
acerbam mihi memoriam (XXIII) temporis illius et loci, 
quum hie in me incidity quum complexus est, conspersitque 
lacrymis, nee loqui pra) mcerore potuit ! Phocion fuit per- 
petuo pauper, quum ditissimus esse posset. Homines, quum 
multis rebus (XXVI) infirniiores sint, hac re (§161) maxi- 


me bestiis (§142) praestant, quod loqui possunt. iEdui, 
quum se suaque ab Helvetiis defendere non possint, legatos 
ad Caesarem mittunt rogatum (XLII) auxilium. Quum 
vita sine aimcis metus (IX, [a] ) plena sit, ratio ipsa menet 
amicitias comparare. Quae cum ita sint, ad urbem proficisc- 
o.mur (§183, Rem.) 

2. Postquam, antequam, priusquam. 

Ea postquam Romae audita sunt, timor ornnes inyasit. 
Decern post diebus (§167, Hem. 1 & 2) quam Caesar in Ital- 
iani pervenit, legiones duae erant conscriptae. 

(R. LV, [a] ) Ante decimum diem (§167, Rem. 2) quam 
vita (§163) discessit, liberos omnes convocavit, Haec omnia 
ante facta sunt quam Verres Italiam -attig it. Epaminondas 
non prius bellare destitit quam Lacedaemonem obsidione 
(§159) clausit. 

(b) OivQsprius se dediderunt quam aries murum attigisset* 
Antequam de republica dicam, expcmani breviter consilium 
iieum. Caesar priusquam hostes se ex pavore et fuga reci- 
perent, in fines Suessionum exercitum duxit. Ad haec cog- 
nescenda priusquam periculum facerct, Caium praemittit. 
Ante videnius fulgurationem quam sonum audiamus. 
3. Dum, donee, quoad. 

Dum haec geruntur, Caesari nunciatum est hostes propius 
a.ccedere.^ Lueius, quoad potuit, pontem defendit. Epami- 
nondas, quum animadverteret mortiferum se vulnus accep- 
isse, ferrum in corpore continuit quoad renuntiatum 
est vicisse (§188) Bceotios. Irati rogandi sunt* ut vim 
differant, dum defervescat ira. Caesar, ut spatium interce- 
ded posset dum milites convenient, legatis respondit diem 
se ad deliberandum sumptwrum. Dum vivimus (§183, Rem.) 
vivamus. Caesar summae dementiae (vii) esse judic«bat, ex- 

* Ought to be requested. 

§209-' 10 RELATIVE SENTENCES. 223 

Spectare dum hostium copia) aitgcrentur. Rusticus ex-- 
spectat dvm dcftuat amnis. 

§209. Are introduced by a relative word. (For con- 
struction of relatives see §129.) 

The predicate of a relative sentence is of course in the 
indicative when a, fact is stated- The subjunctive is used 
in three cases. 

§210. RULE LVI. The subjunctive is. used in rela- 
tive sentences ; (a) expressing purpose, result, or cause 
(qui=ut or quod with demonstrative). As, 

Legatos miserunt qui (=ut ii) ") They sent ambassadors to sue for peace. 

' pacem peterent, J [Purpose ) 

» r . . , » ■'. ") I am not such a one as to do this. (Re- 

Non is sum qui hoc faciam, V , * x 

Male fecit Hannibal qui*) Hannibal did wrong in wintering (because 
Capua hiemarit, / he wintered) at Capua. {Cause.) 

(b) In indefinite general expressions, both affirmative 
and negative. 

Sunt, qui dicant, There are some ivho say. 

Nemo est orator qui se Demosthenis ~\ No one is an orator who is unwill- 
similem esse no lit, j ing to be like Demosthenes. 

(c) To express the words or opinions of some one else, 
and'not of fhe authSr, 

Nunicatum est equites qui 1 Word was brought that the horsemen who 
prsemissi essent revertisse, / had been sent forword had returned. 

Rem. 1. The subjunctive with qui expresses a purpose with ref- 
erence to the object of the sentence, a purpose with reference the 
subject Being expressed by ut. (See $193, §180, Example.) Thus* 
qui pacem peterent means, that they, (the ambassadors,) might seek 
peace. Qui may be used with the passive construction ; Lcgati misti 
sunt qui pacem peterent ; where the object in the active becomes sub- 
ject in the passive. 


Rem. 2. Qutppc, uijpote, and ut are frequently joined with qui cx- 
i ressing a cause. The indicative is frequently used with quippe qui. 

Rem. 3. The subjunctive is used in indefinite goneral expressions* 
introduced by any relative word, whether adjectival or adverbial. 
Ubi res posceret casiellum communivit, Wherever circumstances requir- 
ed, he built a fort. Such relative sentences express a condition, — thus, 
If circumstances anywhere required, &c. But the indicative is fre- 
quently used ; as, Quamcunque in partem nosiri impclv.m feccrant< 
hostcs loco cedere cogebantur. 

Rem. 4. The poets and some prose writers use the indicative with 
sunt qui, crant qui, &c. The indicative will of course be used when 
a definite subject is introduced. Sunt f eras, qure domari nowpossunt, 
Thej'e arc wild beasts which cannot be tamed. (A fact.) But the sub- 
junctive is used even then, if a particular fact is not stated ; as, sunt 

fcrce quce domari non possint, — >— such that they cannot be' tamed 

(if one should make the attempt.) 

Rem. 5. A relative sentence is an adjective, -limiting the 
antecedent. Puer qui legit, the reading boy. But as an 
adjective often agrees with a noun while limiting a verb, so 
an adjective sentence frequently limits the predicate, ex- 
pressing the purpose (like a dative of purpose, — §144), or 
the cause (like -an ablative of cause, — §159.) See exam- 
ples., LVI, a. 

§ 211. EXERCISE 66. 


Divtnus, a, um. pertaining to the Gods. Ad-ven-tre, (v«n-, vent-,) to arrive. 

Quo, (adv. for old ace. quon.) whither. Prre-esse, (ll-,)intr-. to preside over. » 

liud'is, e, uncivilized. Di-lig-erc, (lex-, lect-,) to choose, to love. 

Coui-mitt-ere, (mi's-, miss-,) to commit. Vid-«ri, vi'sus, (pass, o/vidcre,) to seem. 

Argwtus, a, um, sagacious. Cens-erc, (censu-, cens-,) to be of opinion. 

Fortunatus, a, um, fortunate. Jte-per-i're, (reper-, report-, toftna. 

Prjeco, on-is, herald, crier. In-sil-tre, (silu-, ,) to leap upon. 

Pecc-are, to do wrong, to sin. Ite-vell-ere, (veil-, vuls-,) to tear off. 

Completes, a, and ia, very many, quite Pra>pon-ere, (posu-, posit-,) to prefer. 

a number. Una, (parte understood, (§166,) together. 

Phalanx, phalang-is, (Gr. ace. phalanga, Fall-ere, (fefell-, fals-,) to deceive. 

pi. phalangas,) phalanx. Occid-cre, (cid-, cas-.) to fall, to die. 

Hom«rus, i, Homer. Druidcs, um, Druids. % 

Adulatio, on-is, flattery. Fama, se, fame, report. 

Fortwna, oe, fortune. Praeditus, a, um, endowed. 

Natus, (part, of nascor,) a son. Esuriens, ent-is,.(part. of esurire,) hungry. 

Aut, — aut, either.— or. Quain, (relative adv.) as. 



(a). Dignus e$t qui ametur (LVI, \ He is worthy of being loved (that 

a ), J he be loved.) 

su\ tj „ „„.,„„• „^ if,,-") H« is fit to have the business en - 

(o). Idoneus est cm res mandeiur 

CLVI », ) ( t^wsted. to him (Mart w« busings 

{■*..*' ) he entrusted). 

(c). Doctior stim quam qui a te, VI am too learned t« be taught by 

docear (LVI, a ), f you, — (*Aan that I be taught.) 

(d). Quod sciam (LVI, b), As far as I know. 

Quod meminerim, As far as I remember. 

(e). Legatus, ut imperatum erat, "| 2%e lieutenant, as had been order- 

fiumen transiit, / ed, crossed the river. 

(Here ut is a relative pronaun, subject of imperatum erat, the ante- 
cedent being contained mflumen transiit.) 

(f). Nemo est qui putet (LVI, b), There is no one who thinks. 
Nemo est quin putet (§193), There is no one who 4©es not think. 

(g). An quisquam est ? I ft there ^ one? ( stron g er * han 

Translate into English. 

1. Purpose, LVI, a. — Britanni Druides habent, qui re*- 
bus (§141, iVbJe) divinis prsesint. JEdui legatos Romam 
(§154) rniscrunt qui auxilium a senatu (§151, Bern. 1) pe- 
terent % Legati missi erant qui nunciarent oppidum expug- 
natuni esse (§188). G-alli locum non habebant quo se reci- 
perent. Caesar equitatum prsemisit qui (§129, Rem. 7) 
hostium itinera explorarent. 

2. Result, LVI, a. — Nemo tarn rudis est ad quern fama 
sapientiae tuae non pervenerit. Socrates dignus erat qui ab 
omnibus diligeretur. Caius non satis idoneus visus est cui 
tantum negotium mandarctur. £Jon sumus ii quibus nihil 
verum esse (§174) videatur. Non is sum qui tantum scelus 
committam. Major sum quam cui (§142) possit fortuna 
noeere. Argutior f'uit Jugurtha quam Qui Mecipsae verbis 

*3. Cause, LVI, a. — fortunate adolescens, qui tu« 




virtwtis 4 Homerum praeconem (§151, b) inveneris ! Pecea- 
visse (§174) mihi videor qui a te discesserim. Omnes laud- 
abant fortunas meas, qui (§129, Rem. 7) natuni tali ingenio 
(§160) prasditum haberem. 

4. LVI, b.^— Sunt qui censeant una animum et corpus oc- 
cidere (§188). Reperti sunt compares qui in phalangas 
insilirent, et scuta manibus revdlerent. Nihil est quod 
homines tarn miseros (§151, b) faciat quam impietas et 
scelus. An quisquam est qui libertati servitwteni prseponat? 
Nemo est quin Balbum stultum (§151, b) existimet. 

5. LVI, c. — Ariovistu's dixit se obsides quos ab iEduis 
haberetnxm reddiiwrum (§188). Caesar negavit se Helvetiis 
quod postularent dare (§174) posse. 

Translate into Latin. 

The Britons sent ambassadors to say (LVI, a) that they 
would return the prisoners whom they had taken (LVI, c). 
No one of the soldiers, as far as J know, has left his post. 
This boy has never, as far as I recollect, deceived me. Is 
Caius (a) suitable (person) to commit your daughter to ? 
Kings are not too wise to be conquered by flattery, nor too 
sagacious to be deceived. Some say (there are who say,) 
-that the consul is both (et) a liar and a thief. Some thought 
that the enemy would not besiege the city. Is there any 
one who doubts that (§193, i?em. 4) God rules the world ? 
Is there any one who thinks that a robber will return the 
booty which he has taken ? The townsmen will send the 
noblest of the state to sue for (ask) peace. The general is 
worthy of being loved by all the soldiers. The lieutenant, 
as was ordered, sent forward the cavalry to sustain the at- 
tack of the enemy till the footmen should arrive (§207). 

§212— ^13— '14— '15 INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. . 227 


§212. Are introduced by an interrogative vrot& T and 
contain a question. 

1. A direct question is asked by means of a principal sentence ; as, 
Quis venit? Who comes ? 

2. An indirect question contains the substance of a direct question, 
without giving the exact words, and the sentence by which it is 
asked is always dependent; as, Janitor interrogavit quisveniret, The 
porter asked who came. 

3. Questions, both direct and indirect, are asked by means of in- 
terrogative pronouns ($88), and the particles ne, nonne, num (§81; - r 
and double questions, by utrttm — an, whether — or. In an indirect 
question ne means whether, if ;. nonue, if not ; num, whether^ if. 

§213. RULE LVII. The subjunctive is used in a di- 
rect question implying doubt ; as, 

Quo fugiam / Whither shall 1 fiy ? 

§214. RULE LVIII. The subjunctive is always used 
in indirect questions ; as, 

Ncscio quis veniat, I do not know who is coming. 

Rem. I. The older writers sometimes use the indicative • in indi- 
rect questions. 

Rem. 2. The first part of a double question is often omitted. 
Cuj'um jfeats est hoc? an Melibcei ? — Is it ajiothcr person's, or is it Meli- 
boeus's ? 

Rem. 3. Dependent interrogative sentences ar« nouns. 

§215. EXERCISE 67. 


<$uo ? whither ? Abd-ere, (abdid-, abdit-,) to run for. con- 
Permultum, (adv.) very much. cedlmtnt. 

Coneultum, i, a thing determined ; abl. Sit-ire, to be thirsty. 

on purpose. Interrog-are, to ask. 

IncertuH, a, uni, uncertain. ■ Appollo, ixi-is, Appollo. 

Yitreus, a, urn, of glass. Ab Ap. petere, to inquire of Appollo. 

Concavus, a, urn, hollow. Infans, ant-ia, infant. 

Manw concova, the hollow of the hand. Irasc-i, iratus, to be angry wiflt. 

TJnde ? whence ? Providttotia, 83, providence. 


Curt lohyf • . Af-ferre, (attul-, allaN.) to bring forward . 

Deoreura, (adv.) down-hilL Causam afferre, to explain. 

Delphi, oram, Delphi, (a city of Greece.) Prscstantia, ee, excellence. 
Patina, a?, disk. Catmus or urn, i, bowl. 

Mort'ni, orum, the Morini. ■ Fictilis, e, earthen. 

Casus, us, chance. 


Quid [$155] interest? ~'What difference does it make?'" 

Nihil [$155] refert or interest, It makes no difference. 

Ubi gentium [{134] ? j Wherein tfo world ? [In what place 

{Somebody or other [I don't know wlro] 
shouted. [A fact. Neccio-quis-=*= 
aliquis, but stronger.] 

Translate into English. 
Quisnam in horto ambulat ? Nes«io quis in horto ambu- 
leti Puer dicere non potuit quo latrones sese abdidissent. 
Ssepe non utile est scire quid futwrum sit. Qualis sit ani- 
mus, ipse animus nescit. Permultum interest utrum casu 
an consnlto Jiat injuria. Caii nepos-ne es, an filius ? In- 
certum est Caii nepos-ne sim, an filius. Si sitis (L, a) 
nihil interest utrum aquam bibas an vmum, nee refert 
utrum sit aureum poeulum, an vitreum, an manus concava. 
Nonne canis lupo (§142, Rem. 3) similis est ? Puer patrem 
interrogavit nonne canes lupis similes essent. Puer inter- 
rogans est utrum pluris (§137) patrem an matrem faceret. 
Numquis (§89) infantibus (§142) irascitur 1 Interrogat 
Caius num quis infantibus irascatur. Quo itis, pueri ? In 
kortum? ArioTisto (§142, Rem. 3) mirum visum est quid 
in ejus Gallia Caesari (§143) negotii (§134) esset. Mcntiri 
(§173) honestum-ne sit factu (XLII, b) an turpe, nemo dub- 
itat. Unde legati venissent rex nunquam repenre potuit. 
An quisquam dubitat cas?^-ne an dei providentia mundus 
-regatur? Dum in his locis Caesar navium parandarum 
(§177) causa morabatur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad 
eum legati venerunt, qui causas afferrent (LVI, a) cur civi- 
tas populo Romano bellum intulisset. Neseio quis in horto 

'Jranslate into Latin. 

Does any man doubt concerniDg the excellence of virtue? 

$2 15-' 16-' \1 tNtERHOCJATlVE SENTENCES'. 229 

The poet asks whether any one doubts concerning the excel- 
lence of virtue. Can you explain, my son, why water al- 
ways flows down Hill 2 The king sent messengers to Del- 
phi (§154) to inquire (AVI, a) of Appollo ichetherhe should 
give his daughter in marriage to Clodius or G-laucus. What 
difference does it make to a hungry man wMther he eats his 
food out of a golden dish or an earthen bowl ? It makes 
no difference to the dead whether the king is a wise man or 
a fool. It is uncertain whether the girl thinks more of 
(§13T) her father or mother. It is uncertain whether Bal- 
bus values life or honor most (j)litris). It seems wonder- 
ful to me what business either you or your father has 
(§143) in my garden. Did Caius kill his brother by chance, 
or on purpose ? Iliave not been able to find *out whether 
the injury was done by chance or on purpose. No one 
knows- where in the world Grlaucus is wandering. 

§216. In narrating the words or opinions *f another the 
writer may give, either 

(a). The exa£t words of the speaker ; as, Csesar dixit, 
i: Veni, vidi, vici," desar said, "I came, I saw, I con- 
quered," (0 ratio recta, or Direct discourse;), or 

(b). The substance of what the speaker said, but not the 

exact words ; as, Csesar dixit se venisse, vidisse, vieisse, 

dvsar said thd.t he had come, seen, conquered. (Oratio 
ohttqua, or Indirect discourse.) 

§217. RU,LE LIX. Principal sentences in the oratio 
recta, are expressed in the oratio obliqua by the accusa- 
tive with the infinitive ; and dependent sentences in the 
oratio recta, take the subjunctive in the oratio ohli L 

Oralis recta. Oratio oblv. 

Ariovistus dixit, " Obsidcs cfuos Ariovistua dixit n ol quos 

Eduie habeo no:\ r$," ab JEtluis habere! con redditurunk 


Rem. 1, An imperative in the oratio recta, becomes a subjunctive 
in the oratio obliqua, a verb of commanding or exhorting being un- 

Rem. 2. The reason for the use of the subjunctive referred to a- 
bove (Rule LIX) is obvious, as the writer is making the statement, 
not es a fact upon his own authority, but as the opinion or assertion 
of some one else. 

Rem. 8. The accusative with the infinitive is sometimes used in 
v relative sentences in the oratio obliqua, the relative being equivalent 
to et with a demonstrative, and the sentence being therefore depend- 
ent only in form. The same construction occurs occasionally in oth- 
er dependent sentences. 

Rem. 4. The indicative is occasionally used in dependent sen- 
tences in oratio' obliqua. 

Rem. 5. Questions in which the indicative is used in direct dis- 
course, are generally expressed in oblique discourse by the accusa- 
tive with the infinitive, if the subject is of the first or third person ; 
by the subjunctive, if the subject is of the second person. 

Si vetcris contumelies oblivisci vellet. num etiam recentium injuria- 
rummemoriam deponere posse ■? (Si — vcllcm, num — possum?) 

An quicquam superbius esse f (An quicquam superbius est ?) 
Quid tandem verercntur, aui cur de sua virtute desperarent ? (Quid 
vereminj, aut cur desperatis ?) 

If the subjunctive is used in direct, discourse ($183), it is of course 

retained in oblique. ' 


§ 218. EXERCISE 68. 


Super-arc, to overcome. ' Stipendiarius, a, um, tributary. , 

Invictus, a, um, invincible. Con-gred-i, (-ior, gress9us,) to meet, iofigld. 
Sub-u-e,(glll,9,-8ubi-, avbit-.) to go under. Propterea quod, for the reason that, be- 

Suspic-ari, to suspect. cause. 

Opulentus, a, um, powerful. Cog-nosc-cre, (nov-, mt-,) to ascertain. 

Plus (adv.) posse, to be more powerful. Intellig-ere, (lex-, lect-,) to find out, know. 

gee §150, Hem. 3. Accid-ere, (accid-, — ,) to happen. 

Translate into English. 
Arjovistus respondit, 'iEduos, quoniam belli fortimam 


tentassenty* et armis superati essent, stipendiaries (§130, 2) 
esse factos : neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse : 
cum^Cassar vellet, congrederetur (§217, Rem. 1) : intellec- 
twrum (§188) quid invicti Gerrnani, qui inter annos qua- 
tuordecim tectum non subiisseitt, virt^te (facere) possent 
(§214). Diviatiacus dixit 'pejus (§128, Rem. 5) viotoribus 
Sequanis quam iEduis victis accidisse(§J88), propter ea quod 
Ariovistus in eorum finibus consedisset, tertiamque partem 
agri Scquani, qui esset optimus totius Gallise (§134), occup- 
avisset.' Consul pollicitus est ' se, postquam. rex finem lo- 
quendi/ccissci', legatos audit?/rum esse.' Imperator re- 
spondit ( se, etsi nondum principum consilia cognovisset, 
tamen conjurationem fierif suspicari.' Philosophus re- 
gpondit ( negari (§174) non posse quin homines mortales 
essent (§193). r Rex dixit, l qui (§129, Rem. 2) opulentior 
esset, etiamsi injuriam acciperet (§200), tamen, quia plus 
posset , facere (§174) videri.' 

Translate into Latin. 

. Cassar said (negavit) that he could not give the Helvetii 
a way through the province, because he feared that (§193, 
2, b) they would do injury to his allies. The scouts an- 
nounced to Csesar that the cavalry which he had sent for- 
ward had been routed by tke enemy ; that the skirmishers 
had not been able to cross the river ; that the forces which 
the Germans had collected' would arrive in three days. 
Word was brought that the footmen, the flight of the hoi-se- 
men having J>een seen, had retreated to the mountain. 

(Change the examples in the Latin exerise from oratio 
obliqua to oratio recta.) 

* For tentavisscni. f Depends on se stijpicari. 

232 appendix ' §219 



§219. 1. Nouns of this' declension transferred from the 
Greek end in e (fern.) ; as and es, (masc.) 


i\ r . 

Pe nel pe, 


/I ne as, 


An chi ses, 


Pe nel o pes. 


- . . nC iC, 


An chi sae, 


Pe nel o pse, 


M ne 89, 


An chi see, 


Pe nel o pen, 


iE ne am, 

or an, 


An chi sen, 


Pe nel o pe, 


M ne a, 


An chi se, or a, 


Pe nel o pe. 


iE ne a. 


An chi se, or a. 

2. Nouns in a transferred from the Greek sometimes have an in 
the accusative. 

3. Those Greek iouus which Imve a plural are declined in that 
number like mens<%. 

4. The gen. plural of patronymics in es, and of some compound? 
in gena, and cola, has um instead of arum. 



§220. \. Greek nouns of the second declension end in 
os (masc. and fern.), and on (neut.), commonly change^ in 
Latin into us and um. 



Barbiton, a lyre. 
Singular. Singular. Plural. 


De los, 

An dro ge os, 


ba.r hi ton,* 

bar bi ta, 



An dro gc o, or i, 


bar bi ti, 

bar bi ton, 



An dro ge o, 


bar bi to, 

bar bi tis, 


De Ion. 

An dro ge o, or on, 


bar bi ton, 

bar bi ta, 


De le, ' 

An dro ge os, 


bar bi ton, 

bar bi ta, 


Dc lo. 

An dro ge o. 


bar bi to. 

bar, bi tis. 




2. The plural of Greek nouns in 'os is declined like the plural of 
dominus, except that the}' sometimes have -on instead of -orum in 
the genitive. 

3. Greek proper names in cus are declined like dominus, except 
that they have the vocative in eu. They sometimes retain the Greek 
forms in the other cases, viz. : gen. cos, dat. ci (contracted ei), ace. 
id, and are of the third declension. 

4. Pelage is found as the ace. pi. of pelagics. 



§221. The following table exhibits the principal foritis 
of G-reek nouns of the third declension : — 








Lampas, !-[- a f s ' I L d i 1 1 - a( J im ' \\ 

I t-ados, j ] au1 ' j \-ada, J |-*s, 

f -ades, ^ 

\ -adas, j 

f -oem, 1 

I -oa, J 

-ades,; -adum, 

f -ades, "> 
■adibus,| | . adas, j" |-ados, 







f -yis, I 
I -yos, [ 

f -is, t -ios,- 
\ -eos, 





f -is, -ei,-i 

i Achilles, 

' \ -eos, 

{Orpheus. ! -eos, 

JAer, -cris. 

Dido, I -us, 


f -oes, 
( -oas, 

f -ym, 
I -yn, 

\ -in, 
C -em, 

j- -oes. 


; -ei, ■ 

•ea, -en, j 


-ye or y 

-es, e,j-e or -i. 

-eu, ' Jseeg^t'.- 

er, (i-ere. 
-o, o. 



jcooo i w ^ other nouns, 

«. 1. JSouns are ) ,. ... ' 
i > . 1 r s adiectives, 

(lerivcd lrom y J , 

(^ verbs, 

Denominatives ; 
Abstracts ; 

234 appendix iv. , §222 


1. The ending ium added to the stem of a noun denotes office or 
condition, and sometimes a collection or assemblage; as, collegium, 
(colleg-a), the office of colleague, an assemblage of colleagues, a col- 

3. The ending (mbndtQn added to a noun-stem denotes condition, 
and derivatively, several other relations; As," matr-imonium, mother- 
hood, the married state; patr-imonium, fatherhood, then derivative- 
ly, that which results from bemg a father, what a father gives a son, 
ivhai a son inherits, a patrimony. 

4. The ending -etwn added to the stem of names of plants, denotes 
a place where they grow in abundance ; as, laur-etum, a laurel grove: 
querc-etum, an oak grove. * 

5. The diminutive endings, lus, la, him, ulus, (a, um,) olus, (a, urn,) 
sometimes cuius, unculus, uleus, denote a small specimen of the prim- 
itive. Libtllus, (liber.) a little book; filiolus, (films,) a little son. 

6. Patronymics are personal names derived from the name of 
one's father or other ancestor." They end in ides (penult short, fem. 
is) ; ides (penult long, fem. eis) ; ias, iades (fem. as) ; and some 
feminities in ine or ione. As, 

Tyndar-ides, a son of Tyndarus • Tyndar-is, a daughter of Tyndar- 
us. Ner-edes, a 3on of Nereus ; Ner-eis, a daughter of Nereus. . 

7. Amplificatives are personal names given on account of the great 
size of some part of the body. They arc formed by adding o to 
noun-stems; as, copit-o. big- head ; naso, big-nose. 


8. Adjectival abstracts are formed by adding to adjective stems 
the cndings]las, Has, clas ; tus, ilus, itudo ; ia % itiu, ilies: e do, and 


9. The name of. an action or condition is expressed 

(a) By adding.or to the present-stem (generally of intransitive 
r«ib8); mozr- or, grief ; splend-or, brightness. 

(b) By adding ium to the present or supine-stem ; as, gaud-ium, 
joy; ezit-wm, destruction. 

§222 /• . , appendix iv. , ' 235 

(c) By adding io or us to the supine -stem ; as, hct-io, a reading ; 
cant-us, a singing. 

(d) Sometimes by adding da, inwnia, imonium, to the present-stem, 
or ura to the supine-stem ; as, qucr-da, complaining, a complaint. 

10. Ura added to the supine-stem usually denotes the result of an 
action ; as, pid-um, the result of painting, npicture. 

11. The doer of an action is expressed by or, (fern, rix), added to 
the supine-stem ; as, vict-6r t vict-riz, a conqueror. Some nouns in 
tor are formed from other nouns, though an intermediate verb i •; al- 
ways supposed to exist; as, via, viare, vi at- or ; gladl-us, gladx <irci 

The doer is expressed by adding a or o to the present-stem of a 
few verbs ; as, scrib-a, comcd-o. 

12. The endings ulum, buluvi [brum,) culum (dum or crum,) trum, 
added to the present-stem, express tile instrument, sometimes the 
place, for performing the action ; as, ven-a-buium, a hunting spear; 
veh-i'Culinn, a vehicle. These endings are sometimes added to noun« 
stems ; a:?, acet-abulum, a vinegar cruet. 

13. The ending men added. to the present-stem, expresses the thing ' 
in which the action of the verb is exhibited; as, flu- men, that which 
exhibits flowing, a river; ag-men, something which exhibits motion, 
an army on the march. ' 

11. The ending mentum, added to the present-stem, usually with a 
connecting vowel, expresses the means of performing the action ; as 
doc ic-mentum, a means of showing, a proof. 

15. The ending orium added to the supina-stem expresses the pl( 
where an action is performed; as, audit' orium, a lecture-reom. 

16. Adjectives are mostly derived from verbs {verbals), 
or from nouns and adjectives, (denominativesyV 


17. The ending eus, (sometimes nus]neus,) means made of, as, aur- 
eus, gold; cbur-nus, made of ivory. Sometimes it expresses 
resomlilance in character ; as, virgin-cut;, maidenly. The endings 
inn? (penult short,) and cnus have the same meaning. 

18. The endings alit, anus, aris\ ariiu, ifo (penult long,) atilis, ieus, 

It long,) and ivus, mean pertaining to, belonging 

236 appendix iv. §222 

to, and form possessive adjectives. The ending His often danotes 
character ; as, pucr-ilis, boyish. These adjectives are often used as 
uouns, the limited noun being omitted ; as, ferr-arius (faber,) a 
smith ; medic-ina (ars,) the physician's art, medicine ; avi-arium, a 
place pertaining to birds, an aviary ; ov-ile, something pertaining to 
sheep, a fold. * . 

19. "The endings osus and lentus mean full of ; as, vin-osus, full of 
wine ; fraud-u-lentus, full of fraud. 

29. From names of places are/ormedpossessives in anus, as, ensis, 
ius, inus ; as, Athen-i-cnsis, of Athens, an Athenian. 

21. The ending atits means furnished with t ivearjng ; as, al-atus, 
winged ; barb-atus, bearded. 


22. -The ending bundus added to the present-stem, with' a connect- 
ing vowel, has the meaning of the participle present, but usually 
with an intensive force ; as, err~a*-bundus, wandering to and fro ; 
cundus has sometimes the same meaning.' 

23. The ending idus, added to the present-stem, expresses state or 
condition ; as, cal-idks, cold ; rapidus, rapid. 

24. The ending uus addod t» ti*9 staua »f an intransitive verb, ex- 
presses condition or tendency ; — added to the stem of a transitive* 
verb, it has a passive meaning; as, congru-us, agreeing; noc-uu*. 
hurtful ; conspic-uus, visible. 

25. The endings bib's (with a connecting vowel,) and His, added to 
verbal stems, express, passively,, capability or desert; as. fac-ilis, 
capable of being done ; as, am-a-bilis, deserving to be loved. Some- 
times they are&ctivo in meaning ; as, horr~i~bilis, producing horror. 

26. The ending icius, or itius, added to the supine-stem, has a pas- 
sive sense; as, fict-icius, feigned. 

27. Tne ending ax expresses an inclination — generally an evil one ; 
»s, rap-ax, rapacious. • 

28* The ending ious added to the supine stem expresses, actively, 
capacity or tendency ; as, conjunct-ivus, havisg a tendency to unite, 

§222—223 appendix iv. 237 


29. From noun and adjective stems are formed 

(a) Inti-ansitircs (in o, co, or,) denoting to be that dcroted by the 
primitive ; as, comit~or, I accompany. 

(b) Transitives (o, or,) denoting to do or make, to exercise, employ 
or use upon something, that which is denoted by the primitive ; as, 
fraud-o. I use iraud, I defraud ; liber-o^ I make free.' 

80. From verbs are derived the following : 

(a) Frequentatives, expressing frequency, or increase, of the action 
expressed by the primitive. They are formed by adding the endings 
of the first conjugation to the supine-stem, at passing into it; as, 
dam-arc (clant-at-, ) to cry — clam^il-are, to cry aloud, or frequently. 
A few add ito to the present-stem ; as, ag-ito. Frequentatives are 
sometimes formed from frequentatives; as, curro, citrso, cur sit o ; 
venio, vento, ventito. 

(b) Inceptives, expressing the beginning of an action or condition. 
They are of the third conjugation, and are formed by adding sco, 
scor to the present-stem, with a c&nnecting vowel; lab-a-sco, I be- 
gin to totter ; ard-tsco, I begin to be warm ; profic-i-scor, I begin to 
make myself forward, I set out. 

(c^> Desiderativts, expressing strong desire. They are of the fourth 
conjugation, and are formed by adding urio to the supine-^tem of 
the primitive ; as, es-urio, (edo,) I desire to eat, I am hungry. They 
are few in number. 

(d) Diminutives, which express trifling action. They are formed 
by adding Mo to the present or supine stem ; as, conscrib-illo, I 

(e) Intetisives, which express earnest action. They are of the third 
conjugation, and are formed by adding esso, or isso, to the stem of 
the primitive ; as, fac-esso, I do with all my might. 

Note. Many verbs of the above classes have only the meaning of 
tho primitive. 


§223.. 1. Every verb-form consists of two parts, the stem 
an d the ending. The ending consists of the personal- signs 




(for the most # part pronominal roots of the different per- 
sons ; the connecting vowel; and, in some tenses, the tense- 
sign. Though for the sake of convenience we call the rad- 
icals am-, mon-, and aud- the present-stems of the verbs 
amare, monere, and audire, the stems are in fact ama-, 
Tnone-, and audi- ; verbs .of 1st, 2nd,and the 4th conjugations 
may, thorefore, be termed pure or vowel verbs,' while only 
those of the 3rd conjugation have consonant stems. Thus, 
in the form ama-ba-tis, {ama-eba-i-tis,) ama- means love; 
cba-, the tense-sign, marks incomplete action in past time, 
(the e being absorbed by a of the stem,) and means did ; i, 
the connecting vowel, or mood-sign, is absorbed by the a 
preceding, while tis, the personal sign, means ye or you. 
The whole, if literally rendered, means hve-did-ye, or ac- 
cording to the English idiom, ye love-did, ye love-d. 

2. The following tables show the personalj mood, and 
tense-signs, which, uniting with the verb stem, produce the 
various verb forms. 




Pe l. 

Act' . 







Ind. Perf. sti. 






Ind. perf. stis. 



ris, re, 


mur, | 

mini, , | 


No cb. The personal sign m is the radical of the Greek, Latin, and 
Engl h me; *mus is the pluralized form : s, frequently interchanged 
with , is the radical of tu, (Greek su, English th-ou,) and tit is the- 
sanii form pluralized, the t being resumed : t, of the third person, 
(plui 7it,) has a demonstrative force, and is found as a prefix in tan- 
tus, talis, &c. ; and as a suffix in id, (English i-t,) is-te, &c. 

The. sign of the passive is r, and enters into all the passive end- 
ings except mini, which is wholly unlike the rest, and is generally 




considered a participial ending (Greek menci,) estis beinjr under- 
stood ; — ama-rtlini estis. The personal signs for the Imperative are, 
to' (pi. tote,) to, (pi. nto,) Pass., re or tor, (pi. mini,) tor, (pi. v.ior.) 



I 1. 1 2. 

1 3. « 1. 

1 2. 

1 3. [ 

( All but Prcs.-Perlect, anil 

Ind : rativo J Fut ' 3rd and 4th C0 "J- 
ina.cative. < prc8 _ pprf 

I Fut., 3rd and 4th conj. 

o, 1 J J > 

h U 

a, | i, 

1 . 

1 »» 



u. | 


f Pies., 2nd, 3rd, and 4th conj. 

a u- * • ~ ) Pi'es., 1st conj. 
Subjunctive j prealperf 

^Imperf. and Past-Perf. 



h \ 
«i 1 



i, i, 





-1 e, | 

e, I 


1 u. 

Inf. Active e, pass. i. 


Note. The mood-signs ofs the Indie, are short (except i and eru of 
the pres.-perf.) ; those of tho Imper. are short; those of the SuVj. 
long (except i of the pres.-perf, which is long or short.) 




| Imperf. 

l Fut. i Pi^s.-Perf. 

I Past-Pert. |Fut.-Perf 



j eb», 

j'.'b. 1st & 2nd conj. | none, 
'e, 3rd & 4th conj. 1 

era, er. 



1 er, 

1 1 er, 

1 iss, I 

Infinitive. ! 



1 1 188, 

i 1 

Note. The sign of completed action must not be confounded with 
the tense signs. It is 

In the 1st conj. v, sometimes passing into u, — sec-u-i; 

" " 2nd " v, generally passing into u, — mon-u.i ; 

" " 3rd " generally s, sometimes u. 

« (< 4 tu a ^ v 

Before it the final letter of the stem is lengthened ; as, ania-vi, 
fle-vi, audt-vi. The reduplication is sometimes used, as in Greek, to 
indicate completed action ; as, mo-mord-i, po-posc-i, ve-ven-r, (contr # 
vm-i,) mo-mov-i, (contr. mov-i). Such perfects as pav-i, (pasco,) 
quicv-i, (quie-sc-o,) sprcv-i, (sper-n-o for spre-?i*o,) are regularly 
formed on vowel-stems, strengthened by the addition of sc, (Apr). 
IV. 30, b,) and n. 




3. Where two voxels come together, the, former usually absorbs 
the latter, the two short syllables making one long one. It must b* 
borne in mind, however, that no vowel in Latin can be long before 
m. t, or r, except in certain monosyllables. The mood-sigtf and 
the personal-sign m, never stand together, but one or the other is 
dropped ; as, amao(ni), amaba(o)m, — amo, amabam. 

4. In the following table the stem, sign-sign mood-sign, and per- 
sonal»sign, are exhibited. 


Full Form. 
reg-o (m) 
reg-i-s, &c, 


Contracted Form. 

reg-is &c, 

reg-eba-(o) m reg-ebam 

reg eba i s, &c, reg cbas 

reg cba u nt reg cbant 

reg earn 
reg e i s, &c , 
reg e u ut 

reg am 
reg es 
reg ent 

reg a m reg am 

reg a s, &c. reg as 
reg a mus, &c, reg amus 

Full Form, 
ama-o (m) 
ama-i-s &c, 

Contracted Form, 

ama-eba-(o) m 
ama eba i s &c, 
ama cba i t 

ama eb (m) 
ama eb i s, &c, 
ama eb u nt 

ama e m 
ama e s &e, 
ama e mus 

am abas 
am abat 

am abo 
am abis 
am abunt 

am em 
am es 
am em js 

reg er e m 

reg er c s 

reg erem 
reg eres, &c, 

reg e reg e 

reg i to reg ito 

reg i te regite 

reg i tote, &c., reg itote, &c, 

ama er e in 
ama er e s 

ama e 
ama i to 
ama i te 
ama i tote, &C, 

reg er e 

reg ere - . ama er e 


am a rem 
am arcs &0 

am a 
am a to 
am ate 
am ctote 

am are 

Full Form. Contracted Form. Full Form. Contracted Form. 

regs i rex i 

regs i sti rex isti 

regs i mus, &c. rex imus, &c, 

amav 1 
amav i sti 
amav i mus 

amav 1 
amav isti 
amav imus &C 




Full Form. Contracted Form,. • Full Form. Contracted Form, 

regs era [oj m rex W 

regs era i », &C vox ev,-/y, 

regs er o [m] rex ero 

regs er i 8, «o. rei cris, &c- 

amav era [o] m amav eram 

i i ^, &c, ainav eras, &c. 

amav er o [m] amav ero 

amav er i s, &c. arnav eri?, &a 

regs er i in vex eriin 

regs er i s, v ; :c rex oris, &c. 

arnav er 1 m amav erim 

nrnav er i s, &c. amav eris, &c. 

regs iSs e m rex iseem ' 
regg iss e s. &.O. rex isses, &©. 

uinav iss e ra nmuv issem 

amav iss <? 8, &c. amav iss«8,&c. 

i egs iss e 

vox isse 


amav isse. 


tie o [m] 

lie i s 

tie i t, &c. 

He u nt 

11 c 
il 63 

fl et. &c, 
fl cnt 

He eba [o] ta ft ebam 

lie eba is fl ebas 

fle cba i t, &c. fl ebat, &c. 

Me eb o [m] ftcbo 

He eb i s il ebis 

tic eb i t, &c. fl -"bit, &c. 

lie a m 

tie a s 
Me a t 

fl earn 

fl e«s 

fl eat, &c. 

tie er e m ft erem 

tie er c s, «jc. fl eves 

tie e — fle 

tie e te, ^c. fl cte, tj*c. 

o [m] 
i s • 
i t, &c. 
u nt 

eba [o] m 
eba i s 

cba i t, kc. 

a [o] m 
e i s 
e i t, &c. 

a m 
a t 

er em 
er e s 








audi e - 
audi e te, &c. 

aud i<a 
aud is 
aud it, &c. 
aud hint 

aud icbam 
audiebas^ . 
aud icbat, <j-e. 

audi am 
audi «s 
audi et, &c. 

and iarn 
aud ias 
aud iat, &c. 

aud irem 
aud ires, <$-c. 

aud i 
aud tte,<5'c. 


He v i [m] fl«v i 
!kv era [o] m flVv eram 
H?v cr p [m] flev ero 

audi v i [m] 
audiv era [o] ra 
audiv er o [m] 

audiv i 
audiv eram 
audiv ero 

242 APPENDIX VI. §22i 

Full Form. Contracted Form. Full For Contracted Form 

flev er i ni flcv evim auch'v or i m 'audiverim 

flcv iss em . flcv issem . audt'v iss e m auch'v issero 

ilrv.iss« flcv isse a'udtv iss e audt'v isse 

Note. — The pupil can readily complete the table:? for himself 

5. The participles are formed by adding adjectival endings to tho 
verb-stern, [sometimes wit'i a connecting vowel in consonant verbs,! 
m expressing continuance [actively]; turns, futurity: tus,- comple- 
tion [passively] ; and -ndus, iitnes-s, capacity. ■ 

G. The gerund is a verbal noun formed by adding -ndi, 8f$ , to the 
verb-stem, a connecting vowel being necessary in consonant verbs ; 

7. The supine is a verbal noun of the fourth conjugation, sometimes 
complete [as cursus 7 ], but usually found only in the accusative and 
ablative. It is formed by adding tus [sometimes sus] to the.verb- 



$224. 1. The -tense-bik'u ol the indicative future in verbs of .the 
fourth conjugation [i stems] seems anciently to have been cb, as in 
a and e stems, the i of the stem absorbing the e of the tense-sign ; 
as, vesti-b-o, sci-b-o, instead of vestiam.sciam. The same contraction 
also occurs iri the imperfect ; as ves-tibam. The forms 7 bam and ibo 
of co are still retained. 

2. The endings im, is, <j-c, in the subjunctive present "[mood-sign 
i] are sometimes found in the earlier writers and in the poets : a* 
edim, cdis, edit, cdimiis, #c, for edam, fyo. The same mood-sigu is 
alway3 found in the forms sim, sis, &C, velim, velis, fyc. and their 

3. The ending e, is dropped in the imperatives die, due, .fac, ami 
fer. The short forms are also used in th,eir compounds, except those 
"compounds of facto which change a into i; as, effice. 

4. The personal-sign of the imperative future passive 2nd person 
singular was anciently mino ; as horta-nuno, }>r?grcdi-mino. The older 


writers sometimes use the active ending of the imperative in depo- 
nent verbs ; as' arbitrato, instead of arbitrator. 


b. The letter v of the perfect stem is frequently elided and the 
first vowel of the ending is absorbed, when followed in the. first con- 
jugation by 9, in the other conjugations by s or r ; as ama-\y\-ixt\ 
amasti ; Jlc~[v~\~tram, fleram. When t precedes v, there is usually n© • 
contraction. This is especially the case in compounds of eo; as re- 
dii, peril, subii §c. 

6. When the perfect-stem ends in s, the syllables is, its, iinme- 
diately following it, are sometimes omitted; as evasti, cvassv/n, cvastis, 
for evas-isti, cvas-isscm, evas-islis. 

7. An ancient future-perfect in so occurs, from which 
subjunctive forms in sem and si?n, are formed ,• as recepso, reccpsim. 
Sometimes this future is formed on the present-stem ; as, habe&sol 

The forms ausim, faxim and fazo, are retained by the classic wri 


S Compound verbs generally form their perfect and supine sten, 
like the simple verbs from which they are derived. Sometimcs,how- 
ever, there is a change of the stem vowel; aa hqb-so, pro-hilj-eo • fac- 
io, con-Jic-io ; xcind-o, de-s'cenrt-o. A reduplication in the perfect is 
omitted in compound verbs ; as, ccctUo, ce-cid-i ; oc^cid-o, oc-cid-i ; 
but the compounds of do, sto, disco,- nnd^osco, and some of those of 
curro, retain it. 




s22~>. First Conjugation. 

1. The perfect and supine stems are formed, in the first 
conjugation by adding respectively av and at to the pres- 
ent stem ; or, to speak more correctly, by adding v and / 
to the crude form .of the verb; as, ama- 9 amav-, amat-. 

2. But . 




(a) The characteristic vowel a is elided in the- peri 
tenses of a few verbis, (?.' passing into u after a consonant,) 
and in such eases is usually changed into i in the supint ; 
as, crepo, crcjp-u-i, cfep-i-ium. 

(b) The perfect stem is formed by reduplicating the 
initial consonant with e; ,as d-are, ded-i. 

(c) Some verbs seem originally to have reduplicated: 
but 'the reduplication ha.? been dropped, the two first sylla-' 
hies blending into one, a#d the short stem -vowel becoming 
long; as lav-o, lav-i, foi la-la-vi 

8. The following list, contains the verbs % whieh vary from 
the usual mode of "formation. 

f>epo, crepare, -crepui, eropituni,; 
to creak. Iricrcpcf, -avi, or ui, 
-atum or -»ituiu. Discropo, -ui, 
— . Itecrepo, are, — , — . 

Cubo, cubui, cubitum, io lie down. 
Incubo has rarely -avi. Some 

dimico, -avi rarely -ui, -atum. 

eraico, -.iii, -atuui. 
Neco, necavi rarely necui, nec- 

atusa rarely nectum, to, kill. 
Piico, plicavi & plicui, plicatura 

& piicitum, to fold.' 

of the compounds insert m, and! a,pplico, complico, explico, impli- 
are of the 3d conjugation. co, in the same way. The other 

Domo, domui, domitum, to tame, i compounds have -a\\) atum. 

Do, dare, dedi, datum, to give.) Foto, -avi, potum and potatum, 
Compounds with monosyllabic to drink. 

prepositions are of the od conju- Seco, secui, sectum and secatum, 
gation. to cut. So also prseseco, reseco. 

Fried, fricui, frictum or fricatum, The other 'compounds have only 
to rub. i sectum. 

confrieo, coni'ricavi, oonfrica- 
.rvivo, jiivi, jamm, juvaturas, to 

Lavo, [arc, § ere,] lavi, lotum, 

lautum. a/io" lavatum, laraturue, 

io wash. 
Mico, micui, , to quiver. 

Sono, sonui, sonitum, sonaturus, 
to sound. Coasono, exsono, in- 

sono, prcesono, 
sono, avi, . 



Sto,"steti [for sesti,.] statmn, to 

Tono, tonui, — •-, to thunder. 

Attono, -ui, -irtim. 
Veto, vetui. vetitum, lo forbid. 


I, The perfect stem is. formed, in *hc second conjugation 



by adding v to the crude form of the verb., as in the 

first conjugation; as, fle-o 9 flr 

(b) But in most verbs ijhe characteristic • is elided, v 
passing into w; and, as in the first conjugation, the char- 
acteristic is changed into i in the'supine ; as, mone-o, mbnut 

i. monit-urn. 

(c)'In man}' Verbs e is elided, and s, instead of v, added, 

h such consonant changes as euphony may require; as, 
arde-o') ar-s-i for ard-si ; au'gc-o, avx-i for «<v ; yW. 

(d) A few ^erbs reduplicate the .1 consonant, 

drop the characteristic e; as, morde-o, mo~mord-i. 

■ ) Some verbs preserve a trace of ihe reduplicate, 
the lengthening of the stem-vowel in the perfect, the char- 
acteristic,' as in the* last class, being •eli/lod ; as. mo 

i; perhaps for mi ' .- or perhaps theVriginal form 

was . ed into oid ha\ 

* iye sylla with v. All ferfes of the .first 

and second conjugations which lei the stem-vowel in 

the perfect, ha'. i ending in v, except video and sedeo, 

;!. The following .list contains the verbs of, the second 
conjugation which form the perfect and supine stems of 
wise "ding to §226,1, b^ihati being. considered^He 

regular formation, as it is tic rhioh' most commonly 


ijbolievi; abolition, to, 
The oikdr compov 
■ !eo, are ndo!eo, adolui, 
(rarely aclolcvi,) adultum; uu-. 
, {inceptive from cxoli-o.) 
m ; del co. -<"vi 

or,, (t-arcJy au&i, 
kick aujsina,) to da 
Aufeo, auxi, auction, to increase, 

, Cdjvi, cautum, to bch 
Censep, censni, censum, to b 
opinion, percenseo, perSeo 

'.'turn. recenseo, recensui, recension 

;, t to,becotd. ,. ' reeensn." 

Arced, arcui, arclum or'ai Gico, cm, citum, to arc 

■ > off. compounds with are oj 

• arsi, arsum, the fourth a 




.nult of excitns {5 common, and 
that of concitus is rarely long. 

Connireo, conm'vi, cr connixi, , 

to shut the eyes. 

Densco, densetuin, to be dense • 

Doce*o, docui, doctum, to teach. 

F&veo, favi, faufcuni, to favor. ■ 

•Fcrveo, ferbui, or fervo fervi. to 

Fleo, fievi, fletum, to tveep. 

Foveo, fovi, fotum, to warm. 

Fulgeo, fulsi. (antcclassical and 
poetic, fulgo. falsi,) to flas{i. 

Gaudeo, gavisus, to rejoice. 

■ Heereo, hseafi, hoe sunt, to slide. Ob- 
la rereo^-^re, , ;. so also 


Indalgeo,:indulsi, indultum. to in- 
dulge. • 

Jubeo, jussi, jussum, to o/der. 
; Lucco, luxi,— ■ — '■, .to shine. Pollu 

Lugco, luxi, luctumj to mourn. 

Maneo, mansi, mansum, to slay. 

Misceo,mis.cui. mis turn or mixtu.m, 
misturus, to mix. 

Mordeo,' tnotnordi. morsnm. to bite: 

Mcveo, movi, motum, to move. 

■Mul6eo, mulsi, mulsum, rarely , 
mulctum. to stroke. 

Mulgeo, rnul?i rarely mulsi. mnl- 
siim, or mulctum, to milk. Emul- 
gco,-ere,~ — , emulsum. 

§227. To these may be added the following impersonal 
and deponent' verbs of 2n$ conjugation. 

Neo, nevi, netum, to spin. 

Paveo, pavi; , to fear. 

Pendeo, pependi. , to hang*— 

Pleo(obsolete), plevi, j>\etum.toJttl. 
Pr&ndao,pranr]i.pransum, to break* 

fast. » 

Ride'o, r*si,.rjsupi, to laugh. 
Sedeo, sedi, sessnm, to sit ; prse- 

sidco, prsesedi, — — . 
Soleo, splitus, rarely solui, to he. 

Sorheo. sorbui, , to suck up. — 

resorbe6,-ere, ; abso'rb'eo, 

absorbui, rarely absorpsi, uii- 

s.orptum. ' . 
Spondeo, spop'ondi, spqnsum, to 

Stn'deo, stndi, to creak. 
Suadeo, sac/si, suasum, to ddvise- 
Tcneo, teuui, tentum, lo hold : 

pertineo, pertinuL . 

Tergeo or tergo, tersi, tersiim, to 


Turgeo, tursi, -, to swell. 

Toncleo, toton'di, tonsuni, to shear. 
Torqueo. torsi, tortum, to twist. 
Torreo, tjarrui, tostum, to roast. 

Urgco or urgueo*,ursi, , to press. 

Video, v«li, visum," to see. 
Voveo^. vovi, votum, to v . 
Vieo, , viefcum, to plait. 

Decet, decuit, it becomes. 

Libe't, libuit or libitum est, %t 


'Licet, licuit or licitum est, it is al- 
lowed. 1 

Liquet, liquit or licuit, it is clear. 

Misoret, miseruit, less frequently 
rniserttur, miseritWB or miser- 

tarn est, it /. 
Oportet, oportuit, it behooves. 
Piget, piguit or pigitum est. 

Pcenitet, poenituit, it repents 
Pudet, puduit or puditum est. 


§228.230 THIRD CONJUGATION. 247 

"' o<iet, tseduit or tresum e;>t, /tiMiser'eor, misirftus or misertus, 
usts. to pity. 

■r, fassos, to confess, diffi- [Reor, ratus, to think. 
reoivm,— — ..''■ ;Tueoi\ tuitus or tutus, (the latter 

or, , to t\ passive/) to behold, to gkze at. 

§228. The following have the perfect-stem in *?<, but 
want the supine. 

Aceo, to be sour • camleo, to be white ; Ociudo, to be hoary ;* egeo, to 
emineo, to rise tip; floreo, to flower*) horreo, to bristle; lateo, 
ioHeJi : 'l; muceo, to be mouldy ; nigreo, to be black ; oleo, to smell; 
palleo, to be pale: pateo, to be ope?i; sileo, • to be silent ; strideo, to 
creak ; s.tadeo, (studivi onqe,) to tte eager) stupeo, to be. stunned; 
timeOs to fear. 

% 229. The following have neither perfect nor supine 
:■, though 'from some of them perfect tenses are formed 
h an inceptive force. 

.-Egreo, to be sick; albeo,./o be white; areo, to be dry : avep, toeovet; 
ealleo, to be hard ; calveo, to be bald ; ceveo, to fawn ; clareo, to be 
bright ; clueo, to be famous ; flacceo, to droop ; flaveo, to be yellow ;■ 
foeteo, to. stink} i'rigeo, to be cold : frondeo, to bear leaves ; hebeo, to 
he'dull ;. humeo, to be moist ; lactco, to suck ; langueo, to be faini " 
lent^o, io be slow : liveo, to be livid; rnaeeo, to be lean; mcereo, % lo 
grieve; ,niteo, to shine; oleo, to smell; polleo, to be powerful ; puteo 
io stink ; vem'deo, to glittery rigeo, to be stiff ; rubeo, to be >v/ , 
scateo. to gash out ; seneo, to be old; surdeo, to be filthy ; sploudeo, 
int; squalco, to befoul; sueo, to be tvont ; tepeo, to be warm ; 
o, to be stiff ;.tx\mco, to sit ell ; vegeo, to arouse; vigeo, to jloui- 
«. : • vireo, to be green; \i\co,4o be mo) 



§ 230. I. The perfect atom is formed in the third conju- 


(a) By adding g, to the present-stem, which in this con- 

248 appendix §230 


jugation is the crude forift of the a orb. As, carp-o, carps-i. 

(b) By adding 'v to Die crude form of the verb, whi 
has been strengthened by adding n or sc,asin Greek. These 
are all originally vowel verbs. As, cresc-g } crev-i ; pa-sc-o, 
pav-i ; no-sc-o, nov-i \ .-.. .1.-0 '. .■■iv-i ; spcr-n-o. sprev i (by 
metathesis for sperv/.'j 

(c) By adding u (the form which -the perfect -sign v &£r 
sumes after a consonant.) As, al-o, alu-i. 

(d) By adding* ti I t stem ; as, arpdss-o, ar* 
cessiv i. 

(e) By reduplicating the initial consonant; as,- 

(f) By lengthening the present-stem, with or without 
vowel ehange ; as, cm-o, em-i ") ag-o,.Cg-i. 

(g) In a member of verb**, (especially vowel verbs in u 9 y 
the perfect-stem is like the present stem;' as, aeu-o, acu-L 

2. The supine-stem is usually formed in the third conju- 
gation by adding ^.frequently by adding s, to the present * 

•-. The following list co'ntaii of the verbs of this 


Acuo, acui, acutuui, id sharpen. ; ntpine-stem. See A} 

A'.ro, cgi, actum, id set in motion .| VI, 8. 

aaibigo,-ere, , -4 — . dego, | Ccedo, cccrli, CKxum, to cut. The 

degi satago,-ere.- , . ' i compounds change M into i : as, 

Alo. altti, altum and alitum, to\ Dcctdo, occidi, occ<' : ee * 

nourish. . App, VI, 8. 

Ango, anxi, — — , to choke. . - iCando, to cause id ^i ■ 
Arguo, ai'gui, argwtuin, to convict. \ accendo, incend \ 
Arcesso, (pass trior i,}'- a (-cendl.-censum.) 

arcessitum, to send for. jCano, cieini*, catitum, to s 

Batuo, toatui, , to beat. prsecino, -cinui, -centum ; couci- 

Bibo, bibi, bibitum, to drink. po, cinui, — - ; 'so occin'o. a< 
Cftdo, cecidi, Cfi3um, to fall. r,c-i no, -ere, -, — — < ; so also, i-nci, J 

cido.decido, exoido.and succidoJ no, inter^j 



Capons ;->,-•?' N-i, /tarn, to i 
Capio, p«pi, captum, to take, so 
antec&pio. The other compound,*, 
'change a of ih item into 

i, and of 

po, c.ivrbi. c,v, ptu -'nek 

■ ■ 
16, ante-, prue-, re/; cello, -ere, 

, — 

sum ; percello, pereuli, pereul- 
ui til. 

: no, crcvi. 

.. oinxi, i Lnctuo . 

go, , . to elm 

udo, clausi, clausuft), to sh 

Olaudd, . clauCum, to limp. 

Clepo, q] ely ctepi, to i 

Colo, colui, cultum, to cvh. 
Occulo, ocJcului, oceuitum. 
Com . 

Com ; 

Gobi tuii, toco 

Co quo, coxi, coctum, 
Cresoo, ci i turn, to ai 

lo, -ere, — , — , to 
Excwdo, excttdi, es 
.Cupio, -tvi, :' ' . 
■ ro, oucurri, car.- i 
coucurro, Buccurro, 
drop the red ' n. 7%'c 

as, aecurr. 
curvi, accursunl.- 
-e"0. — ,-, — ; . .s/ 1 fi 

"; 8. 
Co&do, condidi, < i ' •''■ 7 . 

absc.ondo, -condidi c<* 

i»//;c r compound 

I. /o s 

Divide, dit/.-d, divisuftj, /c <ft'y» ' 
D?tco, duxi, ductum, /o fti(za*. 
Edo, edi, cautn, to cat. Sco §111. 
Exuo, exui, ax, io put 

Em&, emi, euiptum, /o buy. 

demo, dempsi, demptum. 
n, io do 
to, foci, factum, to do. 

Jmpcr. pre*, fne. The c&mpoui^xds 
. "ti/v the simple ; a», 

caJ '. - fa c t n in : calc- 

fac, calefio : those with a pr< 

sitiou change a of th 

stem into i, and of fh stt m 


sive'; as,'interficio, iuterfefci, in- 

terfectum; interficief, internal-, 

F alio, f efe llj, fal sum, io'J' 

rcfello, refelli, j — . 
Fendo, ( endi, 

defensom, \o defendj 
fendi, -feusum, to ofi'end. 

re,) tull, latum, to carry. A 
rs. affero, aUul:, 
allatum ; aufei di, abla- 

tum; confevo, eontuli, collatum: 
differo, disfuli, diliituuj ; 
c:;tuli, elatum; in.fero, iniuli, 
ill, iffero, obtuli, o 

■ I ivblatum. 
ervi, io boil. 

. i 
or coni/. 
, i'lxi, fix am ■ 
'fix. , ■ 


o, flexi, fieXutn, lo bend* 
Flfgo, ftixd, - -, to ■' 

Flu li . fluxum, 




, fodi, fcrfsum, to dig. Old L'uxo, l/'vi or lovi, litum, to 
. fodtri; so also effoderi.' Lihquo, lfqui, — , to leave. 

Frango, frcgi, fractnm, to break, 
Frerno, fremui, fremituin, to roar. 
Frendo, , frcsum and fressum, 

to gnash. 
Frigo, friki, frictum rarely fi*ixu,iri, 

to fry. 
Fugio, ftfg'i, fugitum, to fly. 
Fulgo, — , — . to flash. 
Fundo',.'f«df, ft/sum, to pour 

Furo, , , to. rage. 

Gemo, gemui, gernitum, to groan. 
Gero, gessi, gestum, to bear. 
Gigno, (for gi-geao.) genui,' geni- 

tura, to beget. 
Glisco, — , — , to ar.oic. 

o* — >■ — . 

d'e gin p turn. 
Gruo, (obs.) 

Ico. ici, return, 

to fee', deglwbo, 

congruo, mgruo, 

to strike. 

relinquo, and dolmquo, *li 

Lw&o-, Iwsi, Wtsurn, h piety. y 
Luo, lui, luiturus, to atone, al 

-lui, iytuni. So diluo and eluo. 
j-Manclo, ma r u!i. marisuiri,' to chew. 
M,ergo, mors?, mersutn, to dip. 
Metuo, metui, rnettttum (rare), k 

Mingo, minxi, mictum, to m 

Minuo, tmqui, min^tum, to lest 
Mitto, m/.-i, imiseuni, to send. 
Mo-lo, inolui, molitum, io grind. 
Mungo, .(ofes.) enaungo, ernunxi, 

em unc turn, io wipe the nose. 
jNectd, nexui&:nexi,nexum,fo ; 

annecto, -r.exui, nexum. ' 

necto and connecto. 

tig© or -guo, ninxi, — — , to . 
, Iinbuo. irhbui, imbutum, to imbue. iNoseo, novi. liotum, io know, ag- 

Incesso, incessm or incessi, , nbsco arid co'gnDSco.^ave-ittitaai. 

to attack* dignosco and prre -noscb I 

Tnd'uo, indui, indwtum, io put on. \ only the present-stem. 
Jaci.o, jeci, jactum, to throio. cen-]Nubo, nupsi, nuptum. to veil.- 
jieio, -jcei, -jecturri : so the other\$>uo, to nod. abnuo,-nui,-mntun:, 
imds. itiinj'; annuo, -riui,rii{tum': 

Jungo, junxi, junctum, to ■!■■ ■ Iunu>>,-;!u.i,-:nutum ; renuo,-nui. 

-tvi, -num. to pr-ovok) . 

'.Lacio,.(obs.) aUicio, allexi, ali&c-iQlo, ottrf, — — , to smell 

turn, lo allure. So illicib, , illi-jParid'pY; , passum or pansui 

cio; but eliciq. elieui & elexi.j spread, dlspando,,- , disfp i 


. lsasi, lajsud, to hurt. 
Larnbo, 1 tnbitum, to lick. 

o, Lsgi, I •'. So the] 

■ i ■■. ok, re, 

i and trans : the < 

change si- into X. Diligo, 
.'negligo, have -.lexi, 
», linxij Unctu'm, to lick. <Xk 


Pango, panxi, pegi, and pegegi, 

pactum, pancturus, to fix. 

■ n d '■■ h a v e - p e gi . - p a c t u ra , 

r:;-. ' ippingo, 

. and 

repango, mts both per/. 

and sup. stents. 
Pari r rely parci^parbi- 

tum and pstrsiim, to spare.; 'turn ana partttiiri. 

s s230 



to bring forth. The cony 
arc of the fourth con$Uga\ 

Pa:-:oo, p«vi, pactum, to feci. 

Pecto, pcxi, pcxuiu, and pecti turn, 

• to comb: 

Kcpo, repsi, — . to a 
Rft<lo, josi, rosum, to $njxw. e- 
proe»rodo, want the perf. stem ; 

. both per 
' stems. 

Pcdo, pepedi, , to break wind [Rttdo> ruatvi, rudftum, to bray. 

oppedo, , . 

relic, pcpuli, pnlsum, to d 
Pernio, pependi, weigh. 
Pet.o. peUvi, pel stum, to ' 
Pingo, pinii, pictum, 
Pinso. piiii-i antfpfnsui,' 

pinsum, and pi stum, to poui 
Plango; plaBxi, plamrtum. to I 
Plaudo, plausi, plausum, to < 

civcumplriudo, — — ', • The 

other cov.\ 

change au into o 
Plecto, plexi, and plcsui,, 

to U 

Pluo, plni, or pluvi, . to rain. 

Poao, posui, positum, to pi 

Porricio, pcrreci." porTectum, ?o]Sero, — , sertum, to entwine: 

Rumpo, rttpi, ruptum, tp < 

Ruo, rni, rutum, rniturus, to fail. 

corruo, eorrui, — ; so irruo. 
Sapio, sapm, and sapii, — , t 

■esipfo, — , — ; so des : - ' 
'Scrtbo, scabi, — , to scratch. 
Scalpo, ecalpsi/ scaTptum, to~'en* 

gr ■ 

'■;■ ^allo. — , salSum, t 
ScandOj scifcndi, seansum,/'-' cl\ 
do, scidi, [andeni ' tdi,) 

f?cissum, to cut. 

to order. 
II o, scripsi seriptum; to write 
Sculpo, sctilpsi, seulptutn, locafvi. 
■ him, to sow. 

sacr : ; 

Posco. popo^ci, — , to demand. 

„ , } -di, sura, to seize. 

Prendo, j 

: . pressum, /-• 

ve : serui. 
po, steFpsi, serptum, to creqp. 
SU'do, stdi, (' 

deo,) to settle. 
Sin<5, Hvl, tfitum, to j ■' 

Promo, prompsi, proropttfm, {• titi, statwn, to ■"top. mTfa 

pounds w> ^crr,.. 

brine/ out 
P: ; ollo, psjilli, — , to play on a 

. string rd initfWtlt 
Pumgo, pupugi, puridtum,/ 

The compounds with con-, dih , 

tx-,and inter-, ha\ \ unc- 

turn, repongo, — , — . 
Quroro, [hoc .Yi. qusesitum,/ 
Quatio, sum,*^o shake. Th-e 

compounds' change qua 

as, cob cut io. 


luirtirm. to n 


in. rapui, rhptwm, /. 

Regn, l'fvi. roty Ui 

Solvp^olvijSofMtura, to loose. 

I, sparaum, to sc&tter. 
"Spe^cio, spexS, spectrum, toiobjc ; 
' us i compound 

;no, spiYvi,spiTtutn, to desp 
. sp.ui, sputum, to spit, res- 
puo. respui, — . 
StatuoJ statui, stattetum, to place. 
Sterno, strAvi, stratum, to strew. 
Sternuo, 'sternui, — . to sneeze. 
Stertd, etertjii, — , to%nore. 

— . — , to put out. Ti.i 
co, 'rive stiii xi,;-'iinctum. 

ui, — Jo make a m 
StrtdD. stridi, to cr 

:- 1 



turn, /o 6m7c2 r 

. (J SUC& 

amptura, to \ 
. i -ui, Stttutt), ifo •• . suo, 

— , c 

!ia, fo cover. 

■ rmOj — , -- : 
pi, t< 


, -to, 


, 2nd ;rsi, 

», tnvi, tiituro, {syncopated 
hi, teritam, to nxb. 

.a;,. J tinxi, line t urn, r'o 

tuli (ancichili ■ tol 

—,$e. sup tuli gW sub- 
latum y>wra suffero. supply the 
ct and s ms of tollo 

ffil^ Eustollc. . 7 7/ .? compo 
?r • 

Traho, traxi, tractum, to di 
Trefioo,' tremui, — , to tremble. 
Tribue, Jtribui, (ribtttum, to atlrib- 

Trado, trusi. tr^sum, to thruat. 
'Tundo, tutudi, tunsum & tw'suca, 
to beat. The compounds havr 
tt*sumj but contunsum, detun- 
im, ««c? retunsuru 
9 occur. 
Ungg (or -guo), ,uuxi, uncttim. to 

Uro, ussi, ustum. to 6wra. 

s), — ■ to go. sytr 
rvado, — , — . The other <: 
pounds Lave vasi, vasum. 
Yebo, vexi, vecturo, to carry. 
Velio, ypIU & vulsi, vul&um, to 
drag. So aveilo, divello, evello; 
intervellp, -vulsi, -vulsum. Th" 
oU lunds have volli only. 

Yefgo, yersi, — , to in, 
Ycrro, "vcrri, versum, to sweep. 
Ver*o, vtrti, versum, toiurn. 

, vici, dictum, to con^ 
Viso, vm, visum, to visit. 
Vivo, vixi, victiirus, to live 
•Volvo, volvi, volutum, to roll. 
Ypmp, vomui, vp&itum, to vom 

ew inceptive verbs hate a supine-stem. 
these take '.' from the simple verb; the perfect-st : 
when used, is also adopted from the simple verb., In many 
inceptiv ' ally those derived from nouns and adjec- 

s, the h ■. . . • ■ « in -eb is not used ; as, gra ve, 

stfo, acui, <'£> ic sto&r. *ui, -alitum. 

TEgrc . to grow $\ 

Albcscp, — , to grc . . , 

Alfisco, — , to grov:. cpalespa, -..l- 

Ardeaco, arsi, to lake fire. 
Aresco, — . to grow dry. exaresco ; 
-and-; so inaresc-p, pefaresco. 



An^csco, - -. to begin 'o ore/-. 
Calescb, — , ie arm. 

Calv* co, 

. lo lie hid. delitfl 
..(0 soft. 

CancLsbo, bahdu ne^eo, lb liquid. 

— , to <jro*> y^y- '■'' gnoio i 

Clar'escb, claimi. esoo, — , to grow muddy. 

€o&dorm&COs M.-icesco, — ,. ") ■ , 

7??/. Macresco, mncrui, J ^ 

Oonticeseo, -tioui, . madai; £'.> grow wet . 

'rebresco, crebui & ercbrui, tyjMafcesco, — , -to. pine away. 

"Crwdesco, orwdai, to b 
Ditcscb, -— , to grow rich. 
Oulccscq, dulcui, to grqw tsweet. 
Dwresco', dtwtli; tpgrc 
EviTesLCO, evtlui, to grow vile. 

Matureseo maturui, to ripen. 
JMiseresco, — , to pity. 
jMitescw, — , Id grow mild.- 
jMollesco, — , to grow 4tfl. 
i, - — , to gi 
tesoo, obinutui. . 
I3xtim6sco,extimtti, tdfeai . o, nigrui, to-grow ul> 

Fatisco, — , to gape. ls\, ■■■■■■. nitui, to groie bright. 

Flacccsco, flaccui, to • , nbtui, to become known. 

Fervesco, ferbui, to boil ObbruteseoJ - -. to becomr. bri 

Flpresco, flarui, to begin lojlovri --•, to fall asleep. 

Fracesco, fracui, to grow r.c Obfmtflesco, obsurdul, to gr;>v 

escQ, frixi, to ow cold. 
Fyo*ndcsco, frqiidui. t.r OccaUesc . - illut^o grow, hard. 

Fruticesco, — , to beg: i • 'Olesco, (rarely ;/W.) abolesco-,ab- 

olevi. actolb&co; adolevi, adu'- 

G el a sco, — , lo freeze. 
Gemisco, — . to begin to sigh. 
Gcmmasco, — , to begin iohutf. 
1 1 emmesoo, — , to become a gem. 
Generasco, — , to be produced. 
Grande sco, — , to grow large. 
Gravesco, — , to grow hearty. ^ 
Hcerescoi — , ^o adhere.. 
H'eb: sco, ■*-, to growduil. 
Hprresco, horrui, to grow rough. 
Elumesco, • — , to grow moist. 
Igncsco, — , to become inflamed. 
Indolesco.-dplui, to be grieved. 
[nsolesco, — , to be haughty. 
Integrasco, — , to grov: fresh. 
Juvcnesco, — . to grov: young. 
Languescojangui.i'o grow languid. 
Lapidet-:co, — . to become stone. 
Latesco, — , to grow broad. 

tniu, to grow up. exolesco, -r,b- 
vi, -olgtum, to grow obsolete. St 
obsoleseo ; inolesc. ■ .lrvj , 


Pallesco, pallui, to grow pale. 

jPfttesco, patui, to be. opened. 

iPavosco, — ■, to grow fearful. 

iPertimesco, -timui, to fear greatly . 

'Pinguesco, — , to grow fat. 

|Pubesco,pubui/o grow to maturity 

Puerasco, — , to become a bog. 

Putesco, putui ) . , ,, 

L, _ ' 1 v to become rotten. 

jPutf-esco, — , J 

;Raresco, — , to become thin. 

; Resipisoo, -sipivi, -sipii,««(/-sipni, 

to come to oneself. 

iRigeSCO, rigui, to grow cold. 

: Rubesdo, rubui, to grow red. 




to begin to swell. 

S^oee'co, ■ — • '° bjscomc s invjTabesco, tabui, $p ■ away. 

sanescPj -sflOijd. Teueresco. & -:isco, — , to gr(><p 

Seneseo. senuij to grow old. tend' 1 )-. 

Senteec'o - — > i° perceive. iTepesco. tepui. to grow warm. 

Siccesco — ? to become dry. Torpescp, tprpui, to groic torpid. 

SiiescPj . 'to grow silent . TremiscP, — : , to grow tremulous. 

Solidesco, — : to grow solid. iTumesco, tuurai 1 

Sordekc^ eordui, to grow filthy. Turgesco, — , j 
Splendesco, spkaidui. to grow Uye'sco, — , to grow moist. 

bright. Valesco, — ,to grow strotfg. 

Spume«co, N — , io begin I, foam. Y<mesco, — , to vanish. 
Sterilescp, '■ — , 1° bCcpmt- barren, eyemesco, ev^nm. 

Stupeseo, — , to be o:stoni-shcul. jVeterasco, -«vi, to grow old. 

8uescp, suevi,. suetuui. to beeortti Viresoia, -7-, to grow green. 

accustomed. | Vivcsco, vijri, to come to life. 

g$2 deponent verbs of the third CON- 

•Apiscov, aptus, to get. 
Kxpergiscor, -peryectiis, to wakevp. 
Patiscor, to gape, defetiscor, de- 

fessus. So the, other compounds. 
Fruor, fruitus, fructus, fruiturus, 

i& enjoy. 
. ungoi", functus, to perform. 
Oiradior, grassus, to walk, aggre- 

dior, aggredi, & oggred/rl, ag- 

gressus. So progredlor. 
Irascor, to bd angry. 
Labor, 'lapsus, to fall. 
Liquor, to flow. 
Loquor, loewtus, to speak. 
Miniscor, (obs. ) comtniniscor, 

commentus, to invent, rcrain- 

iscor, to remember. 
Morior, mori, rarely morai, mortu- 

us, moritttrus, to die. 


§223. 1. Yerbs of the fourth conjugation are vowel 

verbs, 'the characteristic vowel being i. The perfect-stem 

is formed 

(a) By adding v ; as, audi-o, -audzv-i. 

Nanciscor, nacius or nacctus, to 

Nascor, natus, uascitt/rus, to be 

Nt't'or, nixus, or m'sus, nisiu'u.s, 'to 

Obliviecor, obl/tus, 10 forget. 
Paciscpr, pactus, to bargain. 
Patior, passus, to suffer. 
Proficiscor, p'rofectus, to set out. 
Queror, questus, to complain. 
Ringor, rinctus, to snarl. 
Sq^aor, seewtus, to follow. 
Tuor, tritus, toprotcl. 
Yescor, to eut. 
Ulciscor, ultus, to avc> 
Utor, wsus, to use. 


(b) The characteristic vowel is dropped in some verbs, 
aiid then v basses iftto u : as, sali-o, sal-it-i. 

(c) By : .dropping the characteristic and adding s ; as, 
sepio, seps-i. 

(d) By dropping the characteristic and lengthening the 
stem-vowel ; as, •vem-o. vm-i. 

2. The supine-stein is formed by adding /. 

In many verba v of the perfect stem is elided. 

3. The following list contains those verbs which form 
the perfect-stem according to the three. Inst methods men- 
tioned above. 

Amic)o,-ui or -xi,amictCim,to clothe. ! pa)io is of the third cor. 

but its compounds arc 'of the fourth", 
j as, aperio, aperui, apertum ; so 

[Reperio, reperi, repertum . 
coniperio, rarely deponent. 

Balbutio, — , — , to s ammer. 

Oao^utio, — , — , to be blind. 

Cambio, campsi, 1b>fxchang#. 

Demcntio, — , — , to be mad. 

Effutio, — , effutttum, to prate 

Eoj'vi.itum, to go. The compounds 
almost always elide v of the per- 
fect-stem, redii, &b. anteoo, -i\\ 
or -ii, — . conhac i. — , — so 
also posteo. 

Farcin, farsi, faitum and farctum. 
to pack. The compounds change 
a into e ; as, refercio, -lersi, 
-fer^um ; but con- and ef- farcio 
and fprcio, — , fartnm and fer-l 

Ferio, — , — , to strike. 

Ferocio, -ivi and -ii. to be fierce. 

Fulcio fulsi, fultum. to prop, ful- 
s?'tus occurs. 

Gnnnio, — , — , to bar/;. 

Glocio, — , — , to cluck. 

Grandio, — , — , to make great. 

Ilaurio, hausi, rarely haurii, hau- 
suin rmrely liausitum, liausus, 
hausurus, hauWtus, haurtturus. 

Ilinnio, — , — , to veiyh. 

Ineptio, — , — , to trifle. 


to itch. 


Queo, (like eo,) qm'vi, quitum, 
be able, 

Ilaucio, — , rnrusum, *t.o be hoarse. 

Ilugio, — , — , to roar. 

SasVio, gEervii, -iium, to rage. 

Sagio, — , — , to perceive keenly. 

Salio, salui or -ii, saltum, to leap ; 
as- & de silio, -ui, sultum: pro- 
& irans-silio, -ui, -m, ii; ab- 
in-, sub-silio, -ii, -ui; dis-, ex-, 
re-silio, -ui; circum- ty prre silio, 

> • 
Salio, — , tah'tura, to salt. 
Sancio, sanxi, sanctum & Baact- 

tum, to ratify. Sancierat occurs. 
Sarcio, sarci, sartum to patch. 
Sarrio, -ivi, -ui, ^i'tum, to hoe. 
Scaturio, — , — . to gush out,. 
Seutio, sensi, sensum, to feel. 
Sepelio, -ivi & ii, rarely sepdi, sc- 

pultum, rarely -itum, io bury. 
S<rpio, sepsi, septum, to hedge. 

AfTKND.I.V \J. S2S4 

•;uRio, — . — ; also singulto, 
— . atum, 'o snh. 
Sitio, -t'vi & ii, — . to J>& thirsty. 

Tussio, — , — -, to cough. 

;.!, lb come. 

i<5, ii, Vtuvu, to fnmv/ate. Yincio, vinxi, v hie '.-urn, to b- 


MettoF, mejisus; and jnetituK, <■' por, o,j).pejtu§. drift opper/tus, to 

■measure.. \ wait for. 

Ordior, orsus. to in 'Uotior, potitus, to obtain: 

•tus, oriturus, to ri.<c. Of 
rd conj. except linjin : 
Pcfior, (obs. whence . pcntus. ) ex 
pe.vior. expertus* ic try. oppc 

The poets somleirncs use an indica- 
tivcprescnt and subjunctive imper- 
fect of the third eonjugation. 



io4. 1. The Rdtoans divided the natural day, (from 
sunrise to sunset,) into twelve equal hours of varying 
length according to the time of year. The night was also 
divided in the same way into four equal watches.- 
. 2. The year,*according to the calendar of Julius Csesar, 
was divided into twelve months, a« follows: 

.lanuarius, 31 day?. Maius, 31 days. September, 3U days, 

Februarius, 28 '• Junius, 3$ " October, :>\ 

Maitius, 31 '■'■■ QuinU'lis. ■>': •• November. (30 " 

Aprt'lip, 30 " Sextilis, 31 ''• December. 31 

3. In early times the year began in March, htnee -the 
names, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, ftc. Quintzlis and. 
8ext*lis, were afterwards changed to Julius and .Augustus 
in honor of the first two Caesars. 

4. The day of the month was reckoned from three points, 
Kalends, Nones, and Ides, which fell respectively on the 
fint, fifth, and thirteenth of each month ; except March, May, 
July, and October, whea the Nones fell on the seventh, and 
the Ides on the fifteenth. 

§286 • APPENDIX- IX — PROSODY. 25? 

5. Any given date was reckoned, not backward from the 
first day of the moitth as with us, but forward to the next 
Kalends, Nones, or Ides, inclusive. Thus the 2nd of March 
was called the " sixth before the Nones of March ;" sextux 
{ante) Nonas Mdrtias, or ante diem sextwn Nonas Martias ; 
the 16th of March was called the "17th before the Kalends 
of April," septimus decimus {ante) Kalendas Ajpriles, or 
xnte diem septirnum decimum Kalendas Apr iles. The 2nd 
of June was called quartus Nonas Juntas, or ante diem 
yuartum Nonas Junius, &c. 

6. In leap year February had 29 days, the 24th (stxtm 
Kal. Ala*-.) being doubled and called bisextus Kal. Mar. — 
Hence leap year was called bisexlilis. 

7. Therefore, to reduce the Roman" calendar to our own, 
(a). For a. date before the Nones or Ides,' subtract the 

number of days from the day of the month on which the 
None-s or Ides fell, and add one to the remainder.* Thus, 
a. d. Fill, ldus Maias, (15—8) + 1=8 ; May 8th. 

(b). For before the Kalends, subtract the num- 
ber of days from the number of days in the month, and 
add two to the remainder. Tkus, 'a. d. XVII, Kal. Jun. : 
(31 — 17) +.2 = 16; May 16th. « 

'8. To reduce our calendar to the Roman, the proces 
will be reversed. 

9. The week of seven days (Jiebdomas,) was not used a 
Rome till after the introduction of Christianity. 


§236. Prosody is tl^3 science of versification. 

* Proaodj belonga rather to poetry than to grammar. In the following appendix 
tbo only metres discussed arc hexameter and pentameter, these being the only ones 
•he pupil is likely to encounter in the course of preparation for college. Tho rules 
bi' quantity are for the most part derived from the full and laborious work of Dr 

A tulrewB. 

17 ' 

258 appendix jx. §237,24* 


1. The quantity of a syllable is the r# lative time oocu- 
pied in pronouncing it, a long syllable requiring twice as 
much time as a short one. 

2. A vowel is long by nature, as dwco ; or hj' position, as 
resiiti. A syllable that is sometimes long and sometimes 
short is said to be common. 

§237. RULE I. m A vowel before another vbwel is short. 

So also when h comes between two vowels, it being only 
a breathing. 

Exc. 1. Fio has i long except before cr ; and sometimes even then ; 
as fe'unt, fmm. - . 

Exc. 2. E between two i's is long in tbe genitive* and dative of 
the 5th deelension ; as, faciei. 

Exc. 3. A is long in the penult of old genitives in ai ; as, aulai. 

Exc. 4. A § E are long in the endings aius, eius, cia. 

Exc. 5. /is common in genitives in ius, but in alterius it is almost 
^Ways short. 

Exc. 6. The first vowel of chcu is long ; that of Diana, ie, and 
o7ie, is common. 

§238. RULE II. Dipthongs are long. 

Exc. 1. Prce, in composition, is short before a vowel. 
Exc. 2P A dipthong at the end of a word is sometimes made short 
when the next word begias with a vo-svel. 

§ 239. RULE III. Contracted syllables are long. (For 
an exception see §223, 3.) 

§240. RULE. IV. A vowel before two consonants, a 
double consonant, or the letter j, is long by position. 

Note. A vowel, other than i, really combines with, / to form a 

Rem. 1. The vowel is long by position when one or both the eon- 
sonants are in the same word with it ; but when both stand at the 
beginning of the following word, the vowel is common. 

§241,242 prosody. 259 

Rem. 2. A short vowel at the end of a v, r ord before an initial double 
consonant or j in the next word, is not lengthened. 

Rem. 3s The law of position is frequently disregarded by the 
Gomio poets. * 

Exc. 1. /is short before y in' the compounds .of jugum ; as, biju- 
9*1' . "V " t 

Exc. 2. A vowel naturally short, before a raute and 
liquid, is common. 

Rem. 4. A vowel is made long by position in compound words 
where Jhe former part ends with a mute, and the latter part begins 
with a liquid ; as, abluo. 

Rem. 5. A short vowel at the end of a word, before a mute and 
liquid in the next word, is rarely lengthened, except in the arsis of 
a foot. 

Rem. 6. In Latin words only I and r following a mute lengtken a 
preceding short vowel. 

§241. RULE V. Derivatives retain the quantity of 
their primitives. . » 

Exc. 1. Frequentatives from verbs of the 1st conjugation change 
a long into i short; clamat-um, clamit-o. 

Exc, 2. (a). Some derivatives lengthen a short vowel ; such as de- 
ni from decern ; persona from sono ; hwmanus from homo ; secius 
from secus ; laterna from lateo ; s«des from sedeo ; Ktera from lino ; 
tugula from tego ; susp/cio/m/i suspicor. 

(b) Some shorten a long vowel ; as, dicax from dico, dux (ducis) 
from duzo, fides from fido, labo /rom. labor, lurcerna /row lwceo, mo- 
lestus from moles, nato/rom natum, noto from notum, odium from 
odi, quasillus from quolus, sagax//*o??i sagio, sopor from sopio, vadum 
from vado, voco from voc-is. * 

§ 242. RULE VI. Words introduced from the Grreek,or 
other languages, retain their original quantity ; so also 
Latin stems have the same quantity as the cognate Greek 
ones ; as, Danns, ( Greek Damos) ; vfcus ( Greek oikoa, di- 

260 appendix IX. §243,244 

§243. RULE VII. Compound words retain the quan- 
tity of their components. 

Exc. 1. Agnitus and coguitus from notus ; dejero & pejero from 
jwro ; hodie from hoc die ; nihil from hilum ; compounds in dicus 
from d/co ; innuba, pronuba, subuuba, from nwbo, (but connubium 
has u common;) imbecillus from bacillum ; ambitum from Hum; 
hM i is short in ambitus and ambitio. * 

Exc. 2. Pro is short in procella, procul, proj 'anus, -prof ari, profes- 
ius, proficiscor, profiteor, prof ugio,. profundus, pronepos, proncptis, and 
protervus. It is common \\\ procuro, prof undo, propago, propello, and 
pyopino. The Greek pro is always short. 

Rem. 1 . The inseparable prepositions (lis and re are short • 
di, se, and ve, are long". 

Rem. 2. A ending the former part of a compound word * 
is long ; the other vowels short. 

Exc. 1. E \b long in sc for sex or semi, and common in some com- 
pounds of facio. 

Exc. 2. lis long when the first part of a compound is declined, or 
may be separated without altering the sense ; as, qm'dam, agn'cultw- ; 
ra ; also in the former part of compounds of dies (btduuin, mert'dies, 
&c.,) in ibique, utrob/que, and ibidem; and in idem when masculine. 

Exc. 3. is long in compounds of coniro, intra, retro, quando, 
(except quandoquidem,) and in alioqui. 


§244. 1. A noun is said to increase when in any of its 
oases it has more syllables than in the nominative singular. 
Ji. plural increment is one which belongs to the endings @f 
the plural number, while a singular inerement always^be- 
longs to the stem. 

2. If a word has but one increment, it is the penult; if. 
two, the antepenult is called the first increment, and the 
penult the second ; if three, the syllable before the antep«- 

§245 * prosody. i 261 

iiult is called the first, the antepenult, the secsnd, and tin 

* * 

penult the third ; as, 

1 12' < ■ 1 : 2 3 

sermo, ser-mon-is, ser-nion-i-bus, it-in-er-i-bus. 
§245. RULE VIII. Increments of the third declension 
in a and care long ; in e. i, and «, are short. 

Rem. 1. There are uo singular increments in the second declen- 
sion, stems in r merely dropping the nominative ending. Those of 
the first, fourth, and fifth, belong to $237. 


Exc. 1. Masculines in al and ar (except Car and Nar,) with anas,, vas, (vadis,) baccar, hepar.jubar, lar, nectar, par, fax, and sal. 
increase short. 

Exc: 2. Nouns in s preceded by a consonant increase short in a 
and o ; as, daps, dapis ; scrobs, scr.obis. 


Exc. 3. in the increment of neuters is short ; but os (oris) and 
neuter comparatives have o'long. The iucrement of adoria common. 

Exc. 4. Arbor, memor, hos y compos, impos, lepus, and prcecox in- 
crease short. 


' Exc. 5. Nouns in en, enis, (except Hymen,') with Anio and Nerio, 
increase long ; also hceres, locuples, mansues, merces, quies, Ibcr, ver. 
alec or alex, lex, rex, vcrvex, plebs and seps. 


Exc. t>. Nouns and adjectives in ix increase long ; but calix, cox* 
ntdix, filix, fornix, larix,nix, pix, salix,&nd$trix, increase short. 
Exc. 7. Dis, glis, 2w, vis\ DTesis, Quiris, Samnis, tmdvibex, increase 



:C. S. Nouns in us (gen. uris ndis, uti-;,) with fur, Jrux, lufc, Pol- 
lux, increase long; but intcrcus, Ligus, and p ecus, mere ase short. 
Rkm. :2. Increments in y belong to Greek Nouns. 

262 * appendix ix. §246,248 


§ 246. RULE IX. Plural increments in a,, e, and o, are. ' 

long, i and»w are short. 


§247. 1. A verb is said to increase when any of its forms 
has more syllables than the second person- singular of the 
indicative present active. 

2. The number of the increment is reckoned as in nouns ; 

(§244, 2,) as, 

1 12 12 3 12 3 4. 

audis, aud-i-tis, aud-i-e-bas, aud-i-e-ba-tis, aud-i-e-bam-i-n:. 

§248. RULE X. In the increment of verbs a, e, and p, 
are long, * and u, short. 


Exc. 1. The first increment of do is short. 


Exc. 2. E before r is short in the first increment of the present 
and imperfect of the third conjugation, and in the second increment 
in heris 4* here. 

Exc. 3. E is short before ram, rim, § re, and the persons formed 
from them. 


Exc. 4. I is long before v or * in the perfect-stem. 

Exc. 5. / is long in the supine-stem of gaudto, arcesso, divido, Ja- 
cesso, lacesso, peto, qucero, recenseo f § obliviscor. 

Exc. 6. I is long in the 6rst increment of th,e fourth conjugation,- 
except imus of the perfect; also in st'mus, satis, velnnus, veluis, no- 
h'to, nolite, nolitote. 

Exc. 7. 1 is common in ris, rimus. rids, of the indicative future 
perfect and subjunctive perfect, 


Exc. 8. U is loDg in the supine stem and future participle active. # 

§249.250 trosody. 263 


» — 


§249. RULE XL Monosyllabic present and perfect 
stems are long (§225, 2, c 5 ) ; as mevi, motuin (perhaps 
syncopated from movitum). 

Exc. (a.) Seven perfect-stems ar§ -shor,t; lih^i, ued-i, ful-i (from 
findoy, scid~i, stet-i. stit-i, tul-j. 

Note., A reduplication is always short: hence the short stems of 
i tin, dedi, steti, (for sesti), and stiti (for sisti). 

(b.) Ten supine-stems are short: cit^um, dat-um, 'it-urn, lit-w", 
quit-urn, rat-urn, rut-urn, sal-um, sit-um, stat-um. 

So also the obsolete fulum whence futurus. 

§250. RULE XII. (a.) Words in abrum, acrum, a- 
irum, ubrum, osus, alum, iium, utum, udas, arU <$• clus, 
lengthen the pennlt. 

Exc. Oelus, gelum and scclus ; defrutmn, pulpitum, petoritum, 
'.utum, + 

(b.) Words in ca, do, ga, go, ma, tus, le, hs, Us, na, :u, 
m, nis, dex, dix, mex, mix*, lex, and rex, lengthen the pennlt. 

Exc. Brassica, dica, fulica, mantica, pedica, pertica, scutica, turti* 
ca, vomica; cado, divido, cdo (to cat), solido, spado, trcjpido ; caliga, 
toga, plaga, fuga, ego, Vujo ; anima, lacrirna, victima ; catus, tdtus 
(-eris,) metu's, vegetus, anhclitus, digitus, graluitus, halitus, servitus, 
spiritus, notus, quo tus, arbutus, putus, indutus ; male; verbals in ilia 
and bilis : adjectives in atilis ) dapsilis, gracilis, humilis, parilis, sivu- 
■is, sterilis, mugilis, sirigilis ; sine, canis, c'mis, juvenis, buccina, jlsci- 
na, femina, fuscina, lamina, pugi?ia, patina, sarcina,^ cpino:, nv.wh,ji\ 

•.lex, silez, rumex. 
(c.) A, c, o, u, before mus, mum, nus, nam, are long. 
Exc. Glomus, humus, postumus, nanus; anus (an old woman), 
fnmua, cccanus, paws, tenus, Venus, onus, boun;-, ?on>:s, laganuih, 
• (d.) Words in ates, itls, otis, ata, eta, ota, uta, lengthen 
the penult ; except sills, potis, nota, rota., 
(e.) A 'penultimate vo^Vel before v is long. 

264 appendix ix. §251,25^ 

Exc. Avis, brevis, gravis, Jevis, ovis ; juvo, lavo, ovo ; av.u's, emus, 
favus } 'novus, favor, pavor, novem. 

§ 251. RULE XVIII. (a.) Words in aais, icus, idus, 
ilus, imus ; ba, bo, pa, po ; etas, itas, and ita ; shorten, the 
penult. . 

Exc. Dacus, meracus, opacus ; amicus, apn'cus, ficus, mench'cu?, 
pfcus, posticus, pudious, spicus, umbik'cus ; Idus, fiSus, infidus, ni- 
dus,; as^lus, bunus, limus, pptmus, patn'mus, matn'mus, quadrimus- 
tnmus, and the superlative /•.'-!« and primus ; .gleba, bubo, gtubo, \i~ 
bo, mtbo, senbo, rt'pa, &uy.., ^wpv*, pwpa, ^copa, r«po*, 'pitmt'a. 

(b.) Diminutives and polysyllables in iilm, with verbs 
in ino, inor, shorten the penult. 

Exc. Festino, sagmo, prop/no, opmor, and compounds of clmo. 

§ 252. RULE X«IV. Words in inus, except adjectives 
expressing time or material, lengthen the penult. 

Exc. But matutrnus, repeutmus, and vespertmus lengthen the pe- 
nult, and the following shorten it: accimus, asinus.'dominw, facimns. 
sinus, terminus, geminus, circinus, minus. 

§ 253. .RULE XY. Before final ro, rpr, a and e are short ; 
t*he other vowels, long. 

Exc. Pero, spero, foro, soror, voro, furo. 

§254. RULE XVI. Before final rus,.ra, rum, e is short ; . 
the other vowels, long. 

Exc. Austerus', galerus, plerus, procerus, serus, severus, vertfS, 
statera ; barbams, mn-us, pirns, sc&r/us, spams, torus, Kara, morn, pn- 
rum, supparum. 

§255. RULE XVII. Adverbs in tin lengthen the pe- 
nult; those in iter and itus shorten it. But statim, (imme- 
diately,) is short. • ' . • 

Bbm. 1. Many .apparent exceptions to the foregoing rules are cov- 
ered by §241, §242, §243. The masculine only of adjectival ter- 

§250,259 prosody. 26.^ 

minations is given, the quantity of the feminine and neuter being of 
courc that of the masculine. 

Rem. 2. Patronymics, (Greek,) in adts and ides shorten the penult, 
while those in ais, ets, ois, lengthen it. Nouns in epa form patrony- 
mics in ales. 


§ 25G. RULE XYIII. The connecting vowels i, o, and 
v, are short ; a is long ; as, vinokntua, jrattdulentits, all- 
mentum, atrrnnentnm. 

§257. RULE 'XIX. A vowel before nca, nco, nla, mo,. 

hiu8, n'ann, is long. 

Exc. Oqstdfflea, linen, maiu'o, mineo, monco. ien,eo, ignom' inia 

vanity, lanio, venio, and words in ci/iinm. « * 




§258. RULE XX. (a.) Monosyllables ending in a 
vowel are long. 

(b ) Monosyllabic nouns ending in a consonant are long ■ 
all' other monosyllables ending in a consonant are short. 

Exc. 1. Cor, f el, md, pol, vir, 6s, (ossis,) vas, (vadis,) are short. 

Exc. 2. En, non, civ/s, plus, cur, ptf.r, are long. So also monosyl- 
lables in c, except nee (short.) and hie and hoc (common ) 

Exc. 3. Monosyllabic plural cases and verb forms in as, cs,.and is, 
are Ions; ; but es from sian is short. 


A final. 
§ 259.' RULE XXI. 4. final, in words declined, is short, 
I long in words undeclined. 

:c. 1. A final is long in the ablative singular of the first declen- 
. and in the vocative singular of Greek nouns in "* and es. 
0. 2. A final is short in cia t ita, quia, and p'.'''t, when used ad- 

266 appendix ix. , §260,265 

verbially ; sometimes also in contra and numerals in ginta. In postca 
it is common. 

E final. 

260. RULE' XXTI. E final is shot* in words of two 
or more syllables. 

Exc. 1. E final is long in the first and fifth declensions. 

Exc. 2. Final e in the imperative active, second person singular 
of the Second conjugation is a contraction ; but it is sometimes short 
in cave, vale, vide. ,-'.., 

Exc. 3. Final e is long in fere, ferine, ohe, and in adverbs derived 
from adjectives of the second declension ; but it is short in bene, male, 
in/erne, and supeme. 

1 final. ■ 

§261. RULE XXIII. J final is long. 

Exc. /final is common in piihi,. tibi, sibi, ibi, ubi, nasi, quasi, and 
cu.i when a dissyllable. 

O final. 

262. RULE XXIV. '0 final, in words of more thai: 
one syllable, is common. 

Exc. 1. final is long in the dative and ablative, and in the local 
adverbs quo, eo,eodcm, §rc..; also in omnino and io. 

Exc. 2 O final is short in-ciio, illico,profecto, and inodo, and gen- 
erally in ego and homo. - 

U final. 

$263. RULE XXV. U final is long. 
2),L,N, R, T, final' 
§ 264. RULE XXVI. A. vowel before d, l,n, r, I, final 
is short. 

Bxc. #18 long in lien, Iter, and Ccltibfr. 

Q. final. 

§ 265. RULE XXVII. A vowel before c final is Jong : 

but c in is short. 

§266,268 ' prosody.- • 267 

■• As, Us, (h, final. 

§266. RULE XXVIII. As,cs, and os, final are lev-. 

Exc. 1 . As is short in anas. 

Exc. 2. Es is pliort in nouns of -the third declension, elaBS .." 
(2 35) ; and in petW. # 

Exc. 3. Os is short in compos, impos, and cs (ossis). 

Is, Us, Ys 9 final. •» 

§267. RULE XXIX.. /•■, J7«, and Fs; final are sfcj 

• Ex. 1. is and us are long in plural cases, and in the nominative 
of nounshaving a long stern vowel ; as, muse's, fructws, fellt/s, San 

Exc. 2. Contracted 'final syllables in us and it are of course loug, 
as, aiidzs/or audUis, fvuclus for fructu-is. 

Exc. 3. Ris in the indicative future perfect and subjunctive per- 
fect is common. 

Rxmabk. The last syllable of a verse < except the ahapsettic fifld 
Ionic a minore). may be long or short. 


§268. 1. \ foot is a combination of two or mote sylla- 
bles. A compound foot consists of two simple feet united. 
The 'only feet which we have occasion now to mention, are 
the Spondee, consisting of two long syllables,. as nobis; and 
the Dactyl, consisting o" a long syllable and two short ones ; 
as, Pttnicus. » 

2. Metre is the arrangement of syllables and feet into 
verses. In dactylic metre the fundamental foot is a dactyl. 

3. A verse is a number of feet arranged in a certain or- 
der, and constituting a line of poetry. Two verses are 
called a distich, half verse, a hemistich. 

4. Storming is dividing a verse into the feet of which it 
is composed, or reading it metrically. 

5. The figures of prosody are 

(a.) Synalapha, or the elision of a final vowel or c'iph- 

268 • • APPENDIX IX. 

thong in scanning, when the next word -begins with a vowel. 
Thus, si.omnes is read s'ornnes ; Mi inter seHWinter se, &c. 

Rem. 1. 0, heu, ah, j>roh, vce, and vah, are not elided. Other long 
vowels and diphthongs sometimes stand unelided, and if so, they are 
generally short in the thesis of a foot. . t 

(fe.) Ecthlipsis, or the elision of a final m with the pre- 
ceding vowel, when the next word begins with a vowel-. As, 

Monstr(ww) horrend(w7») inform(e) ingens cui lumen ademptum. 

Final s was sometimes elided in the same way by the 
earlier poets. 

Rem. 2. M final, when unelided, is short before a vowel. 

(c.) Synseresis, or the contraction of two separate vowels 
into one syllable ; as, delude, fluviorum, tenuis, pronounced 
dine-de, Jluv-yorum, ten-ivis. ' 

( d.) Dixresis, or the separation of one syllable into two ; 
as, silua for silua; su-adent for sua dent: 

(e.) Systole, or the shortening of a syllable, naturally or 
by position long • as, - 

Obstupui, stettrunt comic ; vox faucibus haesi-t. 

(f.) Diastole, .or lengthening a 'syllable naturally short. 

(g.) Synapheia, or such a connection between the last 
syllable of one verse and the first of the next, that the 
former is made long by position, or cut off by synalocpha 
or ecthlipsk;. 

6. Rhythm is the alternate elevation (arsis) or depres-, 
sion (thesis') of the voice in pronouncing the syllables of a 
verge. The terms arsis and thesis arc also applied to the 
part of the foot on which this elevation or depression takes 
place. The arsis of a foot is on the long syllable. 

7. The caesura of the verse is such a division of the line, 

§209,270 ..• prosody. 269 

by the ending of a word, as afferds a convenient and har- 
monius pause. • ' 

§26^'. 1. An hexameter or heroic verse consists of six 
feet, the last of which is a spondee, and the fifth a, dactyl ; 
but the fifth foot is sometimes a spondee, and then the verse 
is called spondaic. ■ . • 

Lwdere | quicvel- | l«ra || eala; | mo per | im'sit a-j grest/. lirg.E 1,10. 
7n nova j fert ani- | mus \\ mit- | tatas | dtcero | forma?. Ov. 31. 1, 1. 
Cam <le | wm. sobo- | l$s jj mag- | nam Jovis | mere- | mentum. Virg. 

1. The Cixtvra in hexameter usually occurs after the arsis 
of the third foot, as above ; frequently, however, it eccurs 
after the arsis of the fourth foot, and there is then a slighter 
one after the arsis of the second ; as, to- | ro pater | !/Em«- | as || sic | •rs*6 ab j alto. 

3. A light and rapid movement is produced by the re- 
currence of dactyls ; a slow and heavy one, by that of 

Jftquele- | rem stipu- | lam || crepi- | tanti | wrere | flamma. 
711(r) fin- | tcr se- | se || mag-* | na xi | brachia | tollunt. 

§ 270. 1. A pentameter verse consists of five feet, of which 
the first and second may each be a dactyl or a spondee ; 
the third is always a spondee ; and the fourth and fifth, 
anapaests (i. e. two short and one long). 

.4h nimis | ex, ve- | ro || nwnc | tibi no- | men erit ! 

2. It is generally, however, divided into two hemistichs, 

the first containing two dactyls, two spondees, or a dactyl 

and a spondee, followed by a long syllable ; the second, two 

daetyls, followed by another long syllable.- The ca3sura 

o«ours at the close of the first kemistich.* 

Natw- | ra s'equi- | tur || seniina | quisque su- | se. 
Ah nimia | ex t«- | ro || nunc tibi | nomen e- |. rit. 

270" APPENDIX IX. ; §270 

t?. This verse usually alternates with hexameter, form- 
ing what is called elegiac verse*. 

jgi^ For a discussion of other metres, see Zumpt's Latin 
Grammar, or Andrews' Latin Grammar. 


A or AB. 
a or ab, prep., from, by; £r'0, 2. 
ab-do, (-ere, abdid-, abdit-,)- o run 

for concealment, to hide. 
ab-co, (-ire, abi-, abit-,) to go a- 

absens, entis, (absum), absent. 
ab-solvo, ( ere, solv-, solwt), to 

free from, clear, absolve. 
rib-sum, -esse, -fui, -futwrus, to 

be away from, to be absent. 
ab-undo, -are, &c, to abound. 
ab-utor, -i, -itsus, to abuse. 
ac-c«do, -ere, cess, cess, to ap- 
ac-cendo, -ere, accend-, accens-, 

to set on fire. 
ac-cido, -ere, accid-, — , to happen. 
ac-cipio, -ere, cep-, cept-. to re- 
ac-curro, -ere, curr-, seldom cu- 

curr-, curs-, to run to. 
ac-ewso, are, &c. , to bring to trial, 

accuse, reproach. 
acor or acris, -is, .e, sharp. 
acerbus, a, urn, bitter. 
acies, c\, edge, point, line of battle. 
acriter, adv. (acer), sharply ; §119. 
ad, (prep., $120, 1), to, at, towards. 
ad-do, -ere, addid-, addit-, to 

ad-dweo, -ere, dux-, duct-, to lead 

to or against, to prompt, excite. 
adeo, (adv.), so- 
Adherbal, -alis, a Numidian prince, 

son of Micipsa, and half-brother 

to Juguriha. 
ad-hibeo, -ere, -u- : -it-, to bring 

to, apply, employ. 


ad-huc, • (adv.), as get. 

ad-itus, us, approacli. 

ad-nuror, -ari, &c, to loondcr. 

ad-moneo, -ere, kc, to remind. 

ad-olescens, -ent-ifi, young, « 
young man. 

ad-spicio, -ere, spex-, spect-, to 
look at, behold. 

ad-ventus, -«s, arrival. 

ad-versor, avi, &c to object, op- 

ad-verto, (-ere, vert-, vers-,) to 
turn ioiuards. Participle ad- 
versus, adversum. used as pre- 
position. . - 

oedificium, i, building. From 

redifico, -are, '&c, to build. 

iEduus, i, an JEdua?i. 

83.quor, -oris, a level surface, the 
sea. Jirom 

trquus, a, um, level, even, fust, 

aer, -is, air. 

cestas, -tat- is, summer. 

restimo, (-are, &c), to value, esteem. 

setas, -tat-is, age, life. . 

af-fero, (ferre, attul-, allat-,) to 
bri/ng to. 

Africa, se, Africa. Hence • 

Africanus, a, um, African : a sur- 
name of Scipio on account of 
his exploits in Africa. 

ager, agri, field, land, territory. 

Agcsilaus, i, Agesilaus, a distin- 
guished Spartan king. 

ag-gredior, i, gressus, to go to, 
approach, attack. 

agilis, (inactive. 

agnien, -inis, an army on the mareh. 


_ i — 


agnus, i, lamb 


jangustus, a, um, narroiv. 

ago, -ore, eg°, act-, to lead, drive, anima, fe, breath, life. 

agricola. ce, farmer 

frla, se, t«'«y. 

alacer or cris, e, cheerful; whence 

ulacritas, tatis, eagerness, prompt- 

Alexander, dri, .Alexander, king 
of Macedonia. 

alienus, a, um, belonging to anoth- 
er, foreign. 

H.iiquando, at some time. 

animadverto, -ere, vert-., vers-, to 
turn the mind to, to perceive. 

animal, alis (§39), animal. 

animus, i, mind, soul. 

annus, <~\ year. 

anser, " >is, goose. 

ante/($120, 1), before. 

antequam,- (often separated, temp, 
conj.), before. 

aatea, aforetime, before. ' 

antenna, se, saibyard. 
Antigonus, i, Antigonus. 
Antiochza, se, Antioch, a city of 

Antiochus, i, Antiochus. 

aliquantus, a, .um, someudtat great, 

considerable — aliquantnm agri, a 

considerable piece of ground. 
aliqui?, qua, quod or quid, some, 

any, some one, §89. 
alius, a, ud, (§56, Rem. 1), anoth- janxius, a, um. anxious, uneasy. 

':r {of many.) iaper, pri, wild boar. 

Allobrox, brog-is, an AllobrogianA^erio, r*re, aperu-, apevt-, to 
a.1^. -ere, alu •. ulit- & alt-, to sup-\ open. 

po--t. I Apollo, inis, Apollo; ab Apoline 

Alpes, ium, the Alps petere, to inquire of Apollo. 

appello, -are, &ct, to call. 

alter, a, um. (§56), another (of 

two), second. 
altitado, inis, height, depth. 
altus, a, um, high, deep. . 
amans, ant is, fond. 
ambulo, -are, &c, to walk. ' 
amens, entis. mad. 
amicitia, ae, friendship ; from 
amicus, i, friend, 

appetens, entis, eager for. 

ap propinquo, -are, &c, to ap- 

aptus, a, um, fit, suitable. 

apud, with, among ; of persons, at. 
the house of, in the works of. 

aqua, re, water. 

aquila, ae, eagle. 

a-mitto, -ere, mis-, miss-, to loveAavo,, ae, altar. 

timnis, is, (§33, Rem. 0, Exc. 2), jArar or Araris, is, the Seiorw, a 

river. river, of Gaul. 

ftUio, -are. &c, to love. aratrum, i, pldw. 

amor, oris, love. 

amplector, ( i, plexus), to embrace. 

amplus, a, um, large arnpAe,; am- 

plius, more. 
an, (intorrog, diejunc, conj.), or. 
ancilla, ae, maid-servant. 
ancora, ae, anchor. 
Ancu3 Martius, 4th king of Rome. 

arbitror, -ari, -atus, to think, sup- 

arbor,, oris, (§38, Exc. 1), tree. 

arcesso, -ere, -iv-, -it-, to call, 

arcus,ws, bo.iv; §48, Rem. 4. 

argentutn, i, silver. 

tirgwtus, a, um, sagacious. 




aries, -etis, ram, battering ram. B. 

Ariovistus, i, a German king. 

Aristides, is, an Athenian, sur- ^Babylon, enis, Babylon. 
named the Just from his integ- 

nrma, ovum, arms. 

urmo, are, &c., to arm. 

aro, are, &c, to ploio. 

:tr-ripio, ere, ripu-. rept-. to seize, 
snatch up. 

ars, art-is, skill, art. 

arx, arc-is, citadel. 

a4, assis, a pound of copper, (about 
16 & 2 third cents of our money); 
in general, a thing of small value. 

ascendo, ere, cend-, cens-, to as- 

asinus, i, ass. 

asper, a, urn, rough. 

aspicio, ere, spex-, spect-, to 5e- 
hold, sc*. 

Athena), arum, Athens. 

Atheniensis, is, Athenian. 

atque or ac, (cop. conj.), and. 

:i(rox, oeis, savage, cruel, fierce. 

auctoritas, tatis, authority, influ- 

audax, acis, bold, daring. 

audeo, ere, ausus, to dare. 

audiens, (participial adj.), hear- 
ing, attentive ; audien? dicto, at- 
tentive to orders, obedient. 

audio, ire, fyc, to hear. 

augeo, ere ? »ux-, auct-, to increase, 
swell. • „ 

aureus, a, um, golden. From 

aurum, i, gold. 

aut, or; aut — ant, either — or. 

auxilium, i, aid, help. 

avarus. a, um, greedy, covetous. 

;;vidus, a, um, desirous, eager. 

avis, is, bird; $33, Rem. 6. 

a-voco, are, ^c, to call away, 

Balbus, i, Balbus, {stammerer). 

barbarus, a, um, foreign, barbarous 

beatus, a, um, happy. 

Belga, te. a Belgian. 

hello, are. &a, to war. 

bellum, i, war. 

beueficium, i, benefit. 

bene, (melius, optime), ivell. 

benignus, », um, kind. 

bibo, ere, bib-, bibit-, to drink.* 

Bibrax, actis, a toivn in' Gaul. 

biduum, i, ttvo days' time. 

biennium, i, two years' time. 

biparh'to, in two divisions. 

blandus, a, um, flattering. 

Boeotii, ovum,' the Boeotians. 

bonus, a um, good. 

bos, bovis, ox or cow. 

brevis, e, short. 

breviter, (adv.), shortly. 

Britannia, vs, Britain. 

Britaunus, i, a Briton. 

cadaver, eris, corpse. 

Cadmus, i, Cadmus. 

cado, ere, cccid-, cas-, to fall. 

csecus, a, um, blind. 

csedo, ere, cecid-, eoes-, to cut, kill.' 

Csesar, aris, Goesar. 

ccespes, itis, turf. 

Caius, i, Caius. 

calamitas, tatis, misfortune. 

calcar, «rfs, spur. From 

calx, calc-is, heel. 

campeeter, level; from 

campus, i, plain. 

canis, is, dog. 

canto, «re, &c, to sinq. 

cantus, us, singing. 





capax, acis, capable of receiving. 

roomy, large. 
capio, ere, cep-, capt-, to take. 
capitalis, e, of the head, capital. 
oaptivus, i, prisoner, captive. 
caput, capitis, head. 
career, eris, prison. 
carmen, inis, song, poem. 
caro, enmis, flesh. 
carpo, ere, carps-, carpt-, to pluck. 
Carthago, inis, Carthage. 
Carthaginiensis, is, Carihagenian. 
cawus, a, urn, dear. 
Cassius, i, Cassius. 
castellum, i, Uwer, fort. 
Casticus, i Casticus. 
cash'go, are, &c%, to chastise. 
castra, ©rum, camp. 
c#sus, ws, a falling, chance. 
catena, ae, chain, fetter. 
CatiU'na, ae ; Catiline. 
cattnus or um, i, bowl, dish. 
Cato, onis, Cato. 
causa, ee, reason, cause; abL, for 

the sake of, always placed after 

the limiting word, 
cayea, ere, cav-, csiut->, to beware. 
cedo, ere, cess-, cess-, to yield. 
celer, o? is, e, swift. Hence 
celeritas, tatis, swiftness. 
celo, are, &c, to conceal. 
censeo, ere, eensu-, cens-, to be of 

opinion, to think 
censor, oris, censor, a Roman 

centum, hundred; \ 63 




Cicero, onin, Cicero. 

cingo, ere, einx-, cinct-, to gird. 

cinis, eris, ashes. 

circiter, about. 

circum, around. 

circum- do, are, ded-., dat, to put 

around, to surround. 
circumfundo, ere, fud-, fws-, 

pour around, to surround. 
circum- venio, ire, yen-., rent- 

cis, eitra, on this side of. 
ciyilis, of citizens, civil, 
cixis, is, citizen. 
civitas, tatis, state. 
clamo, are, §c, to shout. 
clamor, oris, shouting. 
clarus, a, um, famous, renowned. 
classis, is, fleet. 
Claudius, i, Claudius. 
Clodius, i, Clodius. •» 
claudo, ere, claus-, claus-, to shut. 
clavis, is, key. 
dementia, is, mildness. 
cllens, eiatis, client, dependant. 
ccelum, i, heaven. 
cceno, are, $*a, to dine, sup. 
ccepi, ($ 113, Kern. 1,) I begin. 
cogito, are, &c, to think, reflect. 
cognomen, inis, surname. 
cognosce, ere, noy-, cognit-,to/?>w? 

out, learn. 
cogo, ere, coeg-, coact-, to collect, 

bring together, compel. 
cohors, hortis, cohort. 
cohortor, -ari, -atus, to encouragi 

eenturio, onis, centurion, captain of collega, se, colleague. 

a hundred men. colligo, ere, leg-, leet~, to assemble, 

oertamen, inis, contest, strife. gather, collect. 

cervus, i, stag. collis, is, hill. 

cetera, um (nom. sing, m.not used) 

the rest (of a thing.) 
charta, se, paper. 
c ibus, i, food. 

colloco, are, &c, to put. station, 

place, set up. 
colloquium, conversation, conference. 
colloquor, loewtus, to cenvtrn. 




eolo, ere, colu-, cult-, to cultivate; 

of the gods, to worship. . 
oolor, oris, color. . 
■columba, oe, dove. 
com-edo, ouis, glutton. 
eotn-es, itis, companion. 
commeinoro, are. &c, to relate. 
com-meo, are, to come and go. 
com-ruissuiri,!, (part o/com-niitto,) 

a thing done, crime. 
coni-jnitto, to bring or send together, 

to commence (battle.) 
Comniius, i, Coihmius. 
commodum, i, convenience. 
com-moveo,. ere, mov-, mot-, to 

move, disturb, disquiet. 
com- munis, o, common. 
comparo, are, $c, to bring together, 

acquire. , 

oom-peUo, ere, rml-, puis-, to drive 

compello, are, to call, address. 
cdm-perio, tre, per-, pert-, to' find 

out, a&^ertain. 
corn-plector, i, plexus, to embrace. 
oom-pleo, ere, pier-, plet , to fill. 
com-plwrcs, ium, ($72, 5,) a great 

com-pos, otis, having control of. 
eonatus, us, attempt. 
con cavug, a, um, hollow; manus 

Goncara, the hollow of the hand. 
oon-cedo, ere> cess-, cess-, to yield. 
con-cilium, i, council. 
con-cito, are, &e., to rouse, excite, 

urge on, raise. 
con-cordia, as, agreement, concord. 
con-curro, ere, curr-, ours-, to run 

con^cursu8, us, running together. 
con-cutia, ere,cuas-, cuss-,to shake 

con-demno, «re, Ac, to condemn. 


con-do, ere, did-, dit-, to found; 

build. • 

con-dweo, ere, dux-, ducU, to bring 

or lead together. 
con ficio, ere, fee-, feet-, to finish. 
con fido, ere, ftsus, to trust. 
con firmo, are,.&c-, to assert, cstal- 

con ftteor, eri, fessus, to confess. 
con gredior, i, gressus, to meet 

with; in a friendly or hostile 

con jicio, ere, jec-, ject-, te> throw, 

con junctio, oms, union, friendship, 

conjungo, ere, jursx-, junct-, to 

con jwro, are, &c. ,to swear together 

con juratio, onis, conspiracy. 
cen jux, jug is, husband or wife. 
conor, -ari, -atus,to attempt. 
conscius, a, uui, conscious. 
co'n scr»bo, to levy, enroll. 
con sector, -ari, -atus, to pursue 

eagerly and overtake. 
con sequer, i, secutus, to pursue t 

con servo, are, &c, to preserve, 

con sido, ere, sed, sess-, to encamp, 

con silium. i, counsel, advice. 
con spergo, ere, spcrs-, spers-, to 

con stanter, firmly, persistently. 
con stat, constitit, it i* evident. 
con stituo, ere, stitu-, stitut-, to 

determine, put, fix. 
con suesco, ere, su«t-, suet-, to ac- 
con suetudo, inis, cusUm. 
jjonsul, is, consul. 




•onsulo, ere, sulu-, suit, to take 

counsel, rcflef, consult 
onsultum, i, (part.) a thing re- 
flected on ; abl. on purpose. 

■y)ix sumo, ere, smnpt;, sumpt-, to 

safe temno, ere, tempt-, tempt-, to 
■ despise. 

on fiendo, ere, tend-, teut-, to 
strive, contend, hasten. 

coo tinens, entis, (part, pres.), 
holding together continent. 

-■on tinenter y (adv.j, continually. 

con tineo,, ere, tinu-, tent-; to hold 
on all sides, keep in. 

contra, against. 

oon traho, ere, trax-, traet-, to 
draw together. 

coo venio, ire, ven-, vent-, to come 
together, asssemble. 

copia, ?e r abundance ; pi. forces. 

coquo, ere, cox-, coct-, to cook. 

tforinthus, i, Corinth. 

corftiger, a, urn, horned. 

cornu, ms, horn. 

corona, se, crown. 

corpus, oris, body. 

cor rigo, ere, rex«, rect-, to set 
straight, correct. 

i. or rumpo, ere, rwp-, rupt-, to de- 
stroy, corrupt. 

eras, (adv.), to-morrow, 

creber, a, um, frequent. 

crebro, (adv.), frequently. 

credo, ere, did-, dit-, to believe. 

cr.emo, are, &c, to burn. 

creo, are, &c-, to create, make. 

cresco, ere, crev-, cret-, to grow. 

cn'nis, is, hair. 

cruciatus, ws, torture. 

crudelis, e, cruel. 

cubiculum, i, bedchamber. 

cubile, is, couch. 

cuius, a, um, ichosef 


culpa, as, fault. 
culter, i, knife. 
cum, with. 

cupiclitas, tatis, longing, lust. 
cupidus, a, um, desirous, eager. 
cupio, ere, ?'v-, it-, to desire. 
cur, why ? 
cwra, ae, care. 

cwro, are, &o., to care for, attend to « 
curro, ere, cucurr-, curs-, to run. 
currus, ws, chariot. 
cursus, us, running, course. 
custos, odis, keeper, guardian, sen" 


damno, are, &c, to condemn. 

Davus, i, Davus. 

debeo, ere, &c, to owe, ought, 

de C€clo, ere, cess-, cess-, to de- 

docem, ten; % 63. 

de clevis, e, sloping downward. 

decoro, are, &c, to adorn. 

decorus, a, um, becoming. 

decus, oris, honor, dignity. 

de decus, oris, disgrace. 

de ditio, onis, surrender. 

de do, ere, dedid-, dedit-, to sur- 

de fendo, ere, fend-, feus-, to de- 

de fenso, are, &c, to defend dili- 

de fero, ferre, tul-, lat-, to bring 
or carry ( from one place or -per- 
son to another.) 

de fervesce, ere, ferv- & ferbu-, 
to boil down, subside. 

jdefessus, a, um, weary. 

de-flagre, are, &c, to burn down. 

ide fluo, ere. flux-, flux-, to flow 

1 doum or away. 





dejicio, ere, jec-, ject-, to throiv 

delecto, are, &'c, to delight. 
deleo, ere, ev-, et-, to destroy. 
d« libero, are, Sic . to deliberate. 
de ligo, ere, leg-, lect-, to choose. 
de lictum," i, fault, crime. • 
Delphi, orum, Delphi, a town of 

dementia, ac, madness. 
de monsflto, are, §c, to .?/;o/r. 
deni, ten at a time ■ $63. 
ilens, dentis, tooth. 
densus, a, urn, thick, dense. 


dignus, a, um, worthy. 

di labor, i, lapsus, to fall to pieces. 

di ligo, ere, lex-, lect-, to love. 

di niidium, i, half. 

di mitto, ere, mis-, miss-, to tend 
out.' * 

Dionysius, i, Dionysius. • 

di ripio, ere, ripu-, rept-, to tear 
asunder, plunder, pillage. 

dia cedo, ere, cess-, cess-, to de- 

discipulus, i, pupil, learner. 

disco, ere, didic-, to learn. . 

dis cordia, ae, disagreement. 

dennntio. are, &a, to announce, dis pono, ere, posu-, posit-, t 

deorsum, (adr.) down-hill. 
de pono, ere, posu~, it-, to lay 

de silio, ire, siltf-, suit-, to leap 

do iv n. , 

de sisto, ere, stft-, stit-, to cease. 
de spero, are, &c, to despair. 
destino, are, &c, to fasten. 
do stituo, ere, stitu», stitwt-, to 

de stringo, ere, tstrinx-, strict-, to 

de super, (adv.) from above. 
de terreo, ere, &c, to scare off, de- 
Jcus, i, ($24, Rem. 2,) a god. 
de voro, are, &c, to gulp down. • 
dexter, tera, terura, or tra, trum, 

on the right, right. 
Diana ; ae, Diana, 
dico, are, &c, to dedicate. 
dico, er«, dix , diet-, to say. 
dictator, oris, dictator. 
dies, e\, day. 
dif fero,- ferre, dis-tul-, di«lat-, 

to put off, defer. 
dif fieilis, e, difficult. 
..dif ftdp, ere, fisus, to distrust. 


dis puto, are, &c, to diicuss, dis- 

dis sentio, ire, sens-, sens-, to 
differ in opinion, dissent. 

dis similis, e, unlike. 

diu, utius, utisfcsime, [adr. J long. 

dtves, itis, rich. 

•divido, ere, Tia-, vis-, to divide. 

divmus, a, um, divine. 

Divitiacus, i, an JEduan chief. 

divitire, arum, riches. 

do, dare, ded-, dat-, to give. 

doceo, ere, docu-, doci-, to leach. 

doctus, a um, learned. 

doleo, ere, &c, to grieve. 

dolor, oris, pain, grief. 

domina, ae, mistress. 

dominus, i, master. 

domup, ($ 48, Rem. 5,) house. 

donee, until; temp. conj. 

dohum, i, gift. 

dormio, ire, &c., to sleep. 

dormito, are, &c, to fall atleep. 

Druides, um, the Druids. 

dubitatio, onis, doubt. 

dubito, are, &c, to doubt. 

dubius, a, um, doubtful. 

duceuti, ae, a, (£G3,) two hundred. 



duco, ere, dux-, duct-, to lead, 

deem, consider, regard. 
dulcis, e, sweet. .. 
dum, while, as long as, until. 
Dumnorix, igis, brother of Divitia- 

cus. • 

duo, ae, o, two. 
duplex, icis, double. 
duplico, are, &c, to double. 
dwrus, a, um, hard. 


E or ex, out of,from,in consequence 

of, after. 
e d^co, ere, dix-, diet-, to issue an 

edo, ere, ed-, cs-, Q 114,) to eat. 
e doceo, ere, docu-, doct , to teach 

thoroughly, educate. 
e dweo, ere, dux-, duct-, to lead 

effigies, ex. image, likeness. 
egens, entis, needy. 
egeo, ere, egu-, to need. 
egestas, tatis. poverty. 
ego, a 78), 1. 
egregius, a, um, remarkable. 
e jicio, ere, jec-, ject-, to cast out.. 
clegarrs, antis, luxurious, elegant. 
eloquens, entis, eloquent. 
eloquentia, re, eloquence. 
emo, ere, em-, empt-. to buy. 
emolumentum, i, advantage. 
Epaminondas, 02, (App. 1), the 

great Theban general. 
Ephesus, i, a city of Asia Minor. 
Ephesius, a, um, Ephesian. 
episvola, se, letter, epistle. 
eques, itis, horseman. 
equester, or tris, e, of a horse. 
equito, are, &c, to be a horseman % 

to ride on horseback. 
equitatus, vs,' cavalry. . 


equus, i, hcrse. 

e ripio, ere, ripu-, rept-, to retcue. 

erro, are, &'c, to err. 

error, oris, error. 

esuriens, entis, hungry. 

et, and. . 

etiam, also. 

ex cedo, ere, cess-, cess-, to retire. 

exemplum, i, example. 

ex eo, ire. exi-, exit-, to go out. 

exerceo, ere, &c, to exercise, 

exercitus, us, army. 

exiguus, a, um, slight, small. 

existimo, are, &c, to judge, think. 

exitium, i, destruction. 

ex pello, ere, pul-, puis-, to drive 

ex-ploro, are, &c, to search out. 
ex plorator, oris, scout. 
ex pono, ere, posu~, posit-, to ex- 

ex pugno, are, &c, to storm. 
ex sisto, ere, stit-, stit-, to stand 

en speeto, are, &c, to await, look 

ex wro, ere, u?s-, ust-, to burn up. 

facies, ei, form., face. 

facile, easily; from 

facilis, e, easy. 

facinns, oris, deed, crime: from 

facio, ere, fee-, fact-, to do, make. 

esteem, value. 
facultas, tatis. means, power. 
fallo, ere, fefell-, fals-, to deceive. 
fama, ae, fame, reputation. 
fames, is, hunger, famine. 
familia, ae, family. 
fjimiliaris e, pertaining to the f am 

ily ; res fam. . property. 
fateor, eri, fassus, to confess. 




fattgo, are, &c, to weary. 

faveo, ere, fav-, faut-, to favor. 

febris, is,. /ever. 

femina, ae, woman. 

lemur, "oris & inis, thigh. 

ferax, acis, fertile. 

fere, [adv.] almost. 

fero, ferre. tuli, latum, to bear, 

ferox, ocis, fierce 

fcrreus, a, urn, made of iron. 

ferrum, i, iron. . 

fcrus, a, uxi, wild, savage. 

fessus, a, um, wearied. 

festmo, are, &c., to hasten. 

fides, ei, faith, promise. 

fides, ium, strings, a lute, lyre. 

ftdus, a, um, faithful. 

figure, ae, figure, shape. 

filia, ae, daughter. 

films, i, son. 

fingo, ere, finx-, Act-, to matte, 

finis, is, end, limit, boundary. 

finitimus, a, um, neighboring. 

firmus, a, um, strong, firm. 

fiagito, are, &c., to demand, [ear- 

flatus, us, blast. 

flecto, ere, flex-, flex-, to bend. 

fleo, Acre, flcv-.,- flet-, to weep. 

fl«tus, us, iceepmg. 

floccus, a lock of wool, [anything 
of small value.'] 

flos, floris, flower. 

iluctus, its, wave. 

flwrnen, inis, river. 

fluo, ere, flux--, flux*-, to flow. 

foedus, eris, league, treaty. 

folium, i, lea,f, 

fons, fontis, fountain. 

forma, ae, form, sh&pc. 

formido, are, &c, to drend. 

fortisj e, brave. 


fortitwdo, inis, fortitude, firmness. 

fortzma, ae, fortune. 

fossa, ae, diteh. 

frater, tris, brother. 

fratrictda, aa, fratricide. 

fraus, fraudis, deceit. 

frenum, i, pi. i $ a, bit, bridlr. 

fretus, a, um, trusting. 

frons, frontis, forehead. 

fructus, ws, fruit. 

frwmentor, ari, &c, to forage. 

frumentum, i, corn, grain. 

fruor, i, fructus, fruitus, to enjoy. 

frustra, (adv.), in vain. 

fuga, si, flight. 

fugio, ere, fwg-, fugit-, to flee. 

fugo, are, &c., to put to flight, 

rout. * 

fulguratio, onis, lightning. 
fur, fwris, thief. 


Gallia) to, Gaul.' 

Gallus, i, a Gaul. 

£allina,'EB, hen. 

gaudeo, ere. gavisus, to rejoic 

gener, i, son-in-law. 

gens, gentis, race, family. 

genus, eris, hind, race. 

Germania, sc, Germany. 

Germanus, i, a German. 

gero, ere, gess-, gest-, to vxtr.e, 

gladius, i, sword. 
Glaucus, i, Glaucus. 
gloria, aa, glory. 
Graecia, eg, Greeee.' 
Grsecus, i, a Greek. 
grammatica, ae, grammar. 
gratus, a, um, acceptable, pleasant 
gravis, e, heavy, severe. 
graviter, heavily, severely. 
gregatim, in- flocks, herds. 
grex, gregis, %oek, herd. 




habeo, ere, &c, to have, hold. 

habito, to have frequently, dwell. 

hoedus, i, kid. 

hgereo, ere, hses, hies, to stick. 
t Hannibal, alis, Hannibal. 

Harttdes, urn, Harudians. 

liasta, se, spear. 

hand, not. 

HeWetius, i, a- Helvetian. 

Hercules, is, Hercules. 

Herminius, i, Herminius. , 

herus, i, master. 

Hibernia, se, Ireland. 

hifeerna, (castra), vnnter-quar^rs. 

hie, hsec, hoc, this. 

hiemo, are, &c., to winter. 

hiems, i£, winter. 
• hodie, to-day- 

Homerus, i, Homer. 

homo, inis, man. 
' honeste, honorably. 

honestus, honorable. 

honor, oris, honor. 

hora, se, how. 

horreum, i, granary. 

hortor, ari, &c, to encourage. 

hortus, i, garden. 

hospes, itis, guest. 

hostis, is, enemy. 

hunianus, a, um, human. • 

humanitas, tatis, refinement. 

humerus, i, shoulder. 

humilis, e, low. 

humus, i, ground. 


ibi, there. 

idem, eadem, idem, same. 

idoneus, a, um, fit. suitable. 

igharus, a, um, ignorant. 

ignis, is, fire. 

ignosco, ere, nov-, not-, to forgive. 


ille, », ud, that, the former, he. 

illicio, ere, lex-, lect-, to decoy. 

imber, bris, rain, shower. 

imitor, ari, &c,, to imitate. 

immanis, e,' immense, huge? 

immemor, oris, uitmindful. 

immorralis, is, e, immortal. 

immortalitas, tatis, immortality. 

impatiens, entis, not able or wil- 
ling to bear, impatient. 

impedimentum, i, hindrance. 

impedio, ire, &c., to hinder. 

impello ere, pul-, puis-, to drive on. 

imperator, oris, general, emperor. 

imper©, are, &c., to order. 

iuiperitus, a, um, ignorant, un- 

imperium, i, command, governmo'. 

impetro, are, &c, to obtain. 

impetus, us, attack. , 

impietas, tatis, undutifulncss. 

impiger, a, um, active. , 

impleo, ere, plev-, plet-, to fill. 

impono, ere. posu-, posit-, to put 

importo, are, &c., to bring in, im- 

impotens, entis, unable to restrain. 

improbus, a, um, wicked. 

imprwdens, entis, imprudent. 

imws, a, um, see inferus. 

in, (with ace.), into, upon; (with 
;ibh), in, among. 

incendium, a burning, conflagration 

incendo, ere, cend-, eeas-, to 
on fire ; to burn up. 

incertus, a, um, uncertain. 

incido, ere. incid-, cq;s-, t&htppcii, 

incito. are, &c, to set in motion, 
arouse, excite 

incola, ee, inhabitant. 

incolo, ere, colu-. cult-, to i?ihabi% 
dwell, live. 

incolumis, e, unhurt, safe. 




iuconditus, a, um, rude; uncouth. 

incrcdibilis, e, incredible. . 

hiCMSO, ar.e, &c. , to blame, censure, 
find fault with, accuse. 

indignus, a, um, unworthy. 

in-dwco, ere, dux-; duct-, to lead 
on. . 

indulgeo,- ere, duls-, dulN, to in- 

inftins, antis, infant. 

infer o, ferrc, intul-, illat-, to 
bring upon, wage upon, inflict. 

inriru'tus, a, um, boundless. 

in-fiuo* ere, flux-, flux-, to flow 

iufreno, are, &c..'to bridle. 

ingenium, i, intellect, natural dis- 

ingens, entis, hvge. 

ingratus, a, um, disagreeable, un- 

iniim'cus, i, enemy.' 

iniruicitia, ce, enmity. 

im'quus, a, um, unjust. 

initium, i, beginning. 

injuria, x, injury. 

in nascor, i, n«tus, to spring up. 

innocens, entis, innocent. 

innocentia, oe, innocence, parity. 

inopia, 03, tvant, scarcity. 

inquam, (g 113,) I say, (used only 
after^one or more words of a quo 

insidiae, crum, ambush, snares. 

in sili" ire, sili-& silu-, to leap 

instigo, are, Sec, to stir up. 

in stituo, ere, stitu-, stitut-, to ar- 
range, instruct. 

In striio, ere, strux-, struct, to*e^ 
in order, draw up, build. 

in su^tus, a, um, unaccustomed. 

insula, se, island. 

integer, gra, grum, sound, unhurt. 


intelligo, ere, lex-, lect-, to under- 

inter, between, among, in the midst 
of; inter se, with or against one 
another, inter spoliandum, in the 
act of despoiling, 

inter dico, ere, dix-, diet-, to for- 

interdum v sometimes. 

intereo, j're, interi-, interit-, to 

interficio, ere, fee-, feet-, to kiV . 

interus, a um, inward. 

intersum, esse, fui, Xotetf impor- 
tance, to be between. 

nihil interest, it makes no difference. 

introduce, ere, dux-, duct-, to in- 

inrado, ere, fas , vas-, to attack. 

in yenio, ire, ren-, vent-, to come 
upon, find, invent. 

in Tenter, oris, inventor. 

in vestjgo, are, &c, to search out. 

in victus, a um, invincible. 

inTidia, oe, envy. 

invito, are, to invite. 

irm'tus, a, um, unicillinj. 

ipse, a, um, self. 

ira, ae, anger. 

iracundia, ae, hasty temper. 

irascor, i, to be ar*gry. 

iratus, a, um, angry. 

iste, a, ud, that [of yours.) 

ita, thus, so. 

Italia, ae, Italy. 

item, likewise. 

ijer, itineris, journey, march, w- 


jacio, ere, jec-, jact-, to throw. 
jacto, are, &e., to threw about, 





jam, now, already. 

jecur, (g 45,) tht liver. •% 

jubar, aris, sunshine. 

jubeo, ere, juss-, juss-, to order. 

jucundus, a, urn, delightful. 

judex, ids, judge. 

jwguna. i, a yoke. Two spears set 
upright with a third laid across 
the top were called jugum. 

Jugurtha, se, king of Numidia. 

jumentum, i, beast of burden, work- 
horse or ox. 

Jupiter, Jovis, Jupiter. 

Jwra, se, Jura, a mountain. 

.jus, jwris, law, right; (usually un- 
written lavs, as opposed to lex, 
statute law). 

jusjurandum, ($ 45), oath. 

Justus, a, um, just. 

juvenis, is, young man. 

juYentus, t^Jis. youth. 

jurat, abat, &c, it pleases. 


Labienus, i, a lieutenant of Casar, 

labor, oris, labor. 

lac, laetip, milk. 

lacesso, ere, iv-, it-, to provoke. 

injuria lacessere, to injure. 
lacrima, a?, tear. 
lacus, ms, lake. 
laetus, joyful. 

lanio, are, &c. to tear to pieces. 
lapis, idis, stone. • 
largior, iri, t'tus, to bribe. 
lateo, ere, latu-, to lie hid. 
latitwdo, inis, breadth. 
Ifctro, onis, robber 
latus, a, um, wide, broad. 
latus, eris, side, flank. 
lawdo, are, to praise. 
laus. laudis, praise, glory. 


lavo, are, lav-, lot*, laet-, layat-, 
to bathe. 

legatio, onis, embassy. 

legatus, i, ambassador, lieutenanr. 

legio, onis, legion. 

lego, ere, kg-, lect-, to read. 

leo, onis, lion. 

lepus, oris, hare. 

levis, e, light, slight. 

levo, are, to lighten, relieve. 

h'ber, a, um, free. 

liber, bri, book. 

liberi, orum, children, 

libero, are, &c, to free. 

libertas, tatis, liberty. 

licet, licuit, it is allowed, permit- 
ted, right, lawful. 

lignum, i, wood. 

lingua, ae, tongue, language. 

linter, tris, boat. " * 

Liscus, i, an JEduan chief. 

litera, ae, a letter (of the alphabet). 

h'tus, oris, shore. 

locus, i, pi i $■ a, place. 

locuples, etis, rich. 

longitwdo, inis, length. 

longus, a, um, long. 

loquor, i, loewtus, to speak. 

lwdus, i, game, play. 

lwiuen, inis, light. 

Iwna, ae, moon. 

lupus, i, wolf. % 

lux, lwcis, light. 

■ M. • ' 

Macedonia, ae, Macedonia. 
macto, are, &c, to sacrifice* 
moeror, oris, grief, prae maerore, 

for griej, (a preventing cause.) 
magis, maxime, more, most. 
magister, i, master (of a school, $c.) 
rnngnaniaaus, a, um, grcat-sotded, 





magnitwdo, inis, greatness. 

raagnus, a, um, (major, maxirnus,) 

maled/co, ere, dix-, diet-, to be 
abusive, revile, curse. 

malo, malle, malui, to prefer. 

malum, i, apple. 

mains, i, mast of a ship. 

mala?, a, urn, (pejor, pessimus,) 
bad, wicked, evil. 

mandatum, i, a thing entrusted, 

mando, are, &c , to entrust. 

maneo, era, mans-, mans-, to re- 

manug, us, hand. 

Marcus, i, Mark. 

mare, is, sea. 

maritimus, bordering on the sea. 

Marius, i, Marius. 

marmor, oris, marble. 

mater, tris, mother. 

maturo, are, -&C, to hasten. 

matwrus, a, um, ripe. 

mature, (adv.) quickly, soon. 

medicamentum, i, drug, dose. 

medicina, ae, medicine. 

medicos, i, physician. 

medius, a, um, middle. 

melior, us, better. 

ruemini, (§11 3), I remember. 

mem or, oris, mindful. 

"memoria, ae, memory, recollection 

mendricium, i. falsehood, lie. 

mendax, aci.s, false, lying. 

mens, mentis, mind. 

mensa, ae, table. 

mensis, is, month. 

mentior, tri, itus, to lie. 
mercator, oris, merchant. 
Mercurius, i, Mercury. 
raeritus, a, um, deserving. 
merges, itis, sheaf. 
meridie?, ci, mid-day. 


Mess«la, ae, Messala. 
Metior, tri, mensus, to measure. 
meto, ©re, messu-, mess,-, to reap. 
metuo, ere, metu-, rarely mefwt-, 

to fear, be apprehensive. 
metus, us, apprehension, fear. 
meus, a, um, my, mine. 
ou'les, itis, soldier. 
milittfris, e, military. 
mille, ($64, G,) thousand. 
minor, ari, atus, to threaten. 
mmuo, ere, minu-, minut-, to 

make less, weaken. 
im'ror, ari, atus, to wonder. 
im'rus, a, um, wonderful. 
miser, a, um, wretched. 
misereo, ere, u-, to pity, (generally 

used impersonally; \ 135, c.) 
mitto, ere, mis-, miss-, to send. 
modus, i, manner, measure, limu : 
praeter modum, beyond measure, 
moenia, ium, &c, walls. 
mollis, e, soft. 

moneo, ere, &., to advise, remind. 
montle, is, necklace. 
mons, mont-is, mountain. 
monstro, are, &c, to show. 
mordeo, eve, raomord-, m«r6-, to 

champ, bite. 
morier, i, & tri^ mortuus, moriiu- 

rus, to die. 
mortuus, a, um, dead. 
moror, ari, atus, to delay. 
mors, mortis, death. 
morsus, tts, biting. 
mortalis, e, mortal. 
mos, moris, manner, custom. 
motus, us, moving, insurrection. 
moveo, ere, mov-, mot-, to move. 
mulier, eris, woman. 
multus, (plus, plurimus.) much, 

multitwdo, inis, multitude. 



mundus, i, world, 
laimio, ire, &c, to fortify. 
murus, i, widl. 
raus, muris, mouse. 
musa, ae, muse, 
x&uio, are, &c, to change. 


nactus, participle from nanciscor. 

nam, for, (conj.) 

nam que, for, indeed. 

nanciscor, i, nactus, to get. 

narro, are, $g., to tell, relate. 

nascor, i, flatus, to be born. 

natwra, ae, nature. 

n:/tus,us, birth. 

nauta, ae, sailor. 

navale, is, dock-yard. 

navigo, are, &c, to sail. 

naris, is, ship. 

ne, (final .conj.) that, not. lest. 

nee, (conj.) neither, nor and not. 

necessarius, a, um, critical, neces- 

neco, are, &c, to murder, kill. 

negligens, entis, negligent; part, 
adj. • . 

negligo, ere, lex-, lect-, to neglect. 

uego, are, &c, to deny. 

negotium, i. business. 

nemo, inis, no man, no one. 

nemus, oris, grove. 

nepos, otis, grandson. 

Neptunus, i, Neptune, God of the 
sea. , 

neque, and not, neither, nor. 

nescio, ire, &c, not to know. 

neuter,, a, um, neither [of two.) 

n<?ve, neu, ana", not, nor; (neg fin. 

nidfico, are, &c, to build a nest. 

ntdus, i. nest. ■ 

niger, a, um, black. 


nihil, (indecl.), omihiluin, x.notJi- 


nimius, a, um, too much, excesaiv- 

nisi, (eond. conj.), unless, 'if not. 

nobilis, e, noble. 

nobilitas, atis, nobility. 

noceo, ere, &c, to hurt } harm. 

nolo, nolle, nolui, to be unwilling. 

aomon, inis, name. 

non, not. 

nonus, a, um, (£ 63), ninth. 

non ne, (in direct questions, \ 81. 

4) ; in indirect questions, if not, 

whether not. 
nosco, ere, nov-, ijot-, to know. 
noster, a, um, our, ours. 
novem, (g 63), nine. 
noTus, a, um, new, late. 
riox, noctis, night. 
noxiuR, hurtful. 

m^bes, is, cloud. • • 

nwdo, are, &c, to strip. 
nwdus, a, um, naked. 
nulltts. a, um, ($56), none, not any . 
num, #81, 3. 
Numa, ae,- liuma. . 
Numantinus, a, um, Numantian- 
nunierus, i, number. 
Numida, ae, a JVumidian. 
Numidia, ae, Numidia. 
numquis, § 89. 
nunc, now. 

nuncio, are, to announce. 
nuncius, i, messenger. 
nunquam or numquam, never. 


ob, for, on account of. 
obliviscor, oblitus, to forget, 
obscuro, are, &<?., to obscure. . 
ob secro, are, &c, to beseech, 
obses, idis, hostage, 
ob sideo, ere, sed.,sess ,to besiege. 




obsidio, onis, siege. 

bh sto, are, stit-, stat-, to stand 
before, hinder, prevent. 

ob truueo, are, to slay. 

occasus, us, goiDg down, setting. 
• oc cido, (ob— caedo), cid-, cis-, to 
cut down, kill. 

oc cido, (ob — cado), ere, cid-, cas , 
to fall, set. 
' nc cultus, a, urn, hiddeu, 

o-ccupo, are, to seize, take posses- 
sion of. 

-.deanus, i, ocean. 

octavus, a, um, (£ 63), eighth. 

<*ctingenti, ae, a, (g 63), eight 

octo, (g 63), eight. 

-•cuius, i, eye. 

odi, (| 113, Rem. 1), I hate. 

"dium, i, hatred. 

officium, i, duty, service. 

olim, (adv.), formerly, anciently, 
(of' the future) sometime or 

omnino, altogether, wholly, at all. 

omnis, e, all, every. 

onero, are, to load, lade. 

onus^eris, burdei 1 . 

opera, ac, pains, work, labor. 

opinio, onis, opinion, belief. 

opmor, an, Sec, to be of opinion, 
portet, uit, it is necessary, pro- 
per, it behooves. 

■•ppidanus, a, um, of a town. 

eppidum, i, town. 

oppeitunitas, atis, fitness, suita- 

opportttnus, n, um, fit, favorable. 

"pprimo, ere, press-, press-, to 
press down, put down, suppress, 
overcome, crush, oppress. 

uppugno, ore, &c, to assault. 

^ptimus, a, um, (bonus), best. 

opulens or opulentus, a, um, pow- 

opus, eris, work, 
opus, (indecl.) need, necessity 

opus est, it is necessary, there 

is need. * 

oraculum, i, oracle, 
oratio, onis, speech, oration, 
orator, oris, orator, 
orbis, is, circle ; orbis terraruin,, 

the world, 
ordo, inis, rank, -order. 
Orgetorix, igb, a Helvetian ch^ef. 
ortgo, inis, origin, 
orior, in, ortus, oriturus. to rise. 
os, oris, mouth, face. ' 
os, oasis, bone, 
otium, i, leisure, ease, 
ovis, is, sheep, 
ovum, i, egg. 


paco, are, &c, to subdue 

pagus, i, canton. 

palus, udis, marsh, bog. 

paluster, tris, tre, marshy. 

panis, is, bread. 

par. paris, ecflial. 

paratus. a, um, ready, prepared. 

parco, ere, peperc- pars-, & parcit- 

& pars-, to spare: 
parens, entis, parent, 
pareo, ere. &c. to obey, be obe 

paries, etis, wall (of a house), 
pario, ero, peper~, part-, to beget, 

bring forth. 
Parmenio, onis, Parmenio. 
paro, «re, &c, to prepare, 
parricida, ae, killer of a father, 

pars, partis, part ; una ex parte, 

on one side. 




partim, (ace. of pars), partly, 
parum, minus, minime, little, 
parvus, a, urn, small, little, 
passus, us, pace; mille passus, a 

pastor, feris, shepherd.- 
patefacio, fee-, fact-, to lay open, 
pateo, ere, patu-, to lie open, 
pater, patris, father, 
patientcr. patiently.' 
patiens, entis, capable of endu- 
ring, patient, 
patieutia, ae, patience. . ' ■ 
patina, ae, disE. , 

patior, i, passus, to surfer, endure, 

patria, ae, country, 
pauci, ae, a, few. 
paulatim, by degrees, 
paulus, a, um, little ; usually in 

the ace. and abl. neuter, 
pauper, is, poor, 
paupertas, atis, poverty, 
pavor, oris, trembling, 
pax, ,pacis, peace, 
peccctum, i, fault, sin. 
pecco, are, £c, to do wrong, sin. 
pectus, oris, breast, 
pecunia, »e, sum of rloney. 
pecus, oris, cattle, 
pedes, itis, footman, 
pedester, tris, tre, on foot, 
pejor, us, (malus,) worse. 
pellis, is, skin, hide, 
pello. ere, pepul-, puis-, to beat, 

drive, rout, 
pendo, ere, pepend-, pens-, t» 

cause to hang, weigh, pay. 
penes, in the power of. 
penus, us and i, storehouse, 
per, through. 
per cutio, ere, cuss-,cuss-,to strike 

through, kill. 


perdo, ere, did-, dit°, to destroy, 

pes dweo, ere, to lead through, ex- 

per eo, ire, ii, itum, to perish. 

per facilis, very easy.- 

per fringo, ere, freg-, fract-, to 
break through. 

perfuga, ae, diseiter. 

pergo, ere, H perrex-, rect-, to pro- 

periculosus, a, um, dangerous. 

periculum, i, trial, danger. 

peritus, skilled. 

per moveo, ere, mov-, mot-,to move 
thoroughly, alarm. 

pernicies, ei, destruction. 

perpetuus, a, um, unending. 

Persa, ae, Persian. 

per sequor, i, seewtus, to follow 
perseveringly, overtake. 

per suado, ere, suae-, suas-,to per- 

per terreo, ere, $g., to frighten 
thoroughly, terrify. 

per tineo, ere,tinu-,tent-, to reach, 
extend, pertain, belong. 

per turbo, are, <^o., to confound. 

per venio, ere, vm-, vent-, to come 
through, arrive. , 

pes, pedis, iooi. 

pessimus, a, um, (malus,) worst. 

peto, ere, -iv-, -it-, to seek, ask. 

phalanx, gis, phalanx. 

Philippus, i, Philip. 

philosophus, i, philosopher. 

pietas, atis, dutifulness. 

piget, piguit and pigitum est, it 
disgusts, irks, troubles : piget 
me tui, I am disgusted with you. 

piger, a, nm, slow, lazy. 

pj'lum, i, javelin. 

pirata, ae, pirate. 

piscis, is, 6»h. 



Piso, onis, Piso. 
pius. a um, dutiful, pious, 
plaeeo, ere, &c, to please. 


prae cjpio, ere, ccp-, cepU, to in- 
struct, order, command, 
prae cipue, especially. 

Plato, onis, a Grecian philosopher, iprae cipuus, a, um, especial. 
plebes, ei and is, and plebs, plebis, prae clarus, a, um, very diatin- 

common people. guished. 

plenus, a, um, full. praeco, onis, crier, herald, 

pluma, ae, feather. .praeda, ae, booty, 

poculum, i, drinking cup. iprae dico, are, &a, to boast, 

poema, atis, poem. prae ditus, a, um, endowed. 

Poeni, Carthagenians. jpraedor, ori, &c., to plunder, 

poenitet, uit, it repents: p. me|prac ficio, ere, fee-, feet-, to put 

peccati, I repent of my sin. over, 

polliceor, eri, &c, to promise. prae mitto, mis-, mis?-, to send 
pollicitatio, onis, promise. forward. 

Pompeius, i, Pompey. praemium, i, reward. 

pomum,i, fruit 

pondu3, e#is, weight. 

pono, ere, posu-, posit-, to put, 

poHS,- pontis, bridge, 
jpopulor, ari, &c, to lay waste, 
populus, i, people, 
porta, ae, gate of a city, 
porto, are, &c, to carry, 
portus, us, harbor, 
posco, ere, poposc-, to demand, 
possum, posse, potui, to be able, 
post, after, behind 

prae pono, posu-, posit>," to prefer. 

praesens, cntis, present. 

praesidium, i, garrison. 

praestans, antis, excellent, distin- 

prae sto, are, stit-, stit.-, to excel. 

prae sum, esse, fui, to be over. 

praeter, past, besides, beyond. 

praeter eo, ire, iv-, it-, to pass by. 

praetor mitto, mis-, miss-, to 'let 

praetor, oris, praelor, chief. 

pravus, a, um, crooked, depraved, 

premo, ere, press-, press-, to press. 

postea, afterwards. 

posterns, posterior, postremis oripretium, i, price, value 
postumus, coming after: oomp., primus, a, um, first. 

of less account, inferior, 
postquam, (temp, conj.), after, 
postulo, are, &c, to demand, 
potens, entis, powerful, 
potentia, ae, power, ability, 
potestas, atis, power, right, 
potior, iri,&c, to get possession 

of, acquire, 
prae, before, in comparison with, 

for: prae maerore, for grief.' 
praebeo,' ere, &c, to furnish. 
prae ceptum, i, precept ; from 

princeps ipis, chief. 

p*ior, primus, former, sooner. 

priusquam, before. 

pristinus, a, um, former. 

privatus, a, um, private. 

pro, for, before. 

pro cedo, ere, cess., cess., to go 

procul, at a distance, 
pro curro, ere, cucurr- & cuvr-. 

curs-, to run forward, 
proditor, #ris, traitor.* 




prcelitim, i, battle. ^ 

pro'fectio, onis, departure. 

pro ficiscor, i, fectus, to set out. 

pro fii'go, are, &c., to dash in 

pro fugio, ere, fug-, fugit-, to flee, 
run away, escape. 

prog«nies, e\, offspring. 

progredior, i, gressus, to go forth 
or forward. 

pro hibeo, ere, &c, to prevent, 
keep off. 

promptus, a, urn, ready, quick. 

propero, are, &c, to hasten. 

propinquus, a, um, near. 

propior, proximus, nearer, next. 

pro pono, ere, posu-, posit-, to set 

propositum, L purpose. 

propter, on account of*. 

propterea, on this account. 

pro pulso, are, &c, to repel. 

pro sequor, i, seewtus, to pursue. 

pro sum, prodesse, profui,to bene- 
fit, to do good. 

proVidentia, ae, foresight, provi- 

provincia, ae, .province.' 

prudens, entis, prudent. 

prudentia, ae, prudence. 

publicus, a, una, public 

pudet, puduit, it shames. 

pudor, oris, shame, modestj'. 

puella, ae, girl. ■ 

puer, i, boy. 

pugna, ae, fight. \\ 

pngno, are, &c , to fight. 

pulcher, a, um, beautiful. 

pulchritwdo, inis, beauty. 

pulvis, eris, dust. 

Funicus, a, um, Carthagenian. 

panio, ire, &c. to punish. 

purgo, cive, &c. to cleanse, excuse 

puto, are, to* think. 

quaclraginta, ($ 63), forty. 
quaero, ere, quassiv-, quaesit-, to 

seek, ask. 
qualis. of Yrhat kind, as. 
quam, than, as. 
quamquam, although, 
quamvis^owever much, although, 
quantus. a, um, how great, as. 

tantus — quantus, as great — as. 
quatuor, ($63) four, 
queror, i, questus, to complain, 
qui, quae, quod, who, which. 
quicumque, whoever, 
quidam, $89. 
quidem, indeed, 
quin, but that, that, but. 
quindecim, ($63), fifteen* 
quingenti, ae, a, ($63), five Imn-r 

quippe, surely, since. - .' 

quis, $89 ; quis ? $88. 
quisnam, $88. 
quispiam, ~) 
quisquam, I $89. 
quisque, J 
quisquis, $87, 2. 
quivis, quilibet, |sy. 
jquo, whither, 
quo-ad, to what point, as long as, 

jqudd, because. '• i 
quo-minus, $193, Rem. 5. 
quoniam, since, because, 
quoque, also, 
jquot, how many, as. 
jquotannis, yearly, 
jquotidie, daily. 
iquUm, when, since, although. 


ramus, i, branch, bough.' 
rapena, ae, plunder, pillage 




rapio, ore, rapu-. rapt-, to snatch, 
seize, carry off 

ratio, onis, plan, reasoning,cause. 

Rauraci, orntr*, a tribe of Gauls, 
rebellio, onis. rebellion. 

reecns, entis, recent. 

rceeptus, us, retreat, 

recipio, cey>., cent-, to take back, 
regam, recover, ne recipere, to 
retreat, to recover oneself. 

rectus, a, urn, straight, right. 

recupero, are, &c, to recover. 

reewso, are, to object % repudiate. 

red do. ere, did-,dit-,to give back, 
render, make. 

red eo, t're, redi-,redit-, to return. 

rcdigo, crc, eg-, act-, to. reduce. 

red integro, are, &c, to renew. 

reditus, us, return. 

re duco, ere, dux-, duct-, to lead 

re fero, ferre, tul-, lat-, to with- 

re fert, retulit, it concerns. 

reficio, ere, fee-, feet-, to repair. 

regtna, », queen. 

regio, onis, region, tract. 

regnum, i, kingdom. 

rego, ere, rex-, rect-, to rule. 

roligio, onis, vow, religion. 

re linquo ere,ltqui,lictum,to leave. 

reliquus, a, urn, the rest. 

re nuncio, are, &c , to carry back 

naor, reri, ratus, to suppose 

repens, entis, sudden. 

repente, suddenly. 

reperio, tre, reper-, repert-, to find 

repeto, ere, it.-, -tt, to seek buck.. 

repudio, are, &a, to refuse. 

res, rei, thing 

v© scindo, ere, scid-, sciss-, to cut 


re sisto, ere, strt-, to resist. 

ro spondeo, ere, f>pond-, spone-. to 

rete, is, net 

re vello, ere, veil-, vuls-, to tear off. 

re vereor, eri, &c, to reverence. 

re voeo, are, to recall.- 

rex. regis, king. 

Rhenus.i,the Rhine. 

Rhodanus, i, the Rhone. 

robui'j oris, heart of oak, strength. 

rogo, are, &c., to ask. • 

Roma, se, Rome. 

Romanus, a,*um, Roman. 

rosa, a>, rose. 

ruber, a, um, red. 

rudens, enti«, rope, cable. 

rudis, e, rude, uucivllized, 

rurapo, ere, rwp», rupt-, to break. 

rupe9, is, rock. 

rursus, again. 

rus, ruris, country. 

rusticus, a, um, living in the coun- 
try, rustic. 


Sabmi, orum, Sabines. 

sacer, a, um, sacred. . 

sacerdos, otis priest. 

seepe, often 

8jevus, a, um, savage, tierce. 

sagitta, so, arrow. 

salar, aris, trout. 

salto, are, &c\, to dance. 

salttber, bris, bre, wholesome. 

salus, utis, safety, health. 

tianotus, a; um, sacred, pute. 

sanguis, inis, blood. 

sanus, sound, healthy ■ 

sapiens, entis, wise. 

sapientia, », wisdom. [ciently. 

satis, enough, sufficient, sufli- 

saucius, a, um, wounded. 

saxum, i, rock. 

scapha, se, boat, skiff. 





ocelus, eris, crime, wickedness. 

scio. t're, &c, to know. 

Scipio, onis, Scipio. [write 

^crt'bo, ere, scrips-, script-, to 

scriptor, oris, writer. 

-jicwtum, i, shield. 

ee ct<lo, ere, cess*-, cess-, to setede. 

se cerno, ere, crev , cret-, to se- 
parate, [to cut., are, secui, sectum,secat«rus, 

pecundus, a, um, following, sec- 
ond, favorable. 

secundum, following, according to. 

secwris, is, axe. . 

sed. but. 

sedeo, ere sed-, sess-, to ait. 

g*des, is, seat, settlement. 

sedtle, is, seat. 

seditio, onis, sedition. 

semper, always. 

sempiternus, a, um, everlasting. 

senatus, us, & i, senate. 

aenex, senis, old. 

sententia, as, opinion : ex senten- 
tia, satisfactorily. 

Sequanus, a, um, Sequan. 

sequor, i, seewtus, to follow. 

aermo, onis, conversation, talk. 

servio, ire,&c,,to be a slave,serve 

aervitus, twtis, slavery. 

servo, are, &c, to preserve. 

serrus, i, slave. * 

sex, (J 63,) six. 

sibilo, are, &c, to hiss. 

sic, thus. 

af&us, eris, star, constellation. 

dgnum, i, sign, signal. 

silvaj a, wood, forest. 

silvestris or ter, e, woodj. 

similis, e, like. 

simul, at the same time. 

annul ac, as soon as. 

sine, without. 

siaguli, fe, a, single, one at a time* 


sino, ere, ?»>-.. sit-, to put, permit. 
sinus, us, gulf, t ay. 
sitio, ire, «vi, to be thirsty, 
sitis. is, thirst, 
socer, i, father -inlaw. 
socius, i; companion, 
soleo, ere, solitus, to be used, wont. 
solus, a, uin,only. alone, 
solvo. ere ; solv-, solwt-, to loose. 
somnus, i, sleep, 
sonus, i, sound. 
soror, oris, sister', 
spatium, i, room, space, time. 
specus,, us, den, cave, grotte. 
spero, are, &c, to hope, 
spes, ei, hope. 

spolio, are, to spoil, rob, plunder, 
statuo, ere, statu-, statwt-, to place, 

put, determine, 
statwra, 39, stature, size, height. 
Stella, se, star. 
stimulus, i, goad. 
Ktipendium, i, tax, tribute, 
strenuus, a, um, nimble, active, 
studeo, ere, to attend to, be eager 

studium, zeal, desire; 'pi- studies, 
stultus, a, nm, foolish, 
stultitia, S3, folly, 
suadep, ere, suas-, suae-, to advise, 
suheo, *re, ii. itum, to go under, 
subigo, ere, eg , act-, to subdoc. 
subituSj a, um, sudden, 
sub levo, are, &e., to relieve. 
subsidium, reserve, support,help. 
sub venio, are, ven-,vent-, to eome 

to one's assistance, heip. 
sui, g 78. 

suus, a, um, $ 80. 
sum, esse, fui, to be. 
sumo, ere, sumps-, sumpt-> to take 
supeilex, lectilis, furniture, 
superbia, w, pride. 
superbus. a. um t proud. 




supero, are, &o , to overcome. 

supers titio, enis, superstition. 

surgo, ere, r-.urrex , surrect-, to 
rise; [dertake. 

sus cipio, ere, ecp-. ccpt-, to. un- 

suspicor, ari, &c, to suspect. 

sustineo, em, tinu-, tent, to sus- 
tain. • 


taceo, ere, &e., to he siteui. 

taedet, nit, it wearies, disgust?. 

talentura, i, talent. 

talis, e, such. 

tain, so. 

tamen, nevertheless. 

tametsi, although. 

tandem, at. length. » 

tangp, ere, tetig^, tact-, to touch. 

tantus, a, urn, so much, so great. 

tantus-dem, adem, undem, just a? 

tardo are,, &c., to delay^ retard. 

tardus, a, nm, slow. 

Turquin'ms, i, Tarquii*, 

tauru ■', i, bull 

tectum, i, roof. 

tcllus. wris, earth, % - 

telum, i, dart. 

temerc, rashly. 

tempestas, tali*, time, weather, 
(good or bad), tempos*. 

templum, i. temple. 

tempiis. oris, timo. 

tenax, acis, tenacious. 

teneo, ere, tenu ,tent-, to hold 

tento, arc, &c, to attempt. 

tenuis, e, slender. 

tergum, i, back. 

terminus, i, end, limit. 

terra, hj, earth, ground. 

feerreo, rre, &c , to frighten. 

terror, oris, terror, fright 

tertius, a, um, (§63), ihuV, 

testis, is, tvituesfl. 

Thebsc, arum. Thebes. 
Thrax, flcis, Thracian. 
thronus, i, throne. 
Tiberis, id, the Tiber, 
timeo, ere, timu-, to fear. 
timidus, a, um, cowardly. 
timor, oris, fear, panic, 
tolero, aro, &c, to endure, 
tondeo, ere, totond-, tons-, , te 
tonitrus us, thunder. [shear, 
tot, so many, 
totus, a, u.n, whole, 
tra do, ere, did-, dit-, to delrror 

over, hand down, 
trajiciq, ere, jec-, ject-, to ship 
trames, itis. by-path, [ever. 

tra no, arc, &c. to swim across, 
trans, across, beyond, 
trans dweo, ere, dux-, duct-, to 

lead over, 
trans eo, ire, transi , transit-, U 

go across, pass over, paso away, 
transjicio, set traj. 
tre.3. tria, f§63), three, 
trihwrius, i, tribune, 
tribus, us, tribe. 

tribuo, ere,ui,Mtum,to give,assiga. 
triduum, i, three days' time, 
triennium, i, three year*' time, 
tripartita, in three divisions, 
triplex, icis, triple, 
tristis, c, bad. 

trucido, are, &c, to slay, butcher, 
tuba, jb, trumpet, 
tueor, eri, tuitus j- protect. 
Tullias,i, Tully. 
Tullianiim, i, a prison at Rome: 

built by king Servius Tullius. 
turn, then. 

tunaultus, us, tumult, uproar, 
tumulus, i, mound. • * 

tunc, then, 
turba, as, crowd, 
turbidus, a, um, disordered ,mu<Hjr . 




tui 1 o, htq, &c., to threw intoeou- 
tu> < , ini*, whirlwind, [fusion. 
ten i , e, base. 
tv ]-, is, tower. 

tutor, «ri, &c, to defend, protect. 
tutus, a, urn, safe, 
r.uus, a, una, $ 80. 
ryranuus. i, tyrant. 
' '. ' U. '.: 
ubi, where, when, 
uhtque, ©very where-. 
ulciscor, i, ultus, to avenge, 
ullvis, a, um, ins, any. 
ulnlo, <sre, &c, to howl. . 
; »imbra. OS, shadow, shade v 
iiraquiira or unquam, ever, 
una (parte), in one place,togethcr. 
inda, to, wave, 
nude, whence, from which. 
undiq'uc, on all sides. 
universus, a, um, nl), universal, 
irnus, a, um, one 
urbs, urbis, city, 
wro; ere, uss-, ust-, to burn. 
«sus. us, using, use, practice, 
tit, that, in order that. 
uter? a, um, which of the two? 
uterque. aque, umque, both. 
utilis, c, useful, 
utinam, that! 
ator, i, wsus, to use. 
uxor, oris, wife. 

vaco are, &c , to be unoccupied 
vacti s, a, um, empty. 
vadun!, i, ford. 

vagor, ori, &c, to wander nbout 
valeo, ere, -ui, to be strong, well, 
valiis, is, valley, 
vallum, i, rampart. 
Tarius, a, um, various. 
vastitas, c/tis, devastation, 
vasto, are, &c, to ky waste, 
vfltes, is, prophnt. 

Iveettga!, oils, tax. 
ivehementer, cxcssfcivsly. 
;veho, eie, vex , vect-. to cant. 
ivel, or, even. 
veloxj oeis, sari ft. 
velum, i, sail. 

venator, oris, hunter [#ell. 

vendo, ere, vendid-, ^endlt-, to 
ivenenum, i, poison. 
venio, nre. \en., vent-, to coxne. 
! venter, tris, belly. 
{ ventus, i, wind, 
ver, vcris, spring, 
jyorburn, i, word, 
vereor, ei% &.c, to reverence, fe;tr. 
vergo, ere, to turn, incline. 
Veritas, atis, truth. 
Verres, is, Verres, (boar), 
versus, us, verse. 
verus, a um, true, 
vescor, i, to eat. 
vesper, i, & is, evening. 
vester, a. um, £80. 
vestigium, j, footprint, 
vestis, is, clothing, 
vetus," oris, old, ancient, 
vexillum, i, flag,, ensign, 
vexo, are, to vex, harass, annoy 
via, so, way. 
victor, oris, conqueror, 
vicus, i, village. 

video, «re, vid-, vis , to see ; pas- 
sive, to seem. 
vigilia, ae, watch. 
vigilo, are to watch, 
viginti, ($63), twenty, 
viucio, tie, vinx-, vinct-, to bind, 
vinco, ere, vie-, vict-, to coaquer. 
vinculum, i, chain. * 
vtnum, i, wino. * 
vir, vh'i, man, husband, 
virgo, inis, virgin « 
tvindis, b, green. 
)virtu- : . ttitis, courage, virtoe. 



vsia,, a>, life. ; 

viriura, J, vice. 

tilreus, a, ura, made of glass. 

vivo. 'crc, vix-.vict-, to live. 

vitas, a. ura, alive. 

vis, Hcavcely. 

%oco. arc, to call., vello volui, to will. 

•\olo, ovq, &c . to fly. 

.», voir , vofct-, to roll. 

voluptas, trttis, pleasure: 
voro, arc, &o., to devour, 
voveo, eve, vov-, vot , to vow j 
vox. voeis, voice. 
valgus, i, common people. 
vulnero, arc, &c, to wound, 
vulnue, cvis, wound, 
vultur, uris, vulture. 
vuUusJ us, countenanoe. 



4bilily, potestas. 

«hU, {to be), possum, I 

/ rid. ftbuhdo ' 
eoout, 01 re iter, «ie. 
*.bov>\ h'upt :■, supra. 
mhteni. ai Bens; tp be alt , abc^sc. 
tbusc. abut , (uu amiss ; ) mated • 

• re, (speak mnits. ) 
if.cess a d i i u > . 

# ■ confi io' Jfyir the ac of 
. '<Ao*? ih ng~ nd eas re- 1 'e'Uific : 

*£$w<e argii ■ . acctfsoJ 

«£C.'(> m i : - 1. CO. 

Mccusioniei [, nolro. 
tic'qutre, comptro. 

* vo. 
0.rr«sx, :r. ii" 
efoiive, a ills. 
#<i./. ;nid • 

ttidres*., apfiellare, compcl!a:c. 
tdni're DHror 
tdmontsh moneo. 
tii-jm, decora-. 

nee, progrediti*, procsie. 

advantage, cornmoduni. 
advice tun-ilium. 
Mduan, iEduus* 
affair, res. 
ufftird. praebfo. 

afraid, (.o 6«.)timeo,metno,v; reor. 
uj' , ,\ pnp )post; (covj ,) post- 

qu uu. posteaquain, 
aj/enrards postea. 
agautsf, contra, ad, adrersus. 
ye Sofas. 
agreeable, acceptus. gratus. 
ngricu'iure, ajirieuhwra. 

■i .,) auiilium. 
aid, (y.,j subvenlo. 
atV, fcer, 

m, pcrturbo. perrnoveo 
Alexander, Alexander. 
</ /, mains. 
allnrc, i:lici> . 
7 .t :| iu. 
ulao, etiaiu, quoque. 

an' ■ ■ 

\(il hough, licet, quaai\; .Jam. 

etsi, &o. 



*mbas»odor. It-gtftus 
afrnbttssy. legMtio. 
ambush. insMire. 
among, (of thing*,) inter; (of per- 

s r,s ) .'ipnd. . 
ancient, vetus, ant : quus 
anger, ira 
angry, iracundus. 
, to b fi . irascot*. i 

avoid, vito. ■•>. 
await, exspec'o 

t>ark. terguip. 
b'uK mains. 
barbarian, b^rbara?.. 
base, turpis- 
battle, proelium. 
he, esse. ' \ 

\hear. f'ero, t''t*rn. 
heat, (defeat) ppl'o, vinco. 

animal, animal. 

annoy, vexp. . , 

another, (of two,) aher ; (0/ many.) beautiful, pub-bpr. 

gnxwer, responded, [jilius beauty pu'rhritqd'o.* 

any, $ 89 because, quo I, quia. quota. 

apiece, pxpre^sed' by distributive become, ?o it heroine!*, d< cet. 

nnmevft-ls $ 63, 1, 
app r oach. Rg^velior, aecedo 
Archer, Sagittarius. 
arise, orior 
ar«i, (v. 1 arrao. 
'irm.?. arm a 
around, ci'-urn. 
arrival, ndventus. . 
arrow, sagitta. 
art, ara 
#s, (<W«/.) qimm. 

6rf chamber, cubiculiam. 
\b?e. apis. 
'before, tprep ) ante; ieonj), ant*- 

qiiflni, priu-quam. 
j bey, rrgo. peto. 
[begin, ecepi. 

■ bf'hnld, eongpiciA, aspicio. 
fehnnve, it behont'es, opertet. 

ieiftfv« <r do 

benefit, be nefienm. 

[best, ojtitiius. 
as great— as twntus — quantus. bestow (.labor, f>w»-«#).operani duiv.. 
a* many — as. tot — quot. between in'e-r 

sue/? — a*, talis — qnalis hen-are. eareo 

% yustasmueh— <«#, tunfusd ?'// magnum, km plus. 

ascend, nscendo /v'??'/. trncio 

8>>r<i aviv 
ft?>/A, natns. ns. before one* s birth. 

ascertain. eogn< sec 

'ashamed, (to he), pudct, |135, c. 

4M&. rogo, pe^o, iftterrogo. 

asleep, (to fall), do'rmito. 

assault, oppugtro. 

assert, confirrao. 

atiixtance, Auxilium to eomc id 

one's assistance, sub^enio. 
atrocious, at vox. 
a' tack, (n ), ininetus. 
attaek, (v ), oppugno* nggredior. 
attempt, tcuto, collar. 
authority, auctovitas. 

ante* M quem natam. 
bi e. rn<>rde<>. 
h'fing, morons 
hi, imp, ri-prehendo, incco. 
Iffyvd. cserus. 
blood, sanguis. 
huast. prsjediro 
boat scvplia linter. 
bedy, c-rpng nobody, perno, nul- 

lu8. anybody $89. 



boldly, audnoiter. 
book, liher. 
born, (fo be)^nrtsvov 
both, umbo {both together}, nterq'iv 

{both separately) On bothy-idc*. 

utrimquc; by boi h parlies, Ah u 

bound/try. finis. 
bow, arc us. 
brave, fortis. 
bravely f'urtit^r. • 
hr>>ud p^D'S. 
break through. p'>rfr ; n£». 
break {a law), violo. 
bribe, (v. ), lurgiof. 
bribe (n). targrti ». pecaftia. 
bridle infrciio. 
Winy, fVr > ; bring ward, nuntio j 

bring buck word, rrnuntio. 
Britain, Kritt-.t nia. . 
Briton Br'tannus. 
broad, litus 
br thrr'. frdtar 
Aw?7tf reiific /re. 
&.«// taunts. en. onu<. 
£>;>•« nc .ndft; px?/ro. &Mr« down, 

be burnt down d Hugo 
bu*in"xs nrgo', t<-w, (jgj ) 
Aj'/ s< d. Yqru-ui, vt-ro. 
6«^ oiao 
by far, Ic 

calanv' f y. calamit-as 


cavalry, equitaiu-. 

certain, c<-r'us: a. c. ens, quidara. 

chain, vin ulura 

chanre, ca-\x>, f»»rs 

characteristic, (it. is c. of u poor 

man, pauperis est.) 
chariot, eurrus 
chief princeps, 
children, lihcri. 
choose, deligo. 
c'liz'-n, civ is. 
rily. ur'hs. 
c.ivl. cv.lis. 

civilization cultu«,hum»aitas. 
cloud nuhes. 
collect, colligo, comparo. 
come venio. 

command, juheo. inipcro. 
commit {to umj one,) mando. 
common, communis c. people,plebt, 
c immpnwealth, iv.spub ica. 
companion, comes, >ociu«. 
rompel. c go. 

complain,, queror. , . • • , 
conceal, celo. 
condemn, con levnno. 

Confess. COufi too f. 

conquer, vine*. 
conscious, com-cius. 
(•■ nsph e, conjui o 

racy eonjuratio. 
U c mi sui 
consult, consul o. f 

contend, coite mIo, certo. 
c infest, cert/rme • 

'call, vocare , - - toy ether. csnTo- convenience, C'lnmoduui. 

<»are ; ■ — buck revoc&re. 
camp, ca<tra. 
can, pi'SsiiDi 
tan ton. pagus 
taptive. captivus 
care. cum. 
carry porto, jfpro. 
■cMuac, causa. 

conversation, mi mo. 
cook coquu 
com, frumentunj. 
co red corn go 
corrupt, cori umpu 
cos', i«tar« h tiquu re. 
countenance, v 
country, Una, le^io. 




cturagt, virtus, fortitwdo. 

covetous, avams. 

cowardly, tiniiduH. 

create, creo. 

crime, pcelus. 

er*ss, transeo. 

crown, corona. 

truel, crudelis, atrox. 

cultivate, colo. 

btip. poculum. 

custom, consuetude ; acco-rah? 
custom^ ex censuetudine. 

rut, sec'o. 


dance salto. 

danger, pericuhxn; 

<lare, audeo. 

dart, telnm. 
' rtay,.d\e$i to-day , bndie. 

dead, mortuus. 
I- dear. cams. 
. death, mors. 

debase, dispute. 

fieceine, falld. 

decoy, illicio. 

dedicate, dico. 

deem, exibtrmo, duco, habeo. 

deep, all us. 

defend, defend©, defenso, tueor. 

defer, differo 

delay, nioror. 

delight, delecto juro. 
demand posco, pos'ulo. flagito. 
. deny. nego. 
depart, dise«do. 
depraved, pravus. 
deprive, pn'vo, spolio. 
depth, altitwdo. 
desire, cupio. 

desirous, avidus, cupidus. 
despair, de^pero. 
■ destitute, expers., j n ops. 
destroy, deleo. 
devoid, \aouus, expers. 


devour, voro, dnvuro. 

dictator, dictator. 

die. morior 

differ (in opinion,) dissentio. 

difference ; — what d. does it make ? 

Quid interest ? 
difficult, difficilis. 
dwgr-.ce d< decus. 
dish, c tmus eat-muni. 
dis7>n$s, dimitto 
displease, displiceo. 
dixpute di>pu?to 
distant, (to he, i abjure 
distinguished, prsestanfyprseclarus. 
ditch, fossa. 
divide diyido. 
do, facio 
dog canis. 

double, duplex, to double duplico. 
drub 4 , dubitatio. to doubt, dubito-. 
duubtful, dubiusi. 
u:>ve columba 
dawn- hill, deorsura, 
drink hi ho. 
dust, pt.lvis. 
da y. officium, munus. ft is the- 

king s duly, my duty, §iS3. 
dw&ll, babito, incdo." 

eagle, »qi:j1a 
earth terra tellus. , 
ear hen. tictilis 
em-y lacilis : easily, facile, very 

easy pert'acilis. 
lent, wio. ve-e<r. [etlic.o* 

x \ edict, edctuui; to issue an edict* 
\<g* ovum. 
\eght, ocio. $63. 
euher —or. au't— aut. 
el aiienee < L qu;iitia. 
embassy, 1 ■g;iTio 
encamp, ca-tra fiopb. consfdd. 
eoc ar %e, h<»r;or, cohorior. 
end, tiiiis. • . , 




endeavor. Conor. 
mdure, f'ero, patior, tolero. 
enemy, ho>ii.~. 
•H,mity, inimiciti^. 
enough, Batis. 
*rr, erro. 

especially, pvtccipac. 
special, pncoipuus. 
establish, conSrmo, canstitno. 
esteem, rostimo. 

Mfeft e tiara ; wo/ even^ ae quidcm 
ftlMry omnis. 

BpU mains, (noun,) malum 
i client, prsastans 
-irate, concito, exeir.o, insttgp. 
^s^st'. purge 
e&rcise exefcei 

face, t>.cie^. 

faithful, fidm. 

jfa/l, cado 

,rume< fama. 

famous, elarus. 

/ar. ( dt\), longs... 

farmer, agricola. 

/at her, pater. 

.fault, culpa, delictum, peecatum; 

if ?> ™y fault, pot' me sut. 
,. ? ««;<;r, f iveo. 

#ar, timer, to fear, tiva:<>. 
Sea- her plum;*. [metuo, ve . 
fertile, ferax. 
fiver, febtis. 
few. pauci. 
$eid. ngcr. 
I/tyi i 63-. 

toA/, (» ), pugno; (».), £uga&» 
jfettre, tigura. 
fti, ccmipie/a, imp' 
yfw, inTfttio, reperio. 
linsh, conficio. 

0ri igaiw <rra 

#n, primus. 
£5/* pilots. 


\fit, aptus, idoneus. 
[fine, I 63 

j,/fr'#, vexiliuui. f 

/?un&. laias : on the ft. a4> 'later* 
.flattering* hlandus. 
i/fee£ clas»in. 
[ffegA en. 
\flnck. grex. 

/iW, fluu ; — *'«/•, inrluo. 

flower florf. 

tfy, volo. 

fallow, aequor. 

fond, amaus, cupidu*. 


fool, foolish, stultus. 

/b//?/, stultitia. 

/bo£, pes ; <z£ the foot of a mountain, 

footman, pedes. [sul> moate. 

for, (co»y ). nam, eniiu, &oi 

i/br these things, ob has r<J.< 

fir grief, {preventing cause',) pr»» 

/or the purpose, causa, fmcerore, 

/Vce, vis. 
forces, cOpioft. 

forest, *-i i v :i 

forget, obliyiaco^. 

\form, forma, fi^ura. 

\f>itifg com n» tin io. 

yfirtitude. tequus animus, fortitado. 

\firtunc, fortunn. 

//«tr. §68. 

I/Ves, (aJj), liber; (i/.), )i; 

\frt3ii mteg< p. 

I friend, amicus. 

I friendship, ;<mi:'iti:». 

[fright pavor, tituor, 'terror. 

frig/Urn. U ri 

f-uti. fruotus. 

I full. pl'ilUs 

t ., tyre, supellex. 
nvle '.i (i. 

mind, ao\m 

-. r.:n 



.general, imperator; 
German, Germanua. 
Germany, Germanla. 
gift, don urn. 
*girl, puella. 
give, do. 
glory, gloria, 
go, eo, profiqiscor. 
— o«/,.exeo. 
God, deus. 
»oW. aurum. 
golden, aureus. 
gttfd, bonus. 
g os<% acser. 
govern, rego, impere. 
grammar, gramoiatica. 
grandson nrp<>i! ' 
g>eat. raagnus. 
green, viridis- 
Greece. Grcscia. 
grief, dolor, imeror. 
gro\ nd. terra, humus. 
grow, rrcsco. 
guard proesddiutn. 
gvest. bospes. 
guide dux. 
gulp down, devoro. 
half dimidium. 
hand, in an US. 
happy, Meatus. 
! ari.or. porttis. 
hat' en, propero, festsno, m: 
hatred, odium 

have, habeo, esse with dath 1 
head, rapnt, 
Hear, audio. 

rt, cor. 
heavy, gravis; heavily, gra 
her I, calx. 
height Ttliir-i/dp. 
?{*.'??, a 
hide abdo, I 
/i/oA, &ltus< 


A iZ/ t col Us. 

kinder, iaipedio. obsto. 

hindrance, imp> d.montuw. 

A,o/ f y., teneo, hab'.o, — in, contineo* 

home, dooms. 

hope, *pc-: ; to hope, epcroj 

//or«. cornu. 

/torse, equus. 

horseman, etjues. 

hostage, onst-'K. 

A'.»Mr. hora.' 

house. d'^muK. 

human, human os. 

ka<;j'n\ fa in 0-3 

i>,>ngry r-ur : OT!S'. 

hauler, venator. 

hurt, conjicio 

hart, noceo 

hurtful, noxius. 


i. ego. 

'/ el ■ ■ 

ignorant, ignuus, iagcius. 

image, effigu-s 

irmtate imit<>r. 

immortal, immortal's. 

immortality imomrtalitaa. 

•inpatient. impatie-ns. 

implore. o^scero. 

impt rt; imp'Tto. 

! s (it is. ) fieri non p< I est 

in capable of restraining, iuipoteas. 
Vfcaro. increase, aug^o, crescp. • 

indulge, indui^eo 

infant, infill-!. 

inferior', of less account, in ferior. 

Uafnte, intinitus, 

ynflirt inf(.'rr». 
Titer ftf/orm. certi&i en face re. 
e .i,oasty/b'dant K incblt. 
jencaw/;. c:: noct<„ injuria, las esse. 
a»c< or ge, . injuria 
lend, insoUmtia-. 



instigate, insito, hi8tig>. 
instruct, inBtituo, piaecipio. 
kvrodiice, introduce 
iriitutt', mando. 
invade.. invade 

tor inventor. 
invincible, inv ctus. 
invite, invito 
fro?*, ferrum. 

J. . 
Joitrnf'/, iter. 
joyful, leetos, jucuidu*. 
judge, judex. 
iuxt, Justus, sequn^: 
. ^cr'vo ; ifr^p in, con t into : keep 
hey, -/'nvifli, \. n jf* probibeo 

fctdl, hoeduft. 

occj'do, tructdi , i *co. 
king. rex. 
lewffdbm. regnuM. 
/."«.;/>. culter. [nescio 

feiou\ hosco, Bcira;, not o know 

labor, lnhor. 
lamb, agnus. 

{a/M?, t» V:">, ;:gor. 

^c/j'. wltimus. 
?crw lex jus.. 
foa<£ duc.o ; lead on. adduro indu 

co: to lead over trm-duco •, to 

lead again*:, ftddtfCO 
Itaf folium. 
*V irn M>co. 
mimed, doctus. 
hare relitiquo, 
Itgiiin. legio. 
length I 

fc#*. mi a* [(<*p/*£/«). ep'' 

/e//Vr (0/ //(« alphabet,) litera : 
/' !•_'/ c irip«r»bo. 
liberty, libert:u\ 


lie (Auf), laieO. 
fo /»>, merit' or. 
/?> \ falsehood), unendacium. 
/mr, '*nendax. 
Wfe, vfta, anima. 
ityH («<?/'. )., levis; (n), lux. 
///te, simiiis. 
line 0/ '.battle, acies. 
''wn leo. 
\iittle f *jp*riu§ 
Hive, vivo, habito. 
/tvrr, jecur. 
7"wrf. onus. 
.'0 /o«(/, onrro. 

|/o^, (adj.). longus-; (adv.), din, 
£..oA- »<i, nspicio. 
,Y» /,- ?o cousulo (tt»?7A rfa*\) 
ln*e, amitta." 
tore, cmor : to love, smo, 
/f«'. humili*. 
/wrA, Ini co. 
,'r e, fides, ion. 

magnanimous, nmgnariimu.s 
maid-servaif, ancill*. 
make, frfcio reddo. 
maltreat violo. 
man, homo. Tir. 
jfiannfir, modn*. 
n<a»y. muiii: haw many, quot. 

C, lIl'MIi) 

must, mttlus. 

matter, maeister, dominus. 
means, facultas. 
measure metier. 
medicine, nvedicena. • 
tnemort/i ineiriora. 
merchant, mercat. r . 
Mercury, Merowrius. 
messenger, nmntiut?. 
■ i k. he. 

mde mi He pasa 
imW, aoimuv, m« 
r/ii'v.-:'' ■*, miter. 



money, pecunia. 
month, men sis* 

moon, Itfiia. 

/-•orals, mores. s 

more, plus, amplius, mi&is. 
mother, moter. 
mountain, raons. 
move, rnovpo. 
■much, nuiltus. 
murder, neco, occ/do. 
u?fat<: -ciusica. 
»««»£, £178. 

n. , ■: 

name, nomeu. 

nation, natio, gen- 1 . 

Mature, natttra. [quus. 

««ar, (prep.) prope ; (adj.) propin- 

?zae«i, .opiLs. 

neglect, neglige. 

neighboring, finitimus. 

n«i A«r, (of two) neuter, 

neither — nor. neque-r-neque, nee — 

ttttl, nidus; to build n., nidiiico. 
net, rete 

never, nunquam, n& unquani 
new, no»us. 
next, proxinius, 
night, yox. 
nine, $03 
tt9, DUiiu'9 

no one n«rao, ne — qulsquam. 
noble, no bills 
nobility. nt)i-i)itas- . 
noise, clam-oi, etrepitus. 
none, null us. 
not, non. 
n»ihthg. nihil, .••■] 
number, Humerus. 
0/0! oh ! 
(I that J atinatn. 
oath, ju jus ;tndun». 
obedient, dicio audioiv. 


obey, pareo. 
obscure, ebscuro. 
^obtain, potior, n&nciscor. 
occupy, oocupo. [bu?. 

off. — two- miles of, a duohus milli- 
often, scepe. [aanOH nnius. 

old, senex : five years old quinqu« 
dldest, maximus natu. 
one, wnus ; — cf two, alter : cf 

many, alius, (when followed by 

on horseback) ex equo or ecjuis. 
opinion, sententia. 
opportunity, facultas, potestas'. 
oppress, opprimo; 
or, vol, Te, aut. 

oracle, oraculum. t. ■ > 

orator, oratfn'. 
oration, oratu h. 
origin, ovi&o. 

ought, oporwt, gerundive with esse, 
our, noster. 
out of, e. ex. 
overcome, aupsro, vineo. 
overtake, consequor. 
ox, bos. 

pace. p;-»83liS. * 

pain d'lor. 

pains, opera. 

panic, tnnor. 

paper, chart a. 

purem parens. 

parracide, parractda. 

part p itA. 

partly, partina. 

jpase aw ty, transed, 

[pass by, praetereo. 

pa ienUy, sequo anitna. 

piay penjio. 

peace, p tx. j pieben 

people populus ; commo p . pieba, 

ps.cetvc, intclligo, aniniadvtjfto. 

perish, pereo. . - 



persuade, persuadeo. 
philosopher, philosophus.' 
pirate, pirata. ,■ 

pity, noisereor, miseret, 2 lS-">. , 
place, loene. 
pleasant, gratus. 
.please, p'aceo. 
pleasure, toluptft?. 
/>Zou\ aro. 

to plunder, pnfedor, diripio.. 
plunder, pried a. 
^or/. po(?ta. 
point, aeies. 
poison, ven«inm. 
poor, pauper. 
/>o*\ loci-. 

poverty, paupertas, ege«fca*. 
pojper. pote^tasj vis. 
powerful, pot ens, 
prefer, praepono, 
prepare, paro.' 
present, preaeng. 
preserve servo, consevvo. 
preven 4 , impedio, obsto, detevreo 
jjrice. pret'iutn. 
pride, superbia. 
priest, -ncerdos. 
prison, caroer. 
prisoner, capttvuK. 
privo e, privatUS. 
promise, polliceor. 
proiec . to tori. 
proud. superbus. 
providence. providenti*. 
prov nre. pi'ovincia. 
provoke, laccesso. 
prudent, prwdens. 
public publicus. 
puntsh. puoio. 

purpose, propoaitum ; on p., con- 
pursue, pereequor. 
put, pobo ; — l/i/<j winter quarters, 
iu hibcrna collocore. 


queen, regina. 
quickly,- eel er iter. , 

ratn, imbei*. 
raw, aricH. 
rampart, vallum. 
rank, ordo. 

reach, ad locum pcrvenioi 
rcat/. lego. 

ready, prompt u*. parafcus. 
reason, mental faculty, ratio. 
rebellion, rebellia. 
rebuke, reprehehdo. 
recall, rcvoco. 
receive, accipte. 
recent, recene. • 
redress, (to ask,) res <ep«Hfif 
refrain,, eibi temp'erore q'i»»>. 
reject, repudio. 
rejoiee, gaude,.o. 
relieve, levo. 
religion, religio. 
remain, maneo. 

remember, memini, raemoita teu'eo. 
remind, moneo, Rdmoneo. 
render, reddo. 
renew, rodintegro. 
repair, reficio. 
repent, poenitet, |13. r i. 
reply, reopoudeo. 
report, renuntiatio. 
rtprove, reprehendo: 
resolve, stntuo. 
rest, rdiquus. %\28, Mjm, 8. 
retard, turdo.- 
retire, excedo, se recipen*. 
retreat, recipio. 
return, redeo, reddo. 
reverence, revefeor. 
reward, prcDOMuna 
Rhine, Rhenua. 
Rhone, Rhodann*. 
rich, dives. 





riches, diriti*. 

sheaf merges. 

ride, equito. 

sheep, ovirt. 

river, flwtuen, amiii*. 

shear, tondeo. 

road, via, iter. 

shepherd, pastor. 

robber, pnedo. 

shield, scatum". 

rock, rur>r>s, saxum. 

ship, navis. * 

rope, rudens. 

shore, litus. 

rose, rcsa. 

short, brevis. 

■rough, &sper. 

shortness, brevitag. 

sout x fugo, prothgo. 

shout, clamor; to ■ <■ . ^.clamo. 

rule, rego: 

show, monstro. 

run, curro ; — forward, prc«urro. 

side, latus, parp. 



signal, sigpum. 

sacred, sneer, sanctus. 

silver, argentuiu. 

sacrifice, raacto. 

sin, peccatum. 

safe, tfc'tue. 

since, quum, quoniam. 

safety, salus. > 

sing, canto. 

sagacious, argutas. * 

sister, soror. 

sail, v<;lum. to nail, navig». 

sit, sedeo. 

sailor, nauta. 

six, § 68. 

sake., causa. 

size, magnitude. 

same, idem. 

slave servus 

savage, atrox, ferus. 

slavery, servitus. 

save, servo. 

sUy, truej'do, eGcidc. 

sny, dwo, inqaam. 

sleep, dormio. ' . 

sr.ou'i, exploratoi*. 

slinger, funditor. 

ssa, mar* 1 . 
siat, sedtle. 

slow, tardus, piger.- 

small, parvus, exiguus. 

second, secundus. 

snatch up, arripio. 

see, video. 

soldier, mtles. 

seek, peto, quserw. 

some, aliquis, qnidam. &«. 

setm, videor. ' 

son, filius 

seize, occupo, rapio, arripi\ 

soon, mature. 

sell, vendo. 

soul, animus. 

senate, senatus. 

space, spatium. 

stnd, mitto ; ■ — forward,fx amntto. 

spare, parco. 

separate, divido, secerno, 

speik, loquor. 

serpent, serpans. 

speech, oratio. 

4trve, servio. 

spur, calcar. 

set, pono ; set tip, oolloco, propoao. 

stag, cervus. 

seven, $63. 

stand, sto ; — out, «x$ist«. 

severe, gravis. 

state, civitafr. 

shade, umbra. 

May, maueo. 

sharp, acer, aewttra. 

ttir up, excito, eoacito. 



t lapis. • 

itorni, tcnnpestas. 
ttrength, robot, vis. 

strike, percutio. 

firraus, va'iduH. 
ttudy stadia, pi. 
subdue, p#co. 

su 'Jugate? subigo. ♦ 

buc/i talis. 

sudden, subitus, reppntinu?. 
sue ft>r, peto. 
sufficiently, satis. 
suitable, aptus. idoneu-'. 
sunmier, cestas. 
sun, sol. 

sunset, solis occasuf. 
svp, coeno/ 

superstition, superstitio. 
support, eustineo. 
suppose^ arbitror, opmor, cxistimo. 
tup press, opprimo. [deaitio. 

surrender, trado, dedo ; surrender, 
surround, circumdo, circumftfndo. 
inspect, biispicor. 
sustain, sustineo. 
sweet. dulcis. 
swell, augeo. 
swift, celer, velbx. 
swiftly celeriier. 
swftness, celeritaa. 
swim across, trcmo. 
sword, gladius; the sword, fomim. 

table, mensa. / 

take, swmo, capio. 
talk, loquor, colloqu^r. 
(each, doceo. 
tear, lacrinia. 
tear to pieces, lanio. 
tempest, tempestas. 
temper 1 {hasty,) iracutidi:*. 
ten, J(>3. 
t4nacious, tenax. 
terrible, atrox, terribilis. 

terrify, pc'tcrrco. 
than, quam. 
i hen, turn. 
thick, densus. 

thief, fur. * . 

thing, res. 

think, reor, cogjlo, existiuio,puto. 
thirst, sitis. to thirst, 4; it\o. 
thirty, §63. 
though. \ 200. 
thousand, raillo. 
threaten, minor, 

through, per. [transjieio. 

throw, jftcio, jwi«to ; throw across, 
thrust through, trans (i go. 
thunder, tonitru. 
till, dum, donee, quoad 
time, tempus 
together, unn, cot: •. 
tooth, dens. 

top, juramus, (nions, &c. ) 
torture, crucial us. 
towards, ad, adversus, 
tower, turris. 
traitor, prcditor. 
transport, transport'*. 
treaty, fcedus. 
tree, arbor. 
tribute, stipendiom. 
true, varus, 
truth, veritns. 
trumpet, tuba. . 
trust, confide . 
turn, verto. 
twenty, two, $c, $ 6:' 

utiable,\Tapotena,to bs — -,non poset. 
unaccustomed, insu<?tu.v 
unarmed, in«rmis. 
uncertain, incertus. 
under, sub. 
understand, intelli 
undertake, euscipii> 




unduly, prseter modurn. 

undutifuln ess, 5 inpiet a«. 

unhurt, integer. 

unjust, in/quus. . 

unlike, dissimilis. 

until, dum, donee, quod. 

unwilling, inVuus^/o be — ■, nolo. 

urge on, coiicito, i-ncit^. 

use, t/sus. 

useful, u til is. 


vacant, (to be), vaco. 

i»aZor, -virtus, fortitude. 

».'</«/, ingeBS, immanis. 

«ry, valde, mnxime, superlative. 

viz', vexo. 

•ice, vitium. 

victory, vict-oria.. 

violate, violo. 

virtur, rtrttt?, pvobita?. 

IYPM, vox. 

i?ou», votum. 

vulture, vultur. 


'"page, gerd ; ftp on, 

wait for, exspeoto. 

■wuWc, ambulo. 

wall, raurus. 

wander, erro, vagor.. 

want, be in want of, Bgeo. 

tear, helium. 

warn, moneo, admoneo. 

watch, vigilia ; to watrh, >i£ilo. 

water; aqua. 

wave, lluetus. 

wag. via, iter. 

weak, infirmus. 

weary, fessus, defeseu*. 

weep, lacrimo, fleo. 

weight, pondusr 

nell, neiie ; to be — vale<». 

vhat ?■ quid? quis? ,*what. quod. 

when, quum. 

H'henee, unde. 


where, ubi. • 

whether, mirb, utrura, an. 

which? quis? utcr, (of two') 

whi e, albus. 

whither, quo. 

who f qui ? quis ? 

whole, totus. 

why 9 cur.? quarc?* * 

wieked, i m p ro b u s . 

wide, latus. 

wife, uxor, conjux. 

wind, ventus. 

wine, vtnum.. 

wing, ala. 

winter, hiems. 

winter quarter?,, hiberoa. 

wisdom, snpientin. 
\u-ise, sapiens. 
\wish, volo. 
\with, cum 
\without, Bine. 
[witness, testis. 
\woman, mulier. 

wonder, mtro r. 
[wonderful, nurue. 
itvood, silva. 

\word, verbium * bring,— Hfttohtio 
\work, opus. 
[world, m"wndu8, ovhis lev? arm?:. 

tvorse, worst pejor, pv-ssimus. 

worship, celo. 

tcorthy, dignus. 

wound, yulnus ; ttiPwouttdjVtilDerQ 
wretched, mi?er. 

icrite, scrtbo. writer, scriptor. 
wrong, (to do,) pecoo, male facta 

year, annus, yearly, qaotann->. 
yesterday, heri. 
yet. tarn en. 

yield, c^do, concede. , 

yoke, jugum. 
your, tuus, vester. 
lyoung, juvenis. youth, juvenilis. 

sm "5 jf School fiookf